Floor Vacuum Cleaner Robot - Controlled by Arduino With Motor Shield




Floor vacuum cleaner robot. Version #16.
This version accumulated positive experience from previous versions.

Materials and components:
1. Arduino board;
2. Arduino Motor shield;
3. Two motors with gearboxes (3 Volts, ~100 RPM);
4. Two wheels or two aluminium cans;
5. Computer cooler turbine fan (5 Volts or 12 Volts with 5V to 12V step-up board);
7. Battery pack or accumulator - for 5V power supply;
8. Breadboard and power supply wires;
9. Big round plastic box - for housing;
10. Smaller plastic box - for dustbin;
11. Cardboard;
12. Melting glue;
13. Magnets;

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Step 1:


The program is simple and similar to previous one - where Arduino was used with H-bridge motor-driver board (not Arduino shield). LED is not used, so pin 13 is free now.

Step 2:

If there is no wheels - bottom of two aluminium cans may be used instead:
Cut the bottom part of an aluminium can, mark center of it, make a hole with size as motor's shaft, glue this wheel to the shaft by melting glue. Put some melting glue on sides of wheel to increase friction with floor. Such wheels are weak, but may be used at beginning and than be replaced with firm ones..

Synthetic fabric tissue for kitchen is used as filter in dustbin.

There are different Arduino motor  shields. One used in this robot - does not have breaks and sensors. Another may have these features. There are commented lines of code in the program - for shields with breaks - they may use different pins.

Using magnets makes really easy to attach/detach housing and dustbin - no lockers or bolts/nuts.

Noise is not as annoying as from servos I tried to use instead of motors (on Version #14 - very disappointing variant).

Step 3:

Composition of dustbin is most efficient from quick build models used before. Dust is not stuck on nozzle like on once made of cardboard (as I tried earlier and on Version #15 which I made all from cardboard - even wheels - another fail variant).

If turbine fan is found with 5 volts power supply - step-up board is not needed.

There is no power-off button on this model.

Result of cleaning during half and hour is pretty well.

2 People Made This Project!


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47 Discussions


Question 1 year ago on Step 1

Hi, I m trying to use arduino uno to make this . I m just using simple motor circuit. Do I need the motor shield too?

1 answer

2 years ago

Hi! About how much did this cost you to make? I've never built a robot or anything like it before, would this be a good project for a beginner? Thanks

1 reply

Reply 2 years ago

Hi, in the instruction with the link below I provided rough evaluation:


Following list is not precise and just for example - parts can be cheaper or more expensive. E.g. "Arduino Nano" costs $1, just have another form-factor than usually motor-shield have.

Arduino Leonardo $7
Motor-Shield $6
DC motor 6v 120rpm 2x$10=$20
DC 5015S 5V Turbine Brushless Cooling Blower Fan $4
Axis Rubber Wheel 2x$2=$4
Power Bank 5v $10
Wires $?
Total ~$50


Reply 2 years ago

Because the robot is very simple and it does not have spinning brush.

For example, different versions of iRobot Roomba use acoustic sensor (kind of microphone - listening hits of dirt particles thrown by a spinning brush) or combination of an acoustic sensor and optical sensor (I do not know how it is implemented): https://homesupport.irobot.com/app/answers/detail/...

This simple robot does not have a spinning brush, so acoustic sensor would not be a choice, probably. Optical sensor - that might be an interesting task to measure if it can be implemented to detect such small dust particles, which the turbine alone gets into the dustbin.

I heard about an approach when photo is taken along the floor with a bright flash - particles of dust expected to be shown on an image as many bright spots. I have not seen such implementation though.


Reply 2 years ago


Or this instruction


Reply 2 years ago

is it possible to implement the 21-step instructable using an arduino uno??? i happened to have purchased it firstly before seeing this particular project. I am just a newbie.

what arduino had been used to this sir? can you please give me the clear drawing or anything that can help me make my board. as im no good in reading schematic diagram. thank you so much, hope youll help me, i got till wednesday to do the project :(

2 replies

Reply 2 years ago

that would be like giving away a patent that doesnt exist yet. it would be worth millions.


Reply 2 years ago

depends on what you want to do as far as solve


2 years ago

yes the new roomba's have a usb port. the problem is it runs on Lisp programming lingo and it will be pure coding from then on in..........UNLESS YOU SWITCH TO GCODE AND TRANSLATE RESULTANT MOVEMENTS FROM CNC MACHINE CODE (which is what modern machine tools i.e. lathes, mills, etc. operate to surprisingly high accuracies.) back to Lisp.......or another way, it depends on the creator and programming time constraints. Then there's mapping which could be done in auto cad 360 or Solidworks then transferred to GCODE then run. Lidar is now available in chip form at low cost and energy consumption to realign due to differential drag in the wheels throwing it off course. The person that cracks the reorientation of a disoriented path wins the big brass ring. Perhaps a consortium is in order, a proposal to the big guys like darpa, who makes the damn thing in the first place, google with their big pockets , or a successful crowdfunding option is in order as the scope of the project balloons very fast once you get a handle on the punch list of problems to be solved.

Mariel KateL

3 years ago

Can you make a thorough explanation on how you programmed the arduino? I'm kind of a beginner in this and I need to make a robot similar to yours for our project. Thanks.

1 reply

3 years ago

hello can ask something about the motor sheild. Can i use other than you use, like motor sheild L293