How to Make a Copper Reflux Still




In this instructable I will show you how to build a reflux still which can be used for producing high proof alcohol.

This still is a basic reflux still, and is a nice intro into reflux stills, as more complex reflux stills are hard to build and will cost a lot.

As I am from the UK I work in Metric units, so you can find a conversion tool easily by searching mm to inch conversion on google, if you work in imperial units.

This instructable cost me around £35 -£40, not including a boiler and tank fitting, as I already had these.

A boiler and a tank fitting will probably cost you around £20.

Before you build this please check your local laws to ensure the distillation of alcohol is permitted. I am not responsible for any laws broken:)

First, familiarise yourself with the diagram of the still as shown above. The column refers to where the still meets the boiler (pan), where the vapours rise. The condenser refers to the cooled pipe where the vapours collect and condense, producing high proof alcohol.

Step 1: Materials and Tools

To start this instructable gather the required tools and materials.




Paintbrush (or cloth)

A vice or some sort of heatproof clamp

Methylated spirits or any other solvent - rubbing alcohol works well

Steel wool - fine

Files - one half round file, and one round file

Rough grit sandpaper


A tape measure

A pencil or marker

A drill

A 15mm drill bit


A 1 metre length of 15mm flexible pipe or garden hose

2 metres of 15mm copper pipe (or 6 feet)

2 metres of 28mm copper pipe (or 6 feet)

Lead free solder

Non toxic flux

One 28mm end cap

Three 28mm - 15mm reducers

Three 28mm - 15mm T joints

One 15mm 90 degree joints

One 28mm tank fitting / coupler

One large saucepan, preferably above 15 litres (around 4 gallons)

Step 2: Cutting the Piping for Column and Condenser

First, start my measuring 450mm of 28mm piping.

Cut the 450mm piece.

Next, measure a 700mm long piece of 28mm piping. Cut this piece.

Start to prepare the piping for soldering. Use a half round file to level the ends of the piping. Then use a round file to remove any burrs inside the pipe ends.

Take some sand paper and sand around the ends of each pipe. Then take some steel wool and polish the ends.

Take the 2 metre length of 15mm pipe and use steel wool to polish the outside of the piping. Then file the inside of each end to remove any burrs.

We will cut the 15mm pipe to size later in this instructable.

Step 3: Cutting the Pipe for Connecting Fittings

In this step we will cut the pipes connecting the column and condenser, along with the reflux pipes.

Start by cutting a 70mm section of 15mm piping. This will connect the condenser and column of the still.

Next, cut two 150mm sections of 15mm pipe. These will act as reflux points, and provide water to the condenser.

Cut a 70mm section of 28mm pipe. This will connect the end cap to the condenser.

Use a file to remove any burrs, and polish the outside of all the cut pipes with steel wool.

Step 4: Preparing Fittings

To prepare the fittings for soldering you need to sand and polish all surfaces to be soldered. This is essential, as any dirt or grease left on the pipes will stop the solder from flowing properly, resulting in a weak seal.

Start by sanding the inside of each 28mm-15mm t joint. Next, sand the inside of the 15mm 90 degree joints, the 15mm 135 degree joint, the 28mm end cap, and the 28mm-15mm reducers.

Then sand the 28mm part of the 28-15mm reducers, on the outside.

Use steel wool to polish and surface or area you previously sanded.

Next, take a file and remove the lip inside the 28mm-15mm reducers. You may not need to do this if your fittings have no lip. I removed this to allow the 15mm pipe to slide right through it. (see photos)

Run the 15mm pipe through the reducer to ensure it fits smoothly.

Step 5: Cutting the 15mm Pipe

Assemble the still as shown in the photo. Cut the 15mm pipe running through the condenser so that there is 30mm of piping sticking out of the bottom of the condenser. This is also shown in the same photo.

Step 6: Preparing the Relux Pipe/water Supply Holes

Unfortunately, I lost some photos for this step, so I'll try to explain as best I can.

Mark a point 233mm along the column of the still. Then mark another at 466mm. These points are where the pipes will pass through the condenser.

