Make Your Own Chitosan Bandages

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About: I am a Biomedical Engineer going to be an ICU doctor. I love DIY and conversing ideas with intellectual people. I am a Seventh-Day Adventist Christian (its not a cult for those who are wondering) I love a...

Why Make Some?
These specialty bandages are super easy to apply, easy to use, and could possibly save your life.  If this technology was around in the civil war it would have saved nearly 460,000 soldiers.  These are extreme days we live in and the next disaster could strike any time.  These bandages can replace suchers if a hospital is not around.  Hemophiliacs can use these bandages to easily stop external bleeds.

How It Works: 
Chitosan Is a positively charged polysaccharide that attracts blood cells which are negatively charged. This attraction causes an extreme adherence when in contact with blood.  The red blood cells form a very tight coherent seal over the wound as they are drawn into the bandage. 

Applications: 
If you suffer from hemophilia you can use these bandages to stop bleeding quickly.  
These bandages can be useful in many situations such as: hiking, biking, construction worksite, over seas missionary work, or any other dangerous activity.  


Disclaimer
I am not responsible to any damage you may cause yourself or any other when use of any item in this instructable. Chitosan is a bio product from shell fish and I am not responsible if you have an allergic reaction to the substance. You must be 18 or older (or under adult supervision) to complete this instructable successfully




Step 1: Supplies

For this Instructable you will need:
Gauze pads (your choice in size)
Vinegar 4% acidity (its usually the cheaper stuff)
Small Containers such as Rubbermaid
Chitosan Tablets
Dry ice (3-5 lbs depending on amount of bandages)
Small Cooler or Medium Plastic Container
Food Plastic Wrap

You can get the Chitosan Tablets at a low price here:
astore.amazon.com/chitsosan-20
I like this brand because it is in a gelatin capsule which makes for easy removal of the powder.
These tablets also contain chromium which is another benefit to the bandage

Equipment:
Cookie Cooling Rack or Chicken Fencing
Cooking Sheet
Latex Gloves
Dust Mask
Heavy leather Work Gloves
Deep Freezer
Needle Nose Pliers or Surgical Forceps
Drill or Sharp Knife
Hammer

Step 2: Chitosan Extraction

Make sure your workbench has been sterilized
Spray your bench with a cleaning solution
Although the chitosan bandages actually kill bacteria, you don't want to contaminate them prior to use.
Put on a pair of latex gloves and your dust mask.

Note: THE DUST MASK IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT FOR THIS STEP
Why? Because particles from the chitosan capsules can filter into your nasal cavity and cause you to have increased sinus pressure.

To easily remove the chitosan powder:

Grasp the pill gently with both hands.
Give a quarter twist to the small end cap
Gently pull apart the capsule 
Empty the contents into your storage container.

I disassembled and stored 34 Tablets which covers around 15-20 1 inch square gauze pads.  You may want to do more or less depending on your need.

Step 3: Coating

Pour your vinegar into a small container. 
Place your choice of gauze pads in the vinegar. The pads will sink to the bottom when they are fully soaked.
With your pliers or surgical forceps grasp a single gauze pad and place it into your chitosan powder.
Gently shake the chitosan container side to side to fully cover the bandage.  Now let the bandage soak in the chitosan for 30 seconds

Double Dip (Its OK This Time.. Honestly)
Repeat this process 1 more time by dipping the powdered gauze into the vinegar and then back into the chitosan powder. A quick dip in the chitosan is all that is necessary for the second dip.

After you have completed coating the pad, place it on your cookie cooling tray or sterilized chicken mesh.  Have a baking sheet or tray below to catch any excess powder or vinegar droppings. 

You should notice that the bandage will swell after coating.  This is normal so don't run out of your house like a mad man/woman


Step 4: Freezing

Prior to sublimation you must freeze the bandages.
Place the cooling tray and baking sheet on the top rack of your deep freezer near the cooling element.
If you have a deep freezer that lays on the ground make a space near the cooling element and close to the bottom for the quickest freezing time.
If you don't have a deep freezer you can use a regular refrigerator freezer, but it will take more time to freeze.

Wait
The bandages will freeze after ~1.5 days
During this waiting period enjoy a soda or somthing
When they are finished freezing the bandages will be able to hold a firm shape.

Step 5: Lyophilization (Freeze Drying)

You can purchase dry ice at grocery and convenience stores. You will want around 3-5 lb.  For this you will have to do a little research yourself to find the best place to get dry ice.

