Cryptex Lock Notebook

To collect another nerdy hobby, I recently started doing some bookbinding. After tossing together a couple stab bound sketchbooks, I sought something a little more user-friendly (ie. a binding style that would open up laying totally or mostly flat). Fortunately, a few folks had already posted Instructables on long stitch bookbinding, which seemed to meet my requirements:

https://www.instructables.com/id/Long-Stitch-Binding-a-Softcover-A5-Notebook/

https://www.instructables.com/id/make-the-perfect-notebook-from-scratch/

I also appreciated the simplicity and the lack of preciousness of a perfect binding. Instructables user activist created a tutorial (https://www.instructables.com/id/Glue-Book-Binding-Method-Stairs/) for how to create one of these perfect bindings with just a stack of paper, two clips and a glue stick. The glue stick method was not secure enough for my purposes, so I used the same binding style but with a different, more labour and materials intensive approach following YouTuber Sea Lemon's series of video instructions:

https://youtu.be/GFbgW0r7uXw

https://youtu.be/OcASCsGDjEw

https://youtu.be/rYS6zGI1QvE

Many thanks to Elizabeth Grab (elizabethgrab.com) for her help in investigating which binding styles would best suit my needs and for documenting how she goes about binding these styles of blank books. This project inspired her to start an Instructables account, so check her out at egrab.

Of course, being lazy, I wanted to improve matters find a way to create one cover that I could constantly reload with paper to avoid spending time and material on new covers every time I ran out of pages. Additionally, since my scribblings tend to be a bit subversive and my doodlings occasionally NSFW, I wanted a way to secure my notebook. Here is the result. All files may be found on Thingiverse:

https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:3403879

The 3D printed hard cover has holes in the spine for a separate thread that secures the the text block. On the front is a circular pattern cryptex with 4^5 possible combinations. Credit where it's due, I adapted a puzzle design I saw from Kagen Sound. He does beautiful work, and I highly recommend checking out his website.

https://kagensound.com/page2.html

Those that just want a cover without all of the cryptex tomfoolery can head over to the thingiverse page for my earlier, non-lockable design :

https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:3399102

Teacher Notes

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Step 1: Print It All Out

Again, all STL files may be found via the following link:

https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:3403879

Ensure that your printer has better than 200 micron accuracy in all dimensions.

Step 2: Clean Up All Parts and Assemble the Locking Key

Ensure the following:

The cover hinges freely rotate

the locking key and locking pin piece fit together

cryptex wheels are free of artifacts and elephant footing

locking pin can slide easily into its channel

Step 3: Test Fit and Finish

Slide the locking key up and down to ensure that there is no binding. Trim the locking pin when the locking key is all the way down so that it is flush with its channel. Add the discs one at a time and ensure that they can freely rotate a full 360 degrees.

Step 4: Choose a Binding

This tutorial splits from here, as I will present two different binding styles for you to choose from: a perfect binding and a long stitch binding. Below you'll find the pros and cons of each style. And by virtue of the removable hard covers, you can try one binding style initially and switch in the other once you've filled up the first.

Perfect Binding: The Advantages

  • One of the easiest binding styles to learn;
  • It isn't precious, so no need to feel nervous about writing in it or messing it up;
  • The text block is a solid chunk of paper, making it easier and faster to attach it to the spine of the hard covers;
  • Once you've used up all the pages and want to switch in a fresh text block, the pages are glued together at the spine. You can just store the used up text block with no additional steps to keep the pages together as a unit.

Perfect Binding: The Disadvantages

  • The pages lie flat closer to the middle, but at either end, they don't lie entirely flat;
  • The making of the text block requires more steps, dry time, and tools

Long Stitch Binding: The Advantages

  • All the pages lie completely flat, making it ideal for sketching across both open pages;
  • It allows room for storage envelopes;
  • You can brag to all your friends that you know how to execute a fancier binding style.

Long Stitch Binding: The Disadvantages

  • The text block isn't glued together when you're sewing it into the covers, which means that things move around more. This requires a more patience and a little more skill than the perfect binding;
  • The text block isn't glued together, so once you've filled up all the pages and are cutting the binding out of the covers, you'll have to find a storage option that keeps the gatherings together or rebind them to themselves.

