Simple Arduino Metal Detector

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Metal detection is a great past-time that gets you outdoors, discover new places and maybe find something interesting. Check your local regulations on how to act in case of an eventual find, in particular in case of hazardous objects, archeological relics or objects of significant economic or emotional value.

Instructions for DIY metal detectors are plenty, but this recipe is particular in the sense that it requires very few components in addition to an Arduino microcontroller: a common capacitor, resistor and diode form the core, together with a search coil that consist of circa 20 windings of electrically conducting cable. LED’s, a speaker and/or headphone are then added for signalling the presence of metal near the search coil. An additional advantage is that all can be powered from a single 5V power, for which a common 2000mAh USB power is sufficient and will last many hours.

To interpret the signals and to understand what materials and shapes the detector is sensitive to, it really helps to understand the physics. As a rule of thumb, the detector is sensitive to objects at a distance or depth up to the radius of the coil. It is most sensitive to objects in which a current can flow in the plane of the coil, and the response will correspond to the area of the current loop in that object. Thus a metal disc in the plane of the coil will give a much stronger response than the same metal disc perpendicular to the coil. The weight of the object does not matter much. A thin piece of aluminium foil oriented in the plane of a coil will give a much stronger response than a heavy metal bolt.

Step 1: Working Principle

When electricity starts flowing through a coil, it builds up a magnetic field. According to Faraday’s law of induction, a changing magnetic field will result in an electric field that opposes the change in magnetic field. Thus, a voltage will develop across the coil that opposes the increase in current. This effect is called self-inductance, and the unit of inductance is Henry, where a coil of 1 Henry develops a potential difference of 1V when the current changes by 1 Ampere per second. The inductance of a coil with N windings and a radius R is approximately 5muH x N^2 x R, with R in meters.

The presence of a metallic object near a coil will change its inductance. Depending on the type of metal, the inductance can either increase or decrease. Non-magnetic metals such as copper and aluminium near a coil reduce the inductance, because a changing magnetic field will induce eddy currents in the object that reduce the intensity of the local magnetic field. Ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, near a coil increase its inductance because the induced magnetic fields align with the external magnetic field.

The measurement of the inductance of a coil can thus reveal the presence of metals nearby. With an Arduino, a capacitor, a diode and a resistor it is possible to measure the inductance of a coil: making the coil part of a high-pass LR filter and feeding this with a block-wave, short spikes will be created at every transition. The pulse length of these spikes is proportional to the inductance of the coil. In fact, the characteristic time of an LR filter is tau=L/R. For a coil of 20 windings and a diameter of 10 cm, L ~ 5muH x 20^2 x 0.05 = 100muH. To protect the Arduino from overcurrent, the minimum resistance is 200Ohm. We thus expect pulses with a length of about 0.5 microsecond. These are difficult to measure directly with high precision, given that the clock frequency of the Arduino is 16MHz.

Instead, the rising pulse can be used to charge a capacitor, which can then be read out with the Arduino analog to digital converted (ADC). The expected charge from a 0.5 microsecond pulse of 25mA is 12.5nC, which will give 1.25V on a 10nF capacitor. The voltage drop over the diode will reduce this. If the pulse is repeated a few times, the charge on the capacitor rises to ~2V. This can be read out with the Arduino ADC using analogRead(). The capacitor can then be quickly discharged by changing the readout pin to output and setting it to 0V for a few microseconds.The whole measurement takes about 200 microseconds, 100 for the charging and resetting of the capacitor and 100 for the ADC conversion. The precision can be greatly enhanced by repeating the measurement and averaging the result: taking the average of 256 measurements takes 50ms and improves the precision by a factor 16. The 10-bit ADC achieves the precision of a 14-bit ADC this way.

This measurement obtained is highly nonlinear with the inductance of the coil and therefore not suitable to measure the absolute value of the inductance. However, for metal detection we are only interested in tiny relative changes of the coil inductance due to the presence of nearby metals, and for that this method is perfectly suitable.

The calibration of the measurement can be done automatically in software. If one can assume that most of the time there is no metal near the coil, a deviation from the average is a signal that metal has come close to the coil. Using different colours or different tones allows to discriminate between a sudden increase or a sudden decrease in the inductance.

