This month, HackerBox Hackers are exploring Software Defined Radio (SDR) and radio communications on frequencies below 1GHz. This Instructable contains information for getting started with HackerBox #0034, which can be purchased here while supplies last. Also, if you would like to receive a HackerBox like this right in your mailbox each month, please subscribe at HackerBoxes.com and join the revolution!
Topics and Learning Objectives for HackerBox 0034:
- Configuration and Use of SDR Radio Receivers
- Mobile SDR Operations
- Assembling the CCStick Sub-GHz Transceiver
- Programming the CCStick using Arduino ProMicros
- Assembling FM Audio Transmitters and Receivers
HackerBoxes is the monthly subscription box service for DIY electronics and computer technology. We are hobbyists, makers, and experimenters. We are the dreamers of dreams. HACK THE PLANET!
Step 1: HackerBox 0034: Box Contents
- USB Software Defined Radio (SDR) Receiver
- MCX Antenna for SDR Receiver
- OTG USB Cable with Auxiliary Power Input
- Two CCStick Printed Circuit Boards
- Two CC1101 Transceivers with Antennas
- Two Arduino ProMicros 3.3V 8MHz
- FM Audio Transmitter Kit
- FM Audio Receiver Kit
- Exclusive Radio Oscillator "Hertz" Pin
Some other things that will be helpful:
- Soldering iron, solder, and basic soldering tools
- Computer for running software tools
Most importantly, you will need a sense of adventure, DIY spirit, and hacker curiosity. Hardcore DIY electronics is not a trivial pursuit, and HackerBoxes are not watered down. The goal is progress, not perfection. When you persist and enjoy the adventure, a great deal of satisfaction can be derived from learning new technology and hopefully getting some projects working. We suggest taking each step slowly, minding the details, and don't be afraid to ask for help.
There is a wealth of information for current, and prospective, members in the HackerBoxes FAQ.
Step 2: Welcome to Sub-GHz Radio
Cue music: Radio KAOS
Sub-GHz technology is an ideal choice for wireless applications requiring long range and low power consumption. Narrowband transmissions can transmit data to distant hubs, often several miles away, without hopping from node to node. This long-range transmission capability reduces the need for multiple expensive base stations or repeaters. Proprietary sub-GHz protocols allow developers to optimize their wireless solution to their specific needs instead of conforming to a standard that might put additional constraints on network implementation. While many existing sub-GHz networks use proprietary protocols, the industry is slowly adding standards-based, interoperable systems. For example, the IEEE 802.15.4g standard is gaining popularity worldwide and is being adopted by various industry alliances such as Wi-SUN and ZigBee.
Some interesting frequencies to explore include:
88-108 MHz FM Broadcast
NOAA Weather Radio
Air Traffic Control
315 MHz Keyless Entry Fob (most American Cars)
2m Ham Calling (SSB: 144.200 MHz, FM: 146.52 MHz)
433 MHz ISM/IoT
902-928 MHZ ISM/IoT
Various Modulation Schemes are used for different types of radio communications on these frequencies. Take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with the basics.
Step 3: Software Defined Radio (SDR) Reciver
Traditional radio components (such as modulators, demodulators and tuners) are implemented using a collection of hardware devices. The advent of modern computing and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) allows most of these traditionally hardware based components to be implemented in software instead. Hence, the term software defined radio (SDR). Computer-based SDR affords implementing inexpensive, wide band radio receivers.
The RTL-SDR is a USB dongle that can be used as a computer based radio receiver for receiving live radio signals. A wide range of information is available online for experimenting with RTL-SDR technology including a quick start guide.
Step 4: RTL-SDR USB Dongle Hardware
The RTL2832U is a high-performance DVB-T COFDM demodulator that supports a USB 2.0 interface. The RTL2832U supports 2K or 8K mode with 6, 7, and 8MHz bandwidth. Modulation parameters, e.g., code rate, and guard interval, are automatically detected. The RTL2832U supports tuners at IF (Intermediate Frequency, 36.125MHz), low-IF (4.57MHz), or Zero-IF output using a 28.8MHz crystal, and includes FM/DAB/DAB+ Radio Support. Embedded with an advanced ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter), the RTL2832U features high stability in portable reception. The R820T2 Digital Tuner supports operation in the range of 24 – 1766 MHz.