Step 5: Perfect Binding

A bit of history

The perfect binding is the method of choice for cheaper book production, such as magazine or paperback books. This binding first came into use during the second World War. Books provided the only form of entertainment and escapism available to soldiers, making them highly prized items. However, hardcover bindings—which were all that was in commercial production in the West up to that point—were expensive to produce, used large amounts of limited resources, and took up a good bit of space. As money, paper, and space in kits and uniform pockets were limited during the wars, publishers needed to find an alternative binding form that used less of all of the above. Thus, the perfect binding was born. This binding consists of either single sheets of paper (as seen in Instructables user activists' tutorial) or folded sheets of paper stacked together and glued along the spine. Then a paper cover is affixed to the resulting text block by gluing it along the spine and along just a slim margin on the front and back pages of the text block. The structure allowed for more words to fit on a page since—with a flexible, unrestricted spine—the gutter didn't need to be as deep, and the paper used could be of lower quality since it didn't need to stand up to being sewn together to create a text block. This revolutionised the publishing industry and allowed for the first truly mass produced book. If you want to know more, check out When Books Went to War: The Stories That Helped Us Win World War II by Molly Guptill Manning.

Materials

  • 32-36 sheets of printer paper
  • Ruler
  • Pencil
  • Paper cutter (or a metal ruler, cutting mat, and straight edge)
  • Bone folder (or butter knife)
  • Book press (or two clips/clamps and scrap paper)
  • PVA or similar glue
  • Glue brush
  • Wax paper
  • Narrow awl (or sewing needle)
  • Optional: 2 sheets of fancy and/or funky paper for endsheets
  • Optional: 1 sheet of heavier duty fancy and/or funky paper for inner cover
  • Optional: 2 sticky notes

Now onto the instructions

N.B. Keep in mind that a lot of this is customisable. I have tried to note where you could do less than I've done with my binding and where you could do more.

SEE IMG 1: The final width of the spine of the text block needs to match, at most, the narrowest width of the spine of the hardcover. This way the text block fits within the confines of the covers and can close comfortably. In this case, that max width is .95 cm (3/8").

SEE IMG 2: For a text block that fits as snuggly as possible, count out 36 sheets of 20 pound paper (aka the medium quality Office Max paper in my printer tray). The pound measurement tells you the 'weight' or thickness of the paper and can be pretty useless as far as measurements go. To satisfy any lingering curiosity about this highly misleading measurement, check this link out. If your paper is thinner, you'll need more than 36. If it's thicker, you'll need fewer. Just keep in mind that max .95 cm width for the text block's spine. If you're concerned about the archival quality of this paper for long term storage, pick an acid free linen paper—most printer paper is acid free and should serve most people's purposes, but fancier is always an option. For a text block with a little more flexibility, count out only 32 sheets. The slimmer text block is an advantage if you want to add endsheets and an inner cover, as I have. It also allows the covers to accommodate slips of paper (eg receipts, photos, or sticky notes) inserted in between the pages of the text block, though I wouldn't recommend getting too enthusiastic with the slips of paper. If you really need the room for extra notes and such, give the long stitch binding a try instead.

Customisation option: This tutorial instructs you how to create a text block out of folded sheets of paper. Perfect bindings also allow you to create a text block out of single sheets of paper (again, see activists' Instructables tutorial linked above). If you choose to go the no-fold route, just double the number sheets you count out and make sure their thickness measures to under .95 cm. Check out YouTuber Sea Lemon's tutorials to see the difference between the two (ie not much other than folding vs not folding).

Once you've selected the appropriate number of pages for your needs, trim them to 17.7 cm (just under 7") x 15.7 cm (6.2"). Fold the trimmed pages in half along the longer edge. To create sharp, flat folds, swipe a bone folder (or the back of a butter knife) along the folds. Stack the folded sheets so that all of the folded edges are on the same side.

