Luxury models from BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Hyundai came out on top in front crash prevention rankings of a growing crop of vehicles with optional automatic braking systems.The BMW 5 series and X5 SUV, Hyundai Genesis and Mercedes-Benz E-class models equipped with optional automatic braking and collision warning systems earned the best score a superior rating in the second round of crash testing by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. The institute, funded by insurance companies, rates vehicles as basic, advanced or superior for front crash prevention depending on whether they offer automatic braking and, if so, how effective it is in front crash tests at 12 mph and 25 mph.
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Step 1: INTRODUCTION
It is a technology for automobiles to sense an imminent collision with another vehicle, person or obstacle; or a danger such as high brakes or by applying the brakes to slow the vehicle without any driver input. Sensors to detect other vehicles or obstacles can include radar, video, infrared, ultrasonic or other technologies. GPS sensors can detect fixed dangers such as approaching the stop signs through a location database.
Automatic braking by the system after sensing an obstacle can be executed in two modes. In collision avoidance, the collision is avoided by the automatic braking, but the driver will not be warned in this type of system. There is a very good chance of wrongly interpreting the signals, especially in the case of radars or lasers. So this is not so effective method of automatic braking. In collision mitigation system, the sensors detect the possibility of collision but will not take immediate action. A warning will be sent to the driver in the form of a signal or a voice message. There is a threshold safe distance calculated by the system and if the driver fails to respond even when the vehicle crosses that region, then only brakes will be applied automatically. Even if there is a misinterpretation of signals, there is no problem because, the decision to apply brakes is left with the driver and the brakes are applied automatically only in the most emergency situations. Many vehicles are provided with the option of turning on or off the automatic system based on their surroundings. In some automobiles even though they cannot be completely disabled, they can be limited to warning the driver about coming obstacle. Even this emergency braking initiates ABS which helps the driver to retain the control over vehicle without any skidding. Automatic braking system is only effective if the mode of sensing the obstacles is reliable, or else any kind of false interpretation may cause a lot of damage.
This project is completely based on a real life car. Special braking
system is designed in this RC car which is almost similar to the braking system or a real car. The main aim of this project is to avoid any sort of collision due to negligence of the driver will be completely avoided by this smart braking technique.
Step 2: COMPONENTS
Sharp Infrared Sensor
Motor Driver L298N
Tx-2B and Rx-2B Transmitter and Receiver Circuit
Arduino UNO R3
Step 3: BODY DESIGNING
The car body has been designed by using depron sheets
Step 4: WORKING
This car consists of a RF transmitter, receiver of 27MHZ ,arduino uno r3,infra-red sensor ,motor driver, servo motor. when the receiver receives the signal the car moves accordingly in its path, if any obstacle is detected the servo motor changes its angle and therefore the brakes will be applied for couple of seconds and the tail light of the car glows, at that moment the receiver turns off even if the transmitter sends the signal to move forward no further operation takes place until that delay of time. after this operation the obstacle has to be moved if the brakes has to be released which is not practical in real life, so I have programmed it in such a way that even though obstacle is present it detects as there is no obstacle and at that moment the tail light goes off the servomotor shifts back to initial position and the brakes will be released so that we can reverse the car at that delay of time,the sensor will again detect obstacle and the brakes will be applied if the car has not been reversed within that delay of time.