Make a Tellurion (sun-earth-moon Orrery) for Your Kid

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A tellurion is a module for simulating the movement of earth and moon. This kind of module can be found in museum, but seldom seen in market. Some simplified version of tellurion can be found on internet, however a complete (almost) tellurion module was seldom made by DIYers. In this manual, I will explain how I designed (original) and made the tellurion using material bought from internet stores. The total cost without shipping fee is around $80, which includes gears, copper tubes, bearings, motor, LED, and 3D printed parts. To assemble the tellurion may need 5+ hours. All design use the free online 3D tool onshape.

Step 1: Introduction

My son Linxi likes knowledge about solar system a lot. I found a video series about solar system for kids on Youtube, and my son watched them all, again and again. One day, I found a video about wooden tellurion holzmechanik, which inspired me to make one for my son.

The design of the tellurion from holzmechanik is great: simple and elegant. However I don’t have tools to cut wooden gears as shown on the video. Besides, the earth doesn’t spin, which is a pity (I know to add this feature will need more gears, which will weaken the simplicity and elegant of the design)! However, a spinning earth can demonstrate how day and night shift. So, I think that feature must be kept.

The design of Solar System Orrery inspired me a lot. However, the sun in that design will spin, which not match with the truth. But the design of 3D sun with LED gave me new idea to make the sun of my tellurion model illuminate.

Watched more videos, I found that the orbit plane of moon is inclined to the ecliptic by about 5° , and that’s the reason why lunar eclipse occurs (shame! I don’t know that before). So this feature is also very important, must have.

So, my tellurion must have the following features:

  • The earth will spin
  • The moon rotate around earth with 5 degree inclination
  • Sun is a light bulb.
  • Axis of earth always point to Polaris.

With above feature, the tellurion can demonstrate day and night shift, seasons change, sun and moon eclipse and moon phases.

Step 2: Design & Materials

There are a lot orrery and tellurion models on **Youtube**, most of them were made in copper, which I don’t have tools to make myself. And I don’t have tools to make wooden gears neither, so I decided to make the tellurion using acrylic. I don’t have tools to cut acrylic neither, but there are many web stores selling this service.
The 3D design for gears and 3D printed parts are available. Note, when cut the gears using laser cutter, the width of the laser should be considered.

  • To 6mm coper tube: the outside diameter is 6mm, and the inside diameter is 3mm. and the 3mm tube's outside diameter is 3mm, inside diameter is 1mm. You may need sandpaper to polish the 3mm tube to let it spin smoothly inside of the 6mm tube.
  • The ball bearings' size are: 6mm (inside) x 13mm (outside) x 5mm (height) and 3mm (inside) x 8mm (outside) x 4mm.
  • The pressing bearings' size is: 7mm (inside) x 17mm (outside) x 6mm (height).
  • Acrylic glue

You can use other sizes of the tubes and bearings by modifying the design which I think is always necessary. Note: as "the_tool_man" mentioned, using bushings instead of ball bearings may solve the backlash problem, and I really hope you can have a try.

Step 3: Mechanism

  • Plate A & gear B belong to moon part, they are glued together, and spin around their axis (tube).
  • Gear C & D are glued together and fixed to the axis. So they will not spin. When the support arm rotate with its axis, due to gear C is fixed, so gear B will start to rotate, so the plane A. This will simulate the rotation of moon to earth.

The left gear to the biggest gear is designed for moon. Moon has a period about 27.32, so moon will have 365.25/ 27.32 = 13.369 rounds a year. The ratio of diameters of the two gears should be 13.369. We can’t have exact ratio due to the number of gears’ teeth have to be integer. So I wrote a script (in R) to find the best gears:

for (x1 in 110:135) {
  for (x2 in 8:12) {
    ratio <- x1/x2
    if (abs(ratio-R) < d) {
      print(abs(ratio))
      d <- abs(ratio-R)
      print( paste(d, x1, x2, collapse = "  " ))
    }
  }
}

Run above script we can get result:

[1] 13.33333
[1] "0.0359931673987308 120 9"
[1] 13.4
[1] "0.0306734992679356 134 10"

So, the best gears are 134 & 10, however, the diameter is a little bigger (268 cm), so I choose the pair: 120 & 9.