Customisation option: If you want to follow my example and incorporate endsheets and/or an inner cover, now is the time to do so. I chose to do this so that after I've filled up the pages and cut the text block out of the covers to insert a refill, the old notebook stands alone as a bound book that's still attractive and protected. Because I chose an inner cover made of mostly transparent paper that looks unappealing with streaks of glue against it, what were meant to be my endpapers became just two extra pages of coloured paper at the start and finish of the text block. If you choose a paper that isn't transparent, then go ahead and select two sheets of your desired fancy paper for endsheets. Trim them to the same dimensions as your text block, fold them in half, and stack them on the top and the bottom of the stack of sheets you folded in the previous step. If you also chose a transparent paper and want to have actual flyleaves, select one sheet of your desired fancy endsheet paper and use the same instructions as the instructions for the cover, which you will find in the next 'customisation option' section below.

Now that you have folded and stacked all of your paper, lightly tap the edges of the stack against a flat work surface to align all of the pages as even and as flat as you can make them. Make any required adjustments to ensure that all of the folded edges really are aligned. This is essential as all of the folded edges need to make even contact with the glue that you're about to brush across them.

You have two options for the next step. You can either use clamps of some sort to secure the text block in its freshly aligned state or you can use a book press. I've provided instructions for both options:

SEE IMG 3: Clamps: Secure the sides of the text block with clamps. A giant clip was all I had available in terms of clamps, but it's better to use two clamps, one each on the head and tail of the text block and placed just inside of the spine. This will ensure that the spine twists and shifts as little as possible out of its aligned position. Sometimes this method can prove a little challenging with just one set of hands, so phone a friend if you need a little extra help in making sure nothing shifts as you clamp the stack securely. If your clamps are aggressive and will leave a divot in the paper, just stick a little stack of the bits of paper you trimmed off of the text block sheets in the earlier trimming step between the text block and the parts of the clamp that would otherwise touch it. This adds a little extra cushion to keep the text block paper looking fresh while the scrap paper takes the brunt of the damage. Also, check out Sea Lemon's video on various types of clamps for more ideas of how to use household or workshop materials to get the job done.

SEE IMG 4: Press: A book press is the other option for securing the text block in its aligned state. It's my preference since it allows for greater control and movability, but the clamp option will also serve if you don't happen to have a press on hand or aren't interested in starting a new project just to finish this one. If you are interested in making your press, firstly, don't do what I did and use cutting boards with a handle cutout. Secondly, take a look at this Instructables tutorial or Sea Lemon's YouTube video for various levels of how-tos.

SEE IMG 5: Once your text block is secured in the clamps or in the press, the next step is to glue the folded edges together. Apply a layer of glue to the folded edges. I use PVA glue (the perfect balance of security and flexibility, and it won't shrink as it dries), but a generic Elmer's glue will serve if that's what you have to hand (warning: tends to be more flexible and less secure). Ensure that the glue connects each edge, but don't layer on too much glue so that the pages become overly wet. Wipe any excess off of the front and back of the stack and of the edges to either side of the folded edges (if those become glued, some of your pages won't open fully). Allow the glue to fully dry and repeat this step twice more.

SEE IMG 6: Customisation option: For the inner cover (and the flyleaf if you also chose a paper that isn't well suited to glue), place the spine of the fully glued text block on the cover (and/or endsheet) paper you've selected. Mark the width and height of the spine on the paper. Remove the text block and measure 8.85 cm (just under 3.5") out from either side of the spine's width marking. The resulting rectangle should measure: 15.7 cm (or 6.2") x (spine width + (8.85 x2)) cm. Cut that rectangle out. Fold along the marks where you noted the width of the spine, creating a little channel into which the spine of the text block will fit like a glove. If you're adding a flyleaf that doesn't have an accompanying pastedown (similar to mine), place a line of glue along the spine channel of the single endsheet. Place the spine of the text block against the glue. Smooth out any air bubbles, and wipe any excess from between the flyleaf and the front and page pages of the text block. Allow this to dry. Repeat this same glue process with the paper for the inner cover. If you thought ahead and added endpapers in the previous 'customisation option' instructions but didn't choose a paper that is adverse to glue, this is where you glue the outside faces of the pastedowns to the inside faces of the inner cover. Insert a protective sheet of wax paper in between the flyleaves and the pastedowns. Spread a thin layer of glue over the inside faces of the inner cover and press the pastedowns into them (best to do this one side at a time. Let that dry, then glue the next side). Use a bone folder (or the back of a butter knife) to push out any air bubbles and to ensure an even meeting of the cover and endpaper. Let the book dry closed. Once dry, remove the wax paper and open the newly glued cover and pastedowns to create a crease that will allow them to open comfortably in the future.