Note that the SDR dongle features an MCX coaxial RF input to couple with the included MCX whip antenna. Since many common signal sources and antennas use SMA coaxial connectors, an MCX-SMA Coupler may be useful.
Step 5: SDR Software - GNU Radio
GNU Radio is a free and open-source software development toolkit that provides signal processing blocks to implement software radios. It can be used with readily-available external RF hardware to create software-defined radios. GNU Radio is widely used in hobbyist, academic, and commercial environments to support both wireless communications research and real-world radio systems.
There are many flavors and implementations of GNU Radio. GQRX is a nice variant for OSX and Linux users.
Step 6: Mobile SDR
SDR Touch can turn your mobile phone or tablet into an affordable and portable software defined radio scanner. Listen to live on air FM radio stations, weather reports, police, fire department and emergency stations, taxi traffic, airplane communications, audio of analogue TV broadcasts, HAM radio amateurs, digital broadcasts, and many more.
An on-the-go (OTG) USB cable or adapter is required to connect the SDR USB dongle to a mobile device. An OTG cable with an extra (auxiliary) power port may be required to power the dongle. An extra power port may be a good idea regardless, as an app like SDR Touch is prone to rapidly draining the batteries pf mobile devices.
Step 7: Microphone Transmitter Kit
This soldering kit is a simple three-transistor frequency modulating (FM) audio transmitter. It operates in the frequency range of 80MHz-108MHz allocated for FM broadcast radio. The working voltage of the transmitter is 1.5V-9V and it will transmit over 100 meters depending upon supplied power, antenna configuration, tuning, and ambient electromagnetic factors.
- ONE 500KOhm Trimmer Pot
- TWO NPN 9018 Transistors
- ONE NPN 9014 Transistor
- ONE 4.5 turn Inductor (4T5)
- TWO 5.5 turn Inductors (5T5)
- ONE Electret Microphone
- ONE 1M Resistor (BrownBlackGreen)
- TWO 22K Resistors (RedRedOrange)
- FOUR 33ohm Resistors (OrangeOrangeBlack)
- THREE 2.2K (2K2) Resistors (RedRedRed)
- ONE 33uF Electrolytic Cap
- FOUR 30pF Ceramic Capacitors “30”
- FOUR 100nF Ceramic Capacitors “104”
- ONE 10nF Ceramic Capacitor “103”
- TWO 680pF Ceramic Capacitor “681”
- TWO 10pF Ceramic Capacitor “10”
- Antenna Wire
- 9V Battery Clip
- Header Pins (break to 2 and 3 pins)
Note that the three transistors, the microphone, and the one electrolytic capacitor must be oriented as shown on the PCB silkscreen. The inductors and ceramic capacitors are not polarized. While the values and types are not interchangeable, each one can be inserted in either orientation.
If you are new to soldering: There are a lot of great guides and videos online about soldering. Here is one example. If you feel that you need additional assistance, try to find a local makers group or hacker space in your area. Also, amateur radio clubs are always excellent sources of electronics experience.
Step 8: Design of the Microphone Transmitter Kit
An input audio signal can be collected by the onboard electret microphone or provided from another electrical source into the input header pins. The microphone leads can be extended using wire or trimmed leads from other components to allow connection to the PCB. The microphone lead connected to the outer housing of the microphone is the negative lead as shown in the image.
At transistor Q1, Frequency Modulation is achieved when a carrier oscillator frequency is modified by the audio signal. The trimmer potentiometer may be used to adjust input attenuation of the audio signal. The audio signal is coupled to the base of transistor Q1 via C2.