Always wear heavy gloves when working with Dry Ice.  Dry ice is ~(-100)F

Crush dry ice into a medium sized  plastic container. 
Drill holes at the highest point of the lid to allow oxygen and water vapor to escape
Now its time to sublimate the bandages.
Place your chitosan bandages on top of the dry ice.  
You may notice a small fog coming from the bandages. This is normal
NOTE: Do not pour water into any of the dry ice filled containers. You will disrupt the speed of lyophilization. (if not ruin the process)

Wait... Again
To fully lyophilize the bandages the dry ice will have to fully dissolve.  
This process takes ~1 day for 3lbs

How Does It Work.. What Is It Doing In There?
The CO2 from the dry ice acts like a pump to remove all water from the air surrounding the material.  If the water vapor decreases the bandage becomes dry while maintaining its chitosan constitution.  So, as long as any dry ice remains, it will continue to freeze the water out and the bandage will become lyophilized. 

The bandages are done when the dry ice has dissolved. The bandages will be mildly malleable

When Lyophilization Is Complete 
After all the dry ice has evaporated you will be able to collect your bandages for sterile packaging. Remember to wear latex gloves for the removal of the bandages.
The chitosan bandages will naturally kill bacteria but try to keep them sterile. 

Step 6: Completion and Packaging

 The bandages will be dry to the touch and malleable when complete.  

To package you can use practically any method.  The perimeters are that the bandages must be kept in a moisture/air free environment. This method is a makeshift saran wrap version. 

Simply roll out ~1 foot of food wrap and place your bandage near but not on the corner. Fold as shown in the pictures. Press firmly to release all air  every time a fold is made.

Your done!

Step 7: Directions for Use

 Never use these bandages against someone"s will.  Simply place the bandage onto the bleeding wound and watch it work.  It should clot within minutes.  

To remove the bandage simply pour water in and around the bandage.  The water will break the bond and release the bandage.  It will not hurt the patient or victim to apply the bandage but it WILL hurt if you yank the bandage off without applying water.

PM me if you have any questions! Thanks!

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    76 Discussions

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    fotofarie

    4 years ago

    You don't want to place the powder or granules directly on a wound to stop bleeding. The problem that occurs is some of the substance can become loose and enter the bloodstream. This will cause clotts to occur anywhere including the lungs heart and brain, which most likely could prove deadly.

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    TSellers22

    4 years ago on Introduction

    Instead of Dry Ice to displace the O2, what about purging the cavity with something like Falcon 'Computer Dust Off'. It is similar to Nitrogen and displaces oxygen, and easier to find than Dry Ice these days.

    What would happen if you just sprinkled the chitosan from a gel cap driectly into the wound?

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    ddalton4

    5 years ago

    So can we use the kaolin powder the same way?

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    mrguy19187

    8 years ago on Step 7

    We used these in the Army and I just wanted to add a note. If you have a serious gash or really deep cut or puncture and blood loss is a serious issue to the point that life may be in danger, don't mess around putting these guys on the outside of the wound. Stuff them in there as far as you can without doing more damage. Break them or tear them or fold them to get the bandage in there deep, because if an artery is damaged, just clotting the surface won't immediately stop that bleeding and their life could still be in danger. The closer you get that chitosan to the source, the faster it will stop the bleeding.

    1 reply
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    DavidCDeanmrguy19187

    Reply 6 years ago on Step 7

    I think I might just get some Celox and sterile gauze off of Amazon for this kind of thing.

    An interesting instructable though!

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    kage_no_mozaiku

    6 years ago on Step 6

    how about using a vacume sealer after sterilizing the bag in boiling water and treating it with alcohol afterwards. that will *definetly keep out moisture as well as providing a waterproof package.

    *i know its spelled wrong but spell check gives me crap answers like definitively and defiantly so i said screw it and left it as it is.

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    illeagle

    8 years ago on Introduction

    HAD BEEN A INDUSTRIAL FIRST AID ATTENDANT WORKING FOR LOGGING COMPANIES IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST AND I FIRMLY BELIEVE THROUGH PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AND EXTENSIVE TRAINING THAT THE USE OF PRESSURE POINTS AND DIRECT PRESSURE TO THE WOUND IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE AND SAFEST WAY TO CONTROL HEMORRHAGING. ANY METHOD USING CHEMICALS WILL GET YOU INTO A WHOLE LOT OF TROUBLE (THE LEGAL TYPE). JUST BE AWARE AND USE GOOD JUDGMENT.