SEE IMG 7: The next step is to punch the holes for sewing the text block into the printed hardcovers. Place the spine of your text block against the spine of the printed covers. Close the printed covers around the text block. Squeeze the covers against the text block to hold it firmly in place as you insert a narrow awl or a sewing needle into the holes in the printed cover's spine and through the spine of the text block. Ensure that you're inserting the awl perpendicularly; sticking it through the spines at anything but a 90 degree angle will make the process of sewing the text block to the hardcovers significantly harder. I also found it helpful to place sticky notes at the head end of the pages through which the holes punched. This way, I knew which end was the head when I was punching, and it made the sewing process much easier because I could easily flip to the pages with the sewing holes.

The final step before sewing is to ensure that the edges of the pages aren't so long that they keep the cover from latching shut comfortably. Given the dimensions I provided, you should be in the clear, but if you selected a particularly thick cover or endsheet, then the edges might protrude just enough to become a problem. If the pages are a little too long, mark how much of the edges must come off for the latch to lock shut and follow this tutorial for how to trim pages.

You're now set to sew the text block into the printed hardcovers. Those instructions follow after the instructions for the long stitch binding (the two binding structures' instructions merge for the sewing process since the pattern is the same for both).

Step 6: Long Stitch Binding

Generalities

This is technically a variation on the long stitch binding, as the covers slightly extend over the text block and they aren't soft. The sewing pattern I put together is also a recognised stitching pattern, though it's not the traditional parallel lines with a chain stitch at head and tail that most bookbinders use. As it looks appealing and works swimmingly in the printed covers, however, we're not going to quibble about technicalities. For the briefest of histories and some magnificent samples of how diverse this binding style can appear, take a look at Metropolitan book conservator Jenny Davis' entry on the construction style.

Materials

  • 24-30 sheets of printer paper
  • Ruler
  • Pencil
  • Paper cutter (or a metal ruler, cutting mat, and straight edge)
  • Bone folder (or butter knife)
  • PVA or similar glue
  • Glue brush
  • Wax paper
  • Narrow awl (or sewing needle)
  • Sewing cradle (or pile of books and cutting mat)
  • Optional: 1-2 sheets of heavier duty fancy and/or funky paper for envelopes
  • Optional: 2 sticky notes

Instructions

N.B. Keep in mind that a lot of this is customisable. I have tried to note where you could do less than I've done with my binding and where you could do more.

SEE IMG 1: The same spine width requirements from the perfect binding instructions hold true for the long stitch binding: the max width for the text block is .95 cm (3/8") so that it will fit within the confines of the covers and can close comfortably.

For a text block that fits snuggly in the printed covers, count out 30 sheets of 20 pound paper (aka the medium quality Office Max paper in my printer tray). The pound measurement tells you the 'weight' or thickness of the paper and can be pretty useless as far as measurements go. To satisfy any lingering curiosity about this highly misleading measurement, check this link out. If your paper is thinner, you'll need more than 32. If it's thicker, you'll need fewer. Just keep in mind that max .95 cm width for the text block. If you're concerned about the archival quality of this paper for long term storage, pick an acid free linen paper—most printer paper is acid free and should serve most people's purposes, but fancier is always an option. For a text block with a little more flexibility, count out only 24 sheets. The slimmer text block is an advantage if you want to add envelopes for added storage. 24 sheets is the option I selected precisely so that I could include envelopes. If you want to add just one envelope, try counting out 27-30 sheets, then see if that thickness works with the .95 cm limit (keep in mind that the division of the folded sheets into signatures associated with the step seen in IMG 2 would be uneven, likely with 12-14 sheets in the gathering with the envelope paper and 15-16 in the one without an envelope).

SEE IMG 2: Trim the chosen number of sheets down to 17.7 cm (just under 7") x 15.7 cm (6.2"). Fold the trimmed pages in half along the longer edge. To create sharp, flat folds, swipe a bone folder (or the back of a butter knife) along the folds. Nest the folded pages into two even gatherings, sometimes referred to as signatures or quires.

