Garbage Can Turkey Smoker




How to build a reusable BBQ smoker from a garbage can and an electric hot plate, and then use that to smoke a whole turkey.

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Step 1: Build a Grating Support Inside the Garbage Can

First, get a garbage can and a circular grill grating (usually sold as an accessory to a weber grill). Larger is generally better for both, but the only real requirement is that the can is larger in diameter than the circular grating you will use to put the turkey on, at a level low enough to fit the turkey.

Next, you need to build supports for the grating. Using a 3/8" drill bit, drill three holes approximately 8" below the top of the garbage can, equidistantly placed around the circumference of the can. Then slide three 3" x 3/8" bolts through those holes and secure with a corresponding washer and nut. This will be used to hold the grating up while allowing the grating to be easily removed.

Step 2: Add Support for a Drippings Pan / Shield

Underneath the grating where the turkey will go, you want something to catch the drippings and prevent them from falling onto the wood chips below. Additionally, this pan will function as a shield to protect the turkey from radiation from the heat source, keeping the smoke from the wood chips as the main cooking agent.

For a pan, we simply used a disposable turkey pan which we folded slightly to fit snugly in the garbage can. You want the pan to rest about 7" below the grating, but to have ample room on the sides for smoke to pass from below.

To support the pan, we used two 3/8" threaded rods running parallel across the can. It's important that these be close enough together to support the pan (which could have a fair amount of turkey fat in it), but still far enough apart to allow you to move your wood chip pan through them without much tilting. We bought the threaded rod as a single 4' piece for a couple of dollars, and cut it to size with a saw. You want enough slack to stick out of the can slightly for support and to allow room for fasteners.

Drill 4 3/8" holes about 7" below the grating bolts and slide the rods through. Secure the rods on the outside with appropriate washers and nuts. It's not necessary to secure them on the inside, and that will make it more difficult to remove in the event that you need to when it is full of hot smoke.

Step 3: Add Heating Element

For our heat source, we used a $10 electric hotplate. We cut a small hole on the side of the can near the bottom for the cord and access to the heat-adjustment knob. Then, we added two "smoke rocks" to prevent the wood chip pan from falling off of the hotplate and to add overall stability to the smoker. These were just rocks from our front yard. If you have bricks, you might consider using those instead.

To actually turn the knob, we constructed a simple extension to the knob by gluing the plastic knob covering to a hole drilled in the end of a dowell. However, it turned out that we always wanted the heat all the way up, so this was never used during the actual cooking, once we calibrated the device.

You might consider putting the hot plate more in the center to have better heat shielding from the pan and more even smoke release, but I don't think it really matters. We were prevented from doing that by the geometry of our smoke rocks, but with bricks you could swing it.

Feed the cord through the hole at the bottom and attach to a properly rated extension cord.

Step 4: Add Thermometer to Lid

Proper temperature monitoring and maintenance is the key to good smoking, so you will want a BBQ thermometer to measure the ambient temperature inside the garbage can without opening the lid.

We bought a $20 BBQ thermometer from a hardware store that was designed for mounting. We didn't have a large enough drill bit available, so we drilled a small hole and enlarged it with tin snips until it fit, and then threaded the nut on securely.

Step 5: Prepare Wood Chips and Get Ready to Smoke

Actually finding enough woodchips might be tricky. For a turkey, we recommend applewood (or pecan, if you can find it), but oak and hickory would work in a pinch.

You want to soak the chips for at least 20 minutes prior to smoking, but there is no real upper limit. Get a pan that you don't mind destroying that's small enough to fit between your two threaded rods, about the size of the hotplate, and at least a couple inches deep.

Fill the pan with chips and move the can to a safe location, far from any buildings, but shielded from the wind if it's cold out. Obviously, the smoker will generate a lot of smoke, so you might want to keep it away from open windows/doors as well.

You should also have appropriate safety equipment ready, namely heat-resistant fingered gloves and a fire extinguisher. Still, the ambient temperature you are generally shooting for is around 230F, so the risk of fire is very low.

Step 6: Prepare the Turkey

The rule of thumb for turkey smoking is 30-40 minutes per pound, so you should probably get a relatively small turkey unless you are prepared to get up early and eat late. We opted for a 13 pounder, and it took approximately 10 hours to get the thigh meat up above 165 degrees.

We brined our turkey before smoking it. This is optional, but we strongly recommend it; the primary purpose of brining is to make the turkey juicier, and smoking a turkey for 10 hours tends to dry it out a little more than some other cooking techniques. We used a brine consisting of 2 gallons of water, 1 cup of sugar, and 1 cup of salt. This was just enough brine to cover the turkey in its 5 gallon paint bucket. We brined the bird overnight, for about 9 hours.