Next, clamp the column into a vice, and drill through both sides of the pipe with the 15mm drill bit. File and sand any burrs on the edges of the holes. Sand as little as possible, as there must be a tight seal around the pipes.

Place the 150mm of 15mm pipes you cut in a previous step through the holes to ensure they fit.

Step 7: Preparing the Still for Soldering

Assemble the still as shown in the photo, to ensure everything fits together properly. Disassemble the still.

Take your chosen solvent, and rub all surfaces you previously sanded with the solvent. This will remove any grease which may affect soldering.

Then thinly coat all cleaned and sanded surfaces with fluxite, or any other non toxic flux. Reassemble the still.

Step 8: Soldering the Still

Start by soldering all the condenser joints.

Apply a medium flame around the fitting, do not heat the pipe, but the fitting. Constantly move the flame to avoid uneven heating. Occasionally touch the solder to the fitting; if it melts you are ready to start soldering the joint.

Touch the solder to where the fitting and the pipe meet, and the solder should flow into the joint, creating a seal.

Repeat this with every joint, but solder the condenser joints first, the column joints second, and the reflux pipes/water supply pipes last. Coat the entire reflux pipes in flux before soldering.

I recommend practicing several times before soldering the final project, if you have never soldered before. A useful guide for beginners can be found easily, just search how to solder pipes on google.

Step 9: Cleaning the Still

At this point your still will probably look pretty dirty. It needs to be cleaned to stop the remaining flux from corroding the copper piping.

Start by filing off any large blobs of solder, but be careful as you can easily scratch the copper.

Then take some steel wool and polish the copper. Adding some solvent may help remove the black staining.

Once you have polished the still I would suggest rinsing it with some hot water to remove any remaining flux.

Step 10: Building the Boiler

I had already built a boiler for a still I made a while ago, but I will explain how to make one.

You will need to take the lid off your four gallon pan, and cut a hole big enough for the 28mm tank fitting to fit through. I would suggest drilling several holes and cutting between them with tin-snips. Place the tank fitting through the hole, and tighten the nut on either side of the lid. The lid should now look like the photo above.

Insert the bottom of the still column into the tank fitting and tighten the tank fitting.

Connect a section of hose or tubing to the bottom of the condenser. This will allow you to easily collect your alcohol, and to keep it away from naked flames.

Step 11: Finished!

Your still should now be ready to use! You should perform a cleaning run before using to distill alcohol, I will link a guide to using a still below.

This website has everything you will ever need to know about distilling, from recipes to build ideas. You can find it here.

Thank you for reading, I hope you go out and build this instructable, it's always great to see more people picking up distilling as a hobby.

If you really enjoyed my instructable, please consider voting for me in the 2016 Homebrew contest here.



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55 Discussions


Question 3 months ago

Hi friend,

I'm not sure as to how you make the pipe with the water running through it, fit within the pipe with the vapour going through it? I can't read the writing with picture of the diagram as it's too small.

Also, what kind of ABV can you get with a mash at 12% alcohol as well as one with around 20%? I'm looking at making tinctures and they require 75-90%.

Any tips for you the clarify would be much appreciated!


Question 4 months ago on Introduction

Hi, I built the still as per your instructions and I have had two runs with it and it works fine. My only problem is I cant get it to produce more than 80% alcohol. I used glass marbles as packings in my column and I am wondering if I am getting enough reflux. What do you advise?


4 months ago on Step 11

the design is very well thought out and functional I think a vast improvement would be to use silver solder instead of a lead base solder that requires an acid flux. silver based solder requires no chemical based flux. just a tip I will be starting my build this week THANKS


Question 4 months ago

How much of the 1/2" pipe is left when ur done i have a 5' stick will that workor do i need the full 6'


1 year ago

Any concern about the tank fitting being brass and containing lead?

1 reply

Reply 1 year ago

None, it's a tank fitting designed for water tanks and boilers so it's completely safe to use. It doesn't contain lead.


Question 1 year ago on Step 11

Hello olala,

Thanks for clear and easy to follow instructions.
I have a naive question to ask on the technique. Why do we pass the condenser feed and return pipes through the reflux coloumn?
What may be the production rate and alcohol concentration to be expected?