SEE IMG 3: Now that the pages are nested, you'll notice that their edges just out further and further and they are closer to the centre of the gathering. This extension will prevent your cover from latching unless trimmed down to match the length of the outermost page of the signature, which is the shortest. I used a paper cutter to accomplish this, but a metal ruler, a cutting mat, and a straight edge will work just as well.

SEE IMG 4-5: Customisation option: Envelopes aren't necessary for this binding structure to work, but they certainly enable their inclusion (see the video 'Long Stitch Binding In Action' from the 'Finished Long Stitch Binding!' section—3 sections from this one—to see the generous gutter between the two signatures that's just begging for a storage envelope). Envelopes work better when crafted from heavier paper, so card works better than something like printer paper. Because card is thicker, however, you have to account for its greater thickness by using fewer sheets in the gatherings. Incorporating two envelopes required that I use 24 sheets for this structure rather than the 27-30 for the one or no envelope option. To measure the envelope(s) out, lay the text block onto the envelope paper and trace it out as closely to the text block as you can manage (see instructions associated with IMG 6 about lessons learned re: tracing). Then follow these steps:

  1. Measure perpendicularly out 1" from the tall edge of text block and mark a parallel line (this is subject to change—see instructions associated with IMG 6 to learn more);
  2. Perpendicularly from the opposite tall edge, measure out 2.25" and mark a parallel line;
  3. Perpendicular to either of the shorter edges of the text block, measure out 1" and mark parallel lines;
  4. Cut along the lines you drew in steps 1-3;
  5. Fold along the lines you traced around the text block (again, see IMG 6 instructions);
  6. Cut off the 1" margins on either side of the 2.25" fold you measure in step 2. Do not cut off the 1" margins you measured in step 3 on the short sides of the text block;
  7. Diagonally cut the corners of the 1" margins you measured in step 3 on the side where you measured the 1" margin from step 1;
  8. Fold in the 1" margins from step 3;
  9. Insert wax paper into the pocket of the envelope to ensure that no glue seals any inappropriate part of the pocket closed
  10. Glue down the outside edges of the 2.25" margin to the 1" margin you just folded in in step 8;
  11. Let dry under weight.

SEE IMG 6: Customisation option: After binding this text block together, I learned that it's all too easy to allow the envelopes to stick out above the top and bottom of the covers. This is why it's so important to trace as closely as possible around the text block prior to step 1 above. Along those lines, it's advisable to fold just inside of the traced lines in step 5. Also, now that I know that it's better to house the envelope pockets in the centre of the text block, you can extend the measurement you make in step 1 to create the flap so that it serves as a flyleaf. This means that, instead of a 1" measurement, you measure out 8.85 cm (just under 3.5") and cut along that line (part of step 4). If you like the look of the short flap, stick with that, but I like the clean look of flyleaves framing my text block. Now that the optional alterations are provided and made as you prefer, nest the gatherings into the open flaps of the envelopes. As stated, it's best to nest them so that the pocket rests against the inside of the signature, making the envelopes the centre of the text block. The envelopes can face either direction you wish, but this is the arrangement that allows for the best utilisation of space.

Next, place a scrap sheet of paper (you'll have plenty after trimming the pages down) against the spine of the 3D printed covers. Choose one of the columns of holes in the spine and poke the awl or the sewing needle through the hole and into the scrap paper. Make sure the paper does not move as you do this through all 5 holes along the spine. Fold the paper in half along the line created by the 5 holes. Use this as the guide to poke your sewing holes in the next step.

SEE IMG 7: The next step is to poke the sewing holes into the centre folds of your signatures. This requires a narrow awl or a sewing needle (preferably one a size or two larger than the one you'll be using to sew the signatures together) and a bookbinding cradle. Assuming you don't wish to purchase a cradle, you can either make it yourself (Instructables tutorial found here—you can also make this out of chip board like I did or heavy duty foam board if you'd rather not use wood) or engineer a makeshift option by stacking 2 parallel piles of books with something into which you can poke (eg cutting mat) under the gutter between them. See step 4 of emtsevilla's bookbinding tutorial for a diagram of how to set that up. Use the punching guide you created in the last step to punch the holes in your signatures by placing it in the centre of the gathering, lining the edges up, and punching perpendicularly down through the crease. Be mindful about aligning the guide and the signatures in the same direction in which you punched the guide (ie if the head of the guide is to the right, keep what will be the head of the signature also to the right when punching the sewing holes). Then after punching, also keep the two signatures aligned so that both of the heads and both of the tails are kept together. Even with the holes in the printed cover being precisely symmetrical, the way you punch them likely won't be. However, if you keep the heads together, this will help keep the slight angle you can't help punch at depending upon your handedness as consistent as possible. I found it helpful to write 'head' on the the head end of the guide and to place sticky notes at the intended head of each signature. This made it easier to remember which direction everything was meant to face during the sewing process.