Step 2: Required Components

Electronic core:

Arduino UNO R3 + prototype shield OR Arduino Nano with 5x7cm prototype board

10nF capacitor

Small signal diode, e.g. 1N4148

220-ohm resistor

For power:

USB power bank with cable

For visual output:

2 LEDs of different colour e.g. blue and green

2 220Ohm resistors to limit the currents

For sound output:

Passive buzzer

Microswitch to disable sound

For earphone output:

Earphone connector

1kOhm resistor

Earphones

To easily connect/disconnect the search coil:

2-pin screw terminal

For the search coil:

~5 meters of thin electric cable

Structure to hold the coil. Must be stiff but does not need to be circular.

For the structure:

1meter stick, e.g wood, plastic or selfie stick.

Step 3: The Search Coil

For the search coil, I wound ~4m of stranded wire around a cardboard cylinder with 9 cm diameter, resulting in about 18 windings. The type of cable is irrelevant, as long as the ohmic resistance is at least ten times smaller than the value of R in the RL filter, so make sure to stay below 20 Ohms. I measured 1 Ohm, so that is safe. Just taking a half-finished 10m roll of hookup wire also works!

Step 4: A Prototype Version

Given the small number of external components, it is perfectly possible to fit the circuitry on the small breadboard of a prototype shield. However, the final result is rather bulky and not very robust. Better is to use an Arduino nano and solder it with the extra components on a 5x7cm prototype board, (see next step)

Only 2 Arduino pins are used for the actual metal detection, one for providing the pulses to the LR filter and one for reading out the voltage on the capacitor. Pulsing can be done from any output pin but the readout must be done with one of the analog pins A0-A5. 3 more pins are used for 2 LEDs and for the sound output.

Here's the recipe:

  1. On the breadboard, connect the 220Ohm resistor, the diode and the 10nF capacitor in series, with the negative terminal of the diode (the black line) towards the capacitor.
  2. Connect A0 to resistor (the end not connected to the diode)
  3. Connect A1 to where the cross-point of the diode and the capacitor
  4. Connect the non-connected terminal of the capacitor to ground
  5. Connect one end of the coil to the resistor-diode cross-point
  6. Connect the other end of the coil to ground
  7. Connect one LED with its positive terminal to pin D12 and its negative terminal through a 220Ohm resistor to ground
  8. Connect the other LED with its positive terminal to pin D11 and its negative terminal through a 220Ohm resistor to ground
  9. Optionally, connect a passive buzzer headphone or speaker between pin 10 and ground. A capacitor or resistor can be added in series to reduce the volume

That's all!

Step 5: A Soldered Version

To take the metal detector outside, it will be necessary to solder it. A common 7x5 cm prototype board comfortable fits an Arduino nano and all the required components. Use the same schematics as in the previous step. I found it useful to add a switch in series with the buzzer to turn off the sound when not needed. A screw terminal allows to try out different coils without having to solder. Everything is powered through the 5V supplied to the (mini- or micro-USB) port of the Arduino Nano.

Step 6: ​The Software

The Arduino sketch used is attached here. Upload and run it. I used Arduino 1.6.12 IDE. It is recommended to run it with debug=true in the beginning, in order to tune the number of pulses per measurement. Best is to have an ADC reading between 200 and 300. Increase or decrease the number of pulses in case your coil gives drastically different readings.

The sketch does some sort of self-calibration. It is sufficient to leave the coil quiet away from metals to make it go quiet. Slow drifts in the inductance will be followed, but sudden large changes will not affect the long-term average.

Step 7: Mounting It on a Stick

Since you wouldn't want to do your treasure hunts crawling over the floor, the three board, coil and battery should be mounted on the end of a stick. A selfie-stick is ideal for this, since it is light, collapsible and adjustable. My 5000mAh powerbank happened to fit on the selfie stick. The board can then be attached with cable ties or elastics and the coil can similarly be to either the battery or the stick.

Step 8: How to Use It

To establish the reference, it is sufficient to leave the coil ~5s away from metals. Then, when the coil gets close to a metal, the green or blue LED will start flashing and beeps will be produced in the buzzer and/or headphones. Blue flashes and low-pitch beeps indicate the presence of non-ferromagnetic metals. Green flashes and high-pitch beeps indicate the presence of ferromagnetic metals. Beware that when the coil is kept for more than 5 seconds near the metal, it will take that reading as a reference, and start beeping when the detector is taken away from the metal. After a few seconds of beeping in the air, it will turn quiet again. The frequency of the flashes and the beeps indicate the strength of the signal. Happy hunting!

