How to Make Your Own Arduino Board

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About: Science is my passion. I find myself constantly working on countless experiments, from low energy particle accelerators to good old simple electronics. I also like making model rockets, and playing cello.

If your are like me which I am guessing you are, then ever since you got into doing stuff with arduino you have wanted to make your own arduino board. You may be surprised to find out that making the prototyping board is actually very easy, and can have several advantages over using the commercially sold board. For one thing, All the components together cost a little over 15 US dollars as opposed to the $30 that the Uno board sells for. second, you may not actually want a board, but may simply want the atmega chip as the heart of the project, like if you are making a synthesizer or even a robot. In that case, you can just attach the  hardware necessary to use the chip, and solder to the pins you need to use without needing the board. Another advantage is making shields. You have probably noticed that digital pins 7 and 8 are not the standard distance apart, which makes it difficult to make your own custom shields without paying the $15 dollars for a protoshield every time you make one. But if you make your own board on perfboard, the headers will be the standard distance apart and you can make your own shields with ease. Also, you may need to permanently add the board to your project, and for that you may not want to use the more expensive arduino boards. This board however is half the price, and easy to add to custom projects.

The only down side is that some parts of the arduino are kind of hard to build on perfboard. Most notably the Serial to usb adapter chip, which allows the microcontroller to interface with the computer through usb. You could use a good old RS232 jack, but they are not on a lot of newer computers. So to program your homemade board you will either need a break out board which does have the chip (get one here: http://www.jameco.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/Product_10001_10001_2117341_-1), or an arduino Uno or clone board to program the chip ( I used the former.)

Either way it is a fun and informative project.

Step 1: Materials

All of these materials can be purchased as a bundle here (except for the power jack and female headers: http://www.jameco.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/Product_10001_10001_2151259_-1

 
 otherwise here is the parts list:
-perfboard
-two 10 uf electrolytic capacitors
-two 10 uf tantalum capacitors
-7805 voltage regulator (5v)
-LM1117T-3.3 voltage regulator(3.3v)
-green LED
-red LED
-two 150 ohm resistors
-10k resistor
-one 0.1 uf capacitor (ceramic disk)
-two 22 pf capacitors (ceramic disk)
-16 MHz crystal oscillator
-momentary push button switch
-jumper wires
-female headers (I used three rows of eight)
-row of 6 male headers
-female wall wart power jack
-ATmega328 with bootloader
-28 pin DIP IC socket

Step 2: Install the Socket

The first step is after finding a good sized perfboard is to find a good place for the chip, and place the IC socket where you want it paying attention to the notch witch will be matched with the notch on the chip. also find where you want your power jack. You should place it on the edge of the board probably in the corner. I widened the holes on the board with a 1/16 inch drill bit, but still had to fold the leads on the jack using needle nosed pliers to get it to fit through. On the jack, the pin on the back connecting to the post on the inside is positive, and the one on the bottom connected to the metal on the inside is ground (the pin on the side is not needed. You could solder it for extra support, but I just broke it off). Remember this when connecting the regulators.

Step 3: Adding the 5v Regulator

Now it is time to add the five volt regulator. This is technically the only regulator you need to power the chip, but if you want a 3.3v pin (some breakout boards or sensors require 3.3v so the pin is nice to have), you will need to add the 3.3v regulator. These regulators require two decoupling capacitors each. Holding the 7805 printed side facing you, and the pins pointing down, the one furthest left is the input, the center is ground and the furthest right is the output. connect one 10 uf electrolytic capacitor to between the output and ground and the input and ground, being sure to connect the smaller leg to ground. connect the positive from the power jack to the furthest input pin, and ground from the power jack to the center pin.

Step 4: Adding the 3.3v Regulator

It is very important to remember that 3.3v regulator does not have the same pinout as the 7805. With the printed side towards you and the pins down the one furthest to the left is ground, the center is the output, and the furthest right is the input. Again you will need two decoupling capacitors. connect one of the 10 uf tantalum caps between output and ground and the other between input and ground paying attention to polarity. the positive lead should be labeled on the front of the cap, the other is negative, and be sure negative leads on these caps get connected to the furthest left pin on the regulator.

Step 5: Indicator LED

Next you are going to connect the green LED to the output of the 7805 regulator to indicate when power is connected to the board. Connect the anode of the LED (longer leg) to the 150 ohm resistor, and then connect the resistor to the output pin of the 7805. connect the cathode (shorter leg, also indicated by being next to the flat side of the LED) to the center pin of the 7805. Once you do this it would be a good idea to plug it in to make sure you made all of the right connections. Once you are sure everything is right, you can move on.

Step 6: Connecting Power and Ground Pins

Now, you will begin making connections on the chip. connect pins 7, 20 and 21 to five volts and pins 8 and 22 to ground.

Step 7: Reset Button

On pin 1 (reset pin) connect the 10k resistor from the pin to 5v. Then connect one contact on the momentary push button switch to pin 1, and the other contact to ground.