    2 replies
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    ERCBIENGilleagle

    Reply 8 years ago on Introduction

    The bandages are only meant to be used on yourself and family/close friends. Unlike you, most people caught in an emergency don't know specific pressure points to stop bleeding. The bandages work just as well.

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    AK47sForAllERCBIENG

    Reply 6 years ago on Introduction

    Absolutely no experience here, but strictly from what I've been reading, the consensus seems to be that using pressure points isn't terribly safe either if you are untrained, which is kind of the audience here.

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    AK47sForAll

    6 years ago on Introduction

    Thanks much for this; putting together a library of improvised medicine for personal use and this looks like it will be a useful addition; never seen this before which is surprising.

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    McMoogie

    8 years ago on Introduction

     At the very least - being a vegetarian I also avoid products made from animals.
    Why not just carry bandages.  And vinegar on an open wound?  I use vinegar a lot for cleaning & if I get it on cuts or cracked hands...YOUCH!

    8 replies
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    punkhead58McMoogie

    Reply 8 years ago on Introduction

    Usually, avoiding animal products classifies as Veganism, and not Vegetarianism.

    Yes, there is a difference: one is a political movement, the other is a radical diet.

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    sonywaluyapunkhead58

    Reply 7 years ago on Introduction

    vegan is not politic, it's considered religion. vegan people cannot shut up and keep their belief to themself, but they need to shout it and force people to join them too, like religion.

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    punkhead58sonywaluya

    Reply 7 years ago on Introduction

    I suppose some people are Vegans for religious reasons, but Veganism in general is a practical concept, not spiritual; I don't see how it can be related to religion. By the way, strong supporters of certain political groups love spewing out their ideals like a broken faucet...like Liberals! Ironically, most Vegans are Liberals. But, anyway, my point was that there is a severe line drawn between Vegetarianism and Veganism. Vegetarians choose their lifestyle for personal benefits; Vegans do it for the greater cause. (i.e. Someone who has a diet consisting of vegetables and nuts would be wrong in labeling themself as a Vegan if they go around wearing fur coats, wool sweaters, and leather shoes.)

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    generatorpunkhead58

    Reply 8 years ago on Introduction

    political movement?

    i'm vegan cause i dont want to cause any suffering in other animals.
    (you know, not killing and not taking milk from any babies, not wearing dead animal skin or hair, etc. mine are buddhist reasons, important only to me, no biggie to others)

    i never thought i'd be labelled 'political' for my choices! ha ha

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    mad magooMcMoogie

    Reply 8 years ago on Introduction

                  Not trying to start an argument here, but:

        These sound far better than normal bandages.  Normal bandages are really hit-or-miss--it's generally just an "apply direct pressure and pray" type of thing.  That usually works, but on big, deep cuts, the blood just keeps coming.  I had a really bad encounter with barbed wire when I was twelve--I received medical attention within ten minutes of being injured and even so it took several butterfly and ace bandages just to slow the bleeding down, and I had to wait another fifteen minutes or so for it to really stop. These definitely would have helped.  The only thing I can think of that seems to come close to these bandages in their (apparent, as I have not yet made them) ability to staunch bleeding is super glue, which works well for scratches but is impractical and dangerous on anything more than skin deep.

       And about the vinegar--it hurts, but it's very good at cleaning and disinfecting not only kitchens but cuts as well.  It will help with the sterility of the bandages and might help disinfect the cut they're used on.  It's also very good on fish and chips :)

                     I'm not a doctor, so feel free to dispute anything here, and don't treat it as extremely sound medical advice. 

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    Zimmingermad magoo

    Reply 8 years ago on Introduction

    Good observation about the super glue.  Researchers living in the Antarctic are plagued with deep non-healing cracks that form on their hands because of the extreme low humidity.  Super glue was a desperation move; nothing else worked.  Now it's being used for some surgical closures, at least externally.

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    EarlyGrayceZimminger

    Reply 7 years ago on Introduction

    In 2009 I had an operation to remove a tumour in my pancreas which left me with a wound roughly half the length of my belt.
    The funny thing is that it was covered with a type of thick rubbery sticky tape which came off after a couple of weeks to reveal that the doctors had somehow attached the sides of the wound together in a way that looks like it was stuck for an inch followed by an inch gap followed by being stuck together again for another inch all of the way across the wound.

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    McMoogiemad magoo

    Reply 8 years ago on Introduction

     I;m sorry - I didn't read this carefully or thoroughly enough..  My son had a head wound once & the blood was non stop,,much like you report - this would prob'ly be good for that.
    Sorry.