Transistor Q2 (along with R7, R8, C4, C5, L1, C8, and C7) provides the high frequency oscillator. C8 is the feedback capacitor. C7 is the DC-blocking capacitor. C5 and L1 provide the resonant tank for the oscillator. Changing the values of C5 and/or L1 will change the transmit frequency. After initial assembly, the default transmit frequency will be about 83MHz. Gently spreading the turns of coil L1 a tiny bit will change the value of the inductor L1 and shift the transmission frequency accordingly. Keeping the frequency around 88MHz-108MHz will allow the signal to be received using any FM radio, including the SDR receiver.
Transistor Q3 (along with R9, R10, L2, C10, and C1) forms a high frequency power amplifier circuit. The modulated signal is coupled to the amplifying circuit through capacitor C6. C10 and L2 form an amplification tuning tank. Maximum output power is achieved when the amplification loop of C10 and L2 are tuned to the same frequency as the carrier oscillator loop of C5 and L1.
Finally, C12 and L3 provide antenna turing where the amplified signal is driven into a wire antenna for transmission as radio frequency electromagnetic waves.
Step 9: Frequency Modulation (FM) Receiver Kit
This FM receiver kit is based on the HEX3653 chip, which is a highly integrated FM Demodulator.
The kit includes:
- U1 HEX3653 Chip SMD 16pin
- Q1 SS8050 NPN Transistor
- L1 Inductor 100uH
- Y1 32.768KHz Crystal
- R1, R2, R3, R4 Resistors 10KOhm
- C1, C2 Electrolytic Capacitors 100uF
- C3, C5 Ceramic Capacitors (104) 0.1uF
- C4 Ceramic Capacitor (33) 33pF
- D1, D2 1N4148 Diodes
- Yellow LED
- Audio Phone Jack 3.5mm
- Four-Pin Header with Jumper
- Five Momentary Pushbuttons
- Dual AA Battery Holder
The HEX3653 receiver chip operates over the 76MHz-108MHz frequency range, which is allocated to FM broadcast radio.
The kit includes five pushbuttons:
- Frequency tuning (SEEK +, SEEK-)
- Volume control (VOL +, VOL-)
- Power (PW)
The circuit has a working voltage of 1.8-3.6V, which is easily supplied by two 1.5V cells.
Step 10: Design of the HEX3653 FM Receiver Kit
There are two options for an antenna input.
A wire can be attached to the "A" pad on the PCB or the shielding of the headphone wire can serve as the antenna.
The four-pin header serves as an antenna switch (labeled ASW). Placement of the shorting jumper on ASW selects between the two antenna inputs. Shorting pins 1 and 2 routes the external antenna "A" signal to pin four of the HEX3653 chip. Alternatively, shorting pins 2 and 3 routes the shield pin of the headphone jack to pin four of the HEX3653 chip.
Pin four of the HEX3653 chip is the radio frequency (RF) input to the receiver chip. The selected RF signal first goes through L1 and C4 which act as a filter. Then two clipping diodes are used to limit excessive input voltage.
The five-pin header (labeled B) allows the receiver module to be integrated into another system. There are two pins for power supply input (+V, ground) and three for audio output (right, left, ground).
Step 11: Assembling the HEX3653 FM Receiver Kit
The three ceramic capacitors and the crystal and not polarized and may be inserted in any orientation. They are not interchangeable, but they may each be rotated in their orientation. All of the other components must be mounted according to the orientation indicated on the PCB silkscreen. As usual, it is best to start with the SMD chip, and then move to the smallest/shortest components working from the center of the PCB towards the edges. Attach the headers, audio jack, and battery holder last.
Step 12: CCStick
The CCStick is a Texas Instruments CC1101 sub-GHz radio transceiver module coupled to an Arduino ProMicro. Two CCStick kits are included in HackerBox #0034 for use as two endpoints of a communications link or in some other communications configuration.