Step 8: Adding the Crystal Oscillator

solder the 16 MHz crystal oscillator to pins 9 and 10 on the chip. Then connect 1 leg of a 22pf cap to pin 9, and the other to ground. do the same with the other 22pf cap and pin 10.

Step 9: LED on Pin 13

Connect the red LED's anode to pin 19 on the chip (pin 19 is digital pin13 on the arduino, refer to pin diagram on next step) and the cathode to ground through a 150 ohm resistor 

Step 10: Connecting the Female Headers

For starters you should probably label each pin on your female headers to avoid confusion later. then solder the headers to the board and connect them to the respective pin on the chip, according to the pin diagram above.

This process is very tedious, so just have some patience and you should be fine. Also planning out how you are going to connect everything before hand will go a long way. You will probably have a lot of wires intersecting. after a while I was forced to start connecting pins on the bottom of the board to prevent this.

Step 11: ICSP Headers

On the opposite end of the board from the power jack, solder the row of 6 male headers. connect the first pin on these to pin one on the chip through a 0.1 uf capacitor, the second to pin 3, the third to pin 2, the fourth to five volts, the fifth does not get connected, and connect the sixth to ground. 

You can use these pins to program the chip using the breakout board mentioned earlier.

Step 12: Programming With the Arduino Uno

To program the chip with the uno board, I simply pried the chip on the arduino board off, and replaced it with the new chip. I then uploaded whatever sketch I wanted to use the same way you would any other. Once program I pried it out again and placed it in the new arduino board. 

Anything you can do with the arduino (except serial read, and other things that require constant interface with the computer) can be done on the Homemade arduino in this way.

Step 13: Finished

Now you are finished, and can use your new homemade arduino prototyping board for any project you want. As always if you have any questions comments, of problems leave a comment and I will do my best to help you. Also please rate this instructable.

Have fun!

4 People Made This Project!

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190 Discussions

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k4fecn6

3 months ago on Step 13

can i use this configuration for my street light timer concept in raeltime?

can it survive for long time

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samehb4

1 year ago

can't we add a port for programming like in the arduino?

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SaeedA4bryll.novelero

Reply 1 year ago

yes you can connect

tx and rx and gnd in usb to serial to pins 2-3-8 to atmega 328

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starcodekeibryll.novelero

Reply 1 year ago

A simple USB-to-Serial is not usually good enough. You'll need a programmer like USBtiny to do it.

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franzlp1992

1 year ago

Would it be ok to use the USB supply and the power jack supply simultaneously? Or would it damage anything?

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MintuV

1 year ago

Sir I'm not getting hiw to connect female headers can you please tell me what do you mean by " connect respective pin on the according to the pin diagram. Sir please reply asap.

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Agastya_Sharma

1 year ago

Sir you said "Anything you can do with the arduino (except serial read, and other things that require constant interface with the computer) can be done on the Homemade arduino in this way."

i have to go for a miniproject where we have to develope our own arduino board

but with this serial communication problem!!!!

Is there any way to interface the board we developed with computer

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Engineerical

3 years ago on Step 1

Hey what can you use as a substitute for the two 10 uf tantalum capacitors? I have all the materials except for that.

1 reply
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starcodekeiEngineerical

Reply 1 year ago

You could try using electrolytic caps instead of tantalum if you wish.

I've been able to obtain all the needed parts from Mouser and/or Adafruit.

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kiong

3 years ago on Introduction

Now, you will begin making connections on the chip. connect pins 7, 20 and 21 to five volts and pins 8 and 22 to ground.

What is you mean pin 7 ,20 and 21 to five volt?bcs i look from the picture look like you connect to pin 7 to pin 21

1 reply
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starcodekeikiong

Reply 1 year ago

I built mine with a solderable breadboard. Simply connect pins 7, 20, and 21 to the +5V bus. Then, pins 8 and 22 should be connected to the ground/0V bus.

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GrantC4

3 years ago on Introduction

hey,

question about the power supply you used:

what voltage and mah did you use?

(I assume a 5V, but I don't know what mah)

thanks

1 reply
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starcodekeiGrantC4

Reply 1 year ago

The "real" arduino devices recommend a 9V power supply. The 7805 regulator will lower the voltage to 5 for you, and it provides sufficient current for the rest of the chip to work.

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starcodekeiHk556

Reply 1 year ago

Either swap the chip into a real Arduino and use the USB programming, or utilize a programming device (such as USBtiny, AVRISP, etc) and attach it to the ICSP breakout, which is part of the last step shown above.

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NahidRM

2 years ago

Hey!

Can I use a ceramic capacitor instead of the tantalum one? and is there a replacement to the 150 ohm resistor? That's a bit hard to find

1 reply
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starcodekeiNahidRM

Reply 1 year ago

You could probably use another low-value resistor such as 200 or 220 for the LEDs. Don't go much higher than that, it's not necessary and will just consume a bit more power, which could be an issue if you're using batteries instead of a wall adapter.

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LarryF24

2 years ago

Just a question here , can you just stack the blank chip on to the inserted programmed chip and then load a sketch? Would it harm the original one ,just wondering if it could be done that way.