Step 7: Sewing

Materials

  • Waxed linen thread or embroidery floss (see section below on thread and wax for details)
  • Scissors
  • Sewing needle with large eye
  • Optional: pliers

Instructions

Measure out 7 spine lengths of linen thread or embroidery floss and cut that from the larger spool of thread. This ensures that you have enough to not only secure the text block to the spine, but also that you have plenty to spare when it comes to knotting the thread once you've completed the sewing pattern.

Wax your chosen thread if it doesn't come waxed. If you have a beeswax candle at home, this will serve. It's ideal if the candle doesn't have any dye, but as long as you don't care that some of the coloured wax will likely gather a little bit around the sewing holes as you pull the thread through, coloured candles are fine, too. The craft store usually has waxed linen thread in the beading or leatherworking aisle. If that selection doesn't offer the colour you want and you don't want gouges in your candles, head over to the embroidery aisle to grab a little round of wax. That's also where you can find a vast assortment of thread colours from which to choose. Linen offers less stretch and is therefore the superior option for binding, but cotton embroidery floss is just fine for utilitarian purposes rather than fine binding.

SEE IMG 1: The most important thing that you can do for yourself is to follow the sewing guide to the letter. The key is on the left side of the sewing diagram.

SEE IMG 2: Insert your threaded needle through the inside of the text block. Be sure to leave yourself enough extra thread at the end that you can tie a knot to the other end of the thread once you've finished following the sewing guide.

Follow the sewing guide while keeping the thread as taught as you can. This becomes easier as you secure more holes and the loose end of the thread from the start of the guide interferes less. Be patient and tighten as you go. If it's tough to pull the threaded end of the needle through the sewing holes, gently use pliers to help pull it through.

SEE IMG 3: Once you've followed to the end of the sewing guide, the remainder of the thread will emerge from the same hole from which you started sewing. Make sure the thread ends frame the secured thread that passes over that hole.

SEE IMG 4: Tie a square knot around the secured thread using the loose ends. Secure the knot closely to the gutter. Be sure to tie the knot firmly, but not so tightly that it unduly stretches the sewing holes. Trim the ends to about 1".

SEE IMG 5: Using your needle, unpick the twists in the loose ends of thread. Fraying the ends doubly ensures that the knot doesn't come undone.

SEE IMG 6: Tuck the unraveled ends under the secured thread to keep them tidy and out of the way.

SEE IMG 7: If you've followed the guide correctly, your fully bound book will have Xs marching their way down the spine. You've officially finished this project!

Step 8: Finished Perfect Binding!

The 'Perfect Binding Completed' video shows how the book looks when closed.

The 'Perfect Binding In Action' video shows the unlocking of the book and how the text block interacts with the covers now that it's sewn in.

Step 9: Finished Long Stitch Binding!

The 'Long Stitch Binding Complete' video shows how the book looks when closed.

The 'Long Stitch Binding In Action' video shows the unlocking of the book and how the text block interacts with the covers now that it's sewn in. I didn't knot the ends in this one because I needed to pull out the sewing to more permanently bind the perfect binding into the covers, as that's the text block I'll be using first. Once that's used up, I'll sew the long stitch binding back into the covers and use that text block up.

Step 10: Locking the Cover

Check out the above photos and videos to see some of the designs and behaviours of the locking aspect of the printed covers. The variety of patterns to choose from is mesmerising. And yet, only one pattern unlocks the mechanism, freeing the closure.

The photos are over edited to provide greater contrast so that the patterns would show up on photos, but they look just as striking in person as in the edits.

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    Echo BravoSirLucians Solutions

    Reply 4 months ago

    Just added them. The videos are near the end of the updated instructions in steps 8, 9, and 10.