The Texas Instruments CC1101 (datasheet) is a low-cost sub-GHz transceiver designed for very low-power wireless applications. The circuit is mainly intended for the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) and Short Range Device (SRD) frequency bands at 315, 433, 868, and 915 MHz, but can easily be programmed for operation at other frequencies in the 300-348 MHz, 387-464 MHz and 779-928 MHz bands. The RF transceiver is integrated with a highly configurable baseband modem. The modem supports various modulation formats and has a configurable data rate up to 600 kbps.
Step 13: Arduino ProMicro 3.3V 8MHz
The Arduino ProMicro is based on the ATmega32U4 microcontroller which has a builtin USB interface. This means that there is no FTDI, PL2303, CH340, or any other chip acting as an intermediary between your computer and the Arduino microcontroller.
We suggest first testing out the Pro Micro without soldering the pins into place. You can perform the basic configuration and testing without using the header pins. Also, delaying soldering on the module gives one less variable to debug should you run into any complications.
If you do not have the Arduino IDE installed on your computer, start by getting downloading the IDE form arduino.cc. WARNING: Be sure to select the 3.3V version under tools > processor prior to programming the Pro Micro. Having this set for 5V will work once and then the device will appear to not ever connect to your PC until you follow the "Reset to Bootloader" instructions in the guide discussed below, which can be a little tricky.
Sparkfun has a great Pro Micro Hookup Guide. The Hookup Guide has a detailed overview of the Pro Micro board and then a section for "Installing: Windows" and a section for "Installing: Mac & Linux." Follow the directions in the appropriate version of those installation instructions in order to get your Arduino IDE configured to support the Pro Micro. We usually start working with an Arduino board by loading and/or modifying the standard Blink sketch. However, the Pro Micro does not include the usual LED on pin 13. Luckily, we can control the RX/TX LEDs and Sparkfun has provided a neat little sketch to demonstrate how. This is in the section of the Hookup Guide entitled, "Example 1: Blinkies!" Verify that you can compile and download this Blinkies! example before moving on.
Step 14: Design and Operation of the CCStick
The CC1101 Module and the Arduino ProMicro are inserted onto the silkscreen side of the CCStick PCB. In other words, the two smaller modules are on the side of the red PCB that has white paint on it and the pins stick out from the side that has no white paint on it. The white paint is called the PCB silkscreen.
The traces in the red PCB connect the CC1101 Module and Arduino ProMicro like so:
CC1101 Arduino ProMicro
GND GND VCC VCC (3.3V) MOSI MOSI (16) MISO MISO (14) SCK SCLK (15) GD02 A0 (18) GD00 A1 (19) CSN A10 (10)
A quick start for the CC1101 is to use the library from Elechouse. Download the library by clicking the "get code" link on that page.
Create a folder for CC1101 in your Arduino Libraries folder. Place the two ELECHOUSE_CC1101 files (.cpp and .h) into that folder. Also create an examples folder within that folder and place the three demo/example folders in there.
Update the pins definitions in the file ELECHOUSE_CC1101.h like so:
#define SCK_PIN 15
#define MISO_PIN 14 #define MOSI_PIN 16 #define SS_PIN 10 #define GDO0 19 #define GDO2 18
Then place the example file CC1101_RX on one CCStick and the example file CC1101_TX on the second CCStick.
There are a number of other interesting resources and projects for the CC1101 transceiver including the following example:
NOTE ABOUT USING INTERRUPTS:
To sample the Elechouse example sketch CC1101_RXinterruprt, connect two pins of the Arduino ProMicro on the bottom side of the CCStick PCB. These are pins 7 and 19 (A1) which connects the transceiver GDO0 signal to pin 7 of the microcontroller, which is one of the external interrupt pins. Next, update one of the pin define lines discussed above to "#define GDO0 7 //and 19" since GDO0 is now jumpered from pin 19 to pin 7. Next, in the CC1101_RXinterruprt file, find the line calling function attachInterrupt() and change the first parameter (interrupt number) from "0" to "4". This is done because pin 7 of the ProMicro is associated with interrupt #4.
Step 15: HACK THE PLANET
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