  • Gear D, E, F, G and H were designed to make sure that gear H will rotate one round a year, this will lead to the axis of earth always point to Polaris. The number of teeth of gear D&H and gear E&G should be equal respectively.
  • Gear I, J, K, L, M, N, O & P were designed to increase gears speed, which targeted to the spin of earth. Gears N&O, gear L&M, gear J&K were glued together and can spin with their axis respectively. Gear I fixed to its axis, while its axis can spine inside the outer tube which finally lead to the spin of earth.
  • Gear V, U, T, S, R & Q were designed as reduction gears, which will drive gear G, and finally drive earth rotate with sun. Gear S&R, gear U&T were glued together and spin with their axis respectively. Gear V is fixed to its axis. Gear G is fixed to its axis, so it can drive gear F and E to rotate. While gear D is fixed to its axis, so gear G will actually drive the support arm to rotate with its axis, which simulate the rotation of earth to sun.
  • Gear P, Q & I together with plane 3 & 4 were glued together and can rotate with their axis.
  • Gear X, Y are reduction gears, and gear Y will be drive by motor.
  • Gear I - V were used to ensure that earth rotates 365 rounds a year. The mathematical relationship of the gear group is that when gear V rotate one round, gear I should rotate 365 rounds. To find the correct teeth numbers of gears, I wrote this script (in R):
i0 = 32
i1 = 32
i2 = 32
i3 = 32
d = 100</p><p>for (x1 in 15:24) {
  for (x2 in 15:24) {
    for (x3 in 15:22) {
      for (y3 in 15:22) {
        for (y2 in 15:24) {
          for (y1 in 15:24) {
            for (y0 in 16:21) {
              ratio <- (x1 /(i1 -x1)) * (x2 /(i2 -x2)) * (x3 /(i3 -x3))   * 
                          (y3 /(i3 - y3)) * (y2 /(i2 - y2)) *(y1 /(i1 - y1)) *(y0 /(i0 - y0))
              if (abs(ratio-365.25) < d) {
                print(abs(ratio-365.25))
                d <- abs(ratio-365.25)
                if (d <5) {
                  print(paste(x1,x2,x3,y3,y2,y1,y0))
                  print((y3 /(i3 - y3)) * (y2 /(i2 - y2)) *(y1 /(i1 - y1)) *(y0 /(i0 - y0)))
                  print("")
                }
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

[1] 0.6253846
[1] "21 24 22 22 24 24 19"
[1] 28.93846
[1] ""
[1] 0.5157143
[1] "23 23 22 22 24 24 18"
[1] 25.45714
[1] ""

I got two groups which are very close to 365.25. I choosed the second one, so I can say this tellurion has only half day mistake in one year. Another reason to choose the second gearset is they make earth spine slower than the first gearset.

Step 4: ​Circuit Diagram for LED and Motor

Step 5: Final Work

Step 6: Conclusion

The tellurion works generally as expected. One issue that unexpected is the moon doesn’t rotate smoothly. One reason caused this problem is the holes for holding bearings on support arm are very tight, which pressed the bearings’ shape from circle to oval, another reason is the gaps between gears, the bigger the worse.

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    28 Discussions

    1
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    HuidongTmakerguy 13

    Reply 24 days ago

    I think so. You know there are many parts, and it was a project of 2017. If you have an onshape account, I can share them to you. However, if you want to change the size, it may not easy.

    0
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    makerguy 13HuidongT

    Reply 22 days ago

    my onshape account username is greg_smith279. I've already cut the gears on my glowforge laser. I'm stuck trying to identify which gears are which since your drawing only gives diameters. Thank you for replying

    0
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    HuidongTmakerguy 13

    Reply 22 days ago

    That's easy. the gear size is fixed, so the diameter defines the number of gears.

    0
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    makerguy 13

    6 weeks ago

    My compliments on a wonderful job. I want to pay you a bigger compliment and build one for my grandson..


    thanks

    Greg

    0
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    gibisa

    Question 5 months ago

    Hello sir, may i know where did you buy the copper tubes from ?

    1 more answer
    0
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    gibisa

    Question 6 months ago on Step 2

    hey! this is a really good model but i am confused with the size of the laser cutting objects they are too big and doesn't fit the art board in adobe illustrator. can you specify and dimensions of the project? thank you

    1 more answer
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    HuidongTgibisa

    Answer 6 months ago

    Hi, you need a special software to see the files. The unit of all files are millimeter, for example, the diameter of the biggest gear is 240 mm.

    0
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    manotechnologie

    1 year ago

    Hi from france !
    Very great job, and it's nice to share !
    What's about the moon orbit 5 degres inclination on your final model ?
    I wanted make a similar model, including the moon orbit 5 degres inclination but I don't know how this orbit moves around the earth compared to sun...
    Can you help me ?
    Thanks a lot !

    1 reply
    0
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    HuidongTmanotechnologie

    Reply 1 year ago

    Hi, the orbit of moon of mine was 3D printed, however it was broken when I install it to its axis. My design glued the orbit together with its axis, so the orbit will rotate with sun, but the the inclination will not change during rotating.

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    goodtimes94

    1 year ago

    Hi I was just wondering if you could share the stl files I would love to build my self one or if you want to share the cad files but nerver the less it so beutifull

    2 replies
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    goodtimes94HuidongT

    Reply 1 year ago

    oh my bad im a to fast reader thank you :) looking forward of making my own

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    Maureen and BrianD

    1 year ago

    I love the model! It came out so nicely! You mentioned that the 3D designs 'are available'. Can you point to where I might find them? I would love to make one of these for my kids!

    1 reply
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    laith mohamed

    1 year ago

    Nice and the work with design is good