Because the cooking in a smoker is done by convective heat transfer from the smoke, we wanted to maximize smoke flow through the turkey in order to minimize cooking time and to cook the bird as evenly as possible. To improve the gas flow dynamics of the turkey's surface, we removed the excess flaps of skin and fat that obscured the openings of the turkey, and we widened the passage between the neck cavity and the main body cavity, the idea being to allow the smoke to flow freely through the interior of the bird. We also left the turkey entirely untrussed, and as spread out as possible, to increase its effective surface area.

We didn't even consider stuffing the turkey, as this would have destroyed smoke flow, added several hours to cooking time, exacerbated cooking unevenness in different parts of the turkey, and, in all likelihood, produced acrid black stuffing. We cooked our stuffing in the oven instead.

Then, we rubbed the outside of the turkey down with olive oil and salt in an attempt to keep the skin from drying out.

Step 7: Smoke That Turkey Out

First, put the woodchips on top of the heating element. Make sure the heating element is all the way up and plugged in. Put the turkey drippings pan in, on top of the threaded rods. Put the turkey on the grating inside the smoker. Close the lid, and start the waiting game.

You want to maintain a temperature of about 230F, for around 30-40 minutes per pound of turkey. You will need to change out the wood chips every hour or two, but don't sweat the exact timing. Changing the wood chips will require you to remove the grill, the drippings pan, and then the wood chip pan, so you will probably want two people, both with gloves. The garbage can lid will be quite hot once the temperature reaches peak, which on the first cycle can take quite a while.

Unforuntately, changing out the wood chips evacuates all of the smoke and hot air from the inside of the can, which basically drops the temperature most of the way back to ambient. In our case, this was exacerbated by cold temperatures and stiff winds, so much so that we had to add an insulator to our garbage can: a cardboard box. We folded the sides of the boxes evenly to make it octaganal, so it would fit more snugly.

The one modification we highly suggest would be a door for changing out the wood chips. Since the door would be at the bottom of the smoker, you would not lose much heat or smoke in the process of changing out the chips, and the whole process would go faster and smoother. Once we get around to it, we'll post another instructable with the modification.

Step 8: Enjoy Turkey

You are shooting for an internal temperature of 165F in the deepest part of the turkey, which you can check with a meat thermometer. Don't check too often, or you will interfere with the cooking process. The 30 minutes per pound rule is really a minimum, at which point you should start checking the temperature.

If you have trouble reaching the appropriate temperature and are running out of time, you could finish it off in the oven as you would a standard turkey. This will still keep most of the flavor, but should be avoided if possible.

Once it has reached the appropriate temperature, take it out and unplug the hot plate.

Then, dig in. But try to save some - this smoked turkey made some of the tastiest turkey sandwiches we've ever had.

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    38 Discussions


    12 years ago

    It looks like you stole this idea from the Food Network guy Alton Brown. He has had this idea for quite a awhile. He uses the hot plate and everything. I have to say though the trash can is a better idea; he uses a cardboard box! Nice instructable over all.

    5 replies

    Reply 11 years ago on Introduction

    I've done this when I was in the Boy Scouts, 20 years ago, so did Alton originally steal this from them?? There are so many ways of cooking using everyday materials, some are bound to make their way onto television. You could even wrap food in aluminum foil, and place it on your hot car engine to cook food, which was featured in "Home Improvement" one time!! This is a good idea, one alternative is to use a long stick, mount the turkey on it that way, then flip the can over it. There's no need for a grate, or lid, as the ground acts as the lid.


    Reply 2 years ago

    I have actually used the aluminium foil wrapped food on the engine method several times. It really works! ☺

    The most memorable time was when working offshore on a fishing boat as first mate. Our auxillary motor which supplied all the electrical power for the boat broke down, which meant we had no power for the electric stove in the galley, until we could get back to port & fix it.

    The rest of the crew thought I was mad & laughed at me when I started preparing a meal this way to place on the boats main engine.

    They stopped laughing when I tucked into a hot meal & made a rush for the foil ? (we call it alfoil over here btw). They had been eating cold leftovers & tinned food! ?

    Poppa Chubbyindyguy

    Reply 11 years ago on Introduction

    Alton Brown is just the latest in a long line of people to use this, or a similar, idea. People have been using garbage cans, 50 gallon drums, old water heater tanks, propane tanks, and hot plates for years and years. The best I saw was 30+ years ago using a large and a small can, connected by a pipe, and the whole thing buried in a small hill.


    Reply 12 years ago

    Cardboard box smokers are really more appropriate for cold smoking (like fish or cheese) - and although when I built one I felt much indebted to Alton's instructions, I also found that a few modifications (like a second box for the woodchips, and a dryer hose to connect them) really helped. One of these days I'll write that instructable.