Thanks and best regards.

1 answer

Answer 1 year ago

Hi, the condenser feed pipes pass through the column to produce reflux within the column. You could probably expect to get around 80-90% alcohol with this.


Question 1 year ago on Introduction

hi mate, nice instructions, im also in the uk, im struggling to find the boiler, can i ask where you found it? also im interested to know what abv you can get with this still? im after 90% for making tinctures...

2 answers

2 years ago

What, no warning about how not to go blind from methanol consumption?

Basically, methanol boils off first, and will be in higher concentration in what comes out of the still first. Methanol is present in small amounts in fermented beverages, but is harmless in the undistilled fermented beverage because it's mixed with ethanol, and ethanol is an effective antidote for methanol.

If you drink the first stuff that comes out of your still (too much methanol, not enough ethanol), even as little as one or two shot glasses, and drink nothing else, you run a serious risk of being blind in a couple of days. Also, by the time you notice ANY symptoms, it's too late.

Without this knowledge, it's not unlikely someone distilling for the first time might be eager to sample what's coming out of the still.

6 replies

Reply 2 years ago

Another note: The amount of methanol in the undistilled ferment depends on what's being fermented. Whole mashed fruit with seeds, for instance, will produce more methanol.

Kalle Klæpvanyo

Reply 2 years ago

The amount of Methanol produced in a ferment, ain't enough to cause serious harm...regardless if it's a fruit ferment. Worst case scenario, is a hell of a hangover and the spirits made taste like sh.. However, one should make it a habit to toss the first Ml of each run, as they contain a lot of unwanted stuff. If it smells like nail polish, it probably is. As it ain't supposed to be in there, just toss it. The good stuff can be diluted to 40% abv and be drank without any regrets.

Kalle Klæpvanyo

Reply 2 years ago


Also, one would toss the first mL coming off the still, they are considered the "foreshots". With a still this size, I would say between 50- and 100 mL should be sufficient. One would run a stripping run first, only tossing the foreshots. Then the distillate is diluted down to 40% abv or less (for safety reasons) and a spirit run is done. That's also the point when cuts are made...heads (still some bad stuff in it), hearts (the stuff you want to drink), and tails (low proof). Heads and tails can be added to your next stripping run, so they are not wasted. The hearts are diluted down to 40% abv for drinking. Tails are collected down to 20% abv, as the remaining Ethanol in the still, wouldn't justify the time neither heat used.


Reply 2 years ago

it's called giving the first shot to the devil, if you are distilling 3 to 5 gal just take the first two shots and keep them for other jobs. I use mine for engine degreaser.


Reply 2 years ago

This wasn't meant to be a guide on how to distill, rather a guide on how to equip yourself for distilling. I hope anyone building this will research distillation processes before using it:)


Reply 2 years ago

A little more detail for those interested:

The body has two ways to get rid of methanol (a poison). One is to metabolize it (break it down to other substances), the other is to flush it out through the kidneys.

Metabolizing methanol produces formic acid, which for some reason the optic nerve is very susceptible to. It does permanent damage.

Flushing it out through the kidneys takes time.

In the presence of ethanol, the body metabolizes the ethanol more quickly, slowing down methanol metabolization, which gives it time to be flushed out.

If you are poisoned by methanol, the standard treatment in a hospital is methanol administered intravenously. But it has to be caught before onset of symptoms.

Kalle Klæp

2 years ago

Nice work..

The design is an outdated one, though. The water connections going through the column, won't give a whole lot of reflux. Furthermore, the still will be a pita to stuff with packing due to those pipes running through the column. A better option for a reflux still, would be one with a reflux condenser on top of the column. It could easily be constructed with some thin copper pipe (breaking pipes for a car would do) 5-6 mm in diameter. The column diameter is also a little on the small side. Try to get some 2" copper pipe (50 mm) instead. It will cost a little more, but your takeoff speed will be a lot higher.

1 reply
oolala170Kalle Klæp

Reply 2 years ago

Thanks for reading!
I used an old still design due to limitations in the materials I could find, the largest column diameter I could get was 28mm. I also wanted to keep the cost as low as possible, but the still works fairly well.