    Reply 12 years ago

    For sure, there are many different approaches to building a smoker, and most of them mention Alton Brown (though I have never seen the show). I believe he's done two shows on the subject, one with a cardboard box and one with two unglazed terracotta planters. To be honest, the idea of using a trash can also comes from another website after extensive research, but we made a number of modifications in order to suit turkey smoking and to handle the situation where your grating doesn't exactly match your trash can. The professionals (in my book, this means South Texas) use a horizontal setup with the fire on one side and the meat on the other. Then, using a series of vents they can fine tune from the outside, they can precisely control temperature and adjust for changes in the wind and the heat of the fire. The next step in home smoker construction is to do something like that. That design also has the benefit of being able to monitor and change the smoke production conditions without directly affecting the meat, something our design has serious problems with.

    Using a galvanized container to cook in is very dangerous. As noted by spinach_dip below, anything galvanized, such as tubs or trash cans, is treated with zinc, which creates fumes when heated that are harmful to breathe. The bad health effects are cumulative, which means you don't heal up from them in between exposures, it just keeps adding up in your body (zinc is a heavy metal, as are mercury and lead, which also have cumulative health impacts). And since the fumes dissipate in the air, anyone nearby is exposed, even if they have no part in your ill-advised cookery.

    2 replies

    Reply 3 years ago

    In order for zinc to become toxic it would have to reach over 1100 degrees F. A typical smoker on the hottest run would never get above 300 degrees F. There is quite a bit of safety margin involved. Besides that once you run the first load, which should be without food, to season the inside of the can there really isn't any exposed zinc there. Remember they are smoldering wood chips inside a separate container not lighting a bonfire inside the can.


    5 years ago on Introduction

    I wonder if you could make a smoker out of a wooden barrel. There are a few local wineries and distilleries here that use wooden barrels, I bet they occasionally sell their barrels...


    8 years ago on Introduction

    With old grills, from the classic round Weber to old gas grills available at just about every other yard sale or junk shop, or on Craigslist, I don't think there's any need to risk your health "making" a smoker out of something not intended for food preparation.

    Not only that, but there really is nothing sustainable about going to the local HD and buying a brand new garbage can to make a homey-style smoker. The idea is kind of neat, but the fact is that these inventions came out of poverty, not because someone said, "Hey cool! Let's go buy a garbage can make a smoker!"

    I've got two Weber grills and I didn't pay more than ten bucks for either one. One is a medium sized one and the other is a classic red extra-large one enough for a party. Any container can be converted into a smoker, but why not start with something made to withstand high heat and that has some ventilation holes and go from there?

    Also, buying used is the most sustainable and real way to "keep it local" and keep more things out of the waste stream and back into service.

    Folks, give him a break. He may or may not be actually using it. He may have a similar smoker made from the proper materials nearby. I do this all the time. I make something from cheap materials as a test then make the real thing out of the correct materials once the design is worked out.


    8 years ago on Introduction

    I see some people know metallurgy which is a good thing.


    10 years ago on Introduction

    You might want to pick up an electric fry pan they cost about $20 and you can put it in so the thermostat is on the outside of the can ,and you can put your chips rite in the pan,much cleaner look

    Your smoker looks excellent! The door is a great addition. How did you cut through the garbage can material? It looks pretty sturdy.


    11 years ago on Step 8

    Mounting or placing the can on a flat metal plate (or with the edges turned up) in an inverted position would simplify the replacement of the chips. Build a rack for the turkey that fits under the inverted can. Make a handle for the top (inverted bottom), place the thermometer in the top (inverted bottom). Lifting the can will allow easier one person access, keep heat and smoke (don't have to remove the entire can body). Smoke flow can be increased with a 1/2 inch or smaller hole in the top (inverted bottom) of the can, and an even smaller hole by the chip plate/burner. A damper on the lower hole can be used to control heat loss. @radarguy... smoking ribs is the same process. Soaking the chips and brining is essential. You can add liquid smoke during brining, though I don't. Brining formula are available on the internet. You can brine quicker with a vacuum machine (3hrs vs. 9hrs).


    11 years ago on Introduction

    I'm curious about the brine soak - do you refrigerate it while soaking? you don't mention that. If not, is it because the salt will help prevent bacteria growth? It seems slightly unhealthy to me.

    1 reply

    Reply 11 years ago on Introduction

    If it is cool outside (less than 50 F) you can leave the turkey in the brine with some sort of cover, out doors. YES it's safer to refrigerate the whole thing, but I saw something similar on from Good Eats that explained the whole thing.