2 People Made This Project!

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102 Discussions

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GuillermoL30

3 months ago

well i've been building it and modifying the code for simple detection(i don't care if it's ferrous or nonferrous, so i simplified that part of the code) but unfortunately it's not sensitive at all, i've tried several coild designs with either wire or stardned cable, different turns but other than a big chunk of metal in the middle of the coil it won't detect a thing (i need it to find non-ferrous very small parts in shallow ground). right now i can plop the part inside and touching the coil and the values won't change.
For example, inserting a hollow aluminium tube in a ~15 turn coild of wire varies the AVG value from 269 to 265 (with npulse 6, with 3 it barely passes 150)

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bluedevil97

Question 4 months ago

Hi there, I am trying to build this for a engineering project at school. We are using an Arduino nano as well as all of the right resistors and capacitors and diodes that you listed. Our coil is wrapped around a 9cm ring 14 times and we are using 22AWG wire. In its current state the light flashes rapidly when there is no metal and goes almost solid when there is metal introduced. I feel like there needs to be a tweak in the code but I am not sure where to be looking. Any help would be greatly appreciated

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jebidiahkerman828

Question 8 months ago

Hello, I don't have a 10nF cap anywhere...

If I want to use a 100nF cap, are there any adjustments needed to be made? I Used your code but no leds light up.

My Serial Printout is always 256 0 0 0 0 0 1000000

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Hamelc

9 months ago

I made this and it works pretty good. Reaction to nonferrous metals seems to be the same as ferrous. I was hoping it would be more sensitive to small bolt-like objects (maybe I could use it for when I drop a bolt in the grass) I tried it with a coil I made with like 75 turns and after I bumped the capacitor up to like .05 mfd I, played around with pulse number and got it working. No increase in sensitivity.

1 reply
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rgcoHamelc

Reply 9 months ago

Glad it works and thanks for the feedback!

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rgcoThomasV8

Answer 9 months ago

It's a headphone plug for 3.5mm headphones

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FabianR49

1 year ago

I would like to calibrate only once at the beginning. Any hint on where I have to change the code for that? I would like to use it as an absolute metal detector that, so that it permanently indicates a difference from the calibrated value until the metal is removed.

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rgcoFabianR49

Reply 1 year ago

Sorry for the late reply. No idea if it still matters! You will probably need to rewrite the code, but it should become simpler. The biggest difficulty I had with the code was to have an algorithm to follow small changes but to trigger on big changes!

It may be sufficient to remove the 4 lines that start with 'if(skip>64)' because those trigger a recalibration when there has been a change for a long time. Good luck!

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FabianR49rgco

Reply 1 year ago

Thanks for your answer. I figured it out already. I actually use this code to trigger a calibration on button press.

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HamelcFabianR49

Reply 10 months ago

I like the idea of pressing a button to trigger calibration. any chance you could provide the code.

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DhiaJFabianR49

Reply 1 year ago

Hi, I've made this project and it works perfectly but i want to modify the range of detection so i can detect the metal from 1 metre for example, any idea plz (sorry for my english)

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rgcoDhiaJ

Reply 1 year ago

To detect metal at a distance is MUCH harder than the simple inductance method done here. I think those metal detectors work like radar: send a focussed pulse and look for the reflection. It's a completely different kind of hardware....

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GeirB3

Question 10 months ago

Hi. I'm having some problems with the coil cirquit.. My coil is 22 windings, 1.4Ohm, 11cm diameter, 800 microH according to formula. I'm struggling with the tuning.. Either getting constantly values in the 2-4000 range (far right on the serial readout) or having the value drop gradually (but quickly) from 3-400 down to 20-30, before resetting and cycling again.

4 answers
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GeirB3GeirB3

Answer 10 months ago

Indeed it does, thank you for making me realize where I was looking for the wrong result, but compared to yours, it severely lacks sensitivity. Meaning, I do get the response in the video, but only to large pieces of metal in close proximity.

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rgcoGeirB3

Answer 10 months ago

Your logfile output looks good to me! from that I expect it to work similarly as in the video...

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GeirB3GeirB3

Answer 10 months ago

256 253 259 65018 65018 0 1000000

256 253 254 65007 65018 -11 2955

256 253 254 65006 65018 -12 2709

256 253 254 65011 65018 -7 4644

256 253 254 65009 65018 -9 3612

256 253 254 65012 65017 -5 6501

256 253 254 65005 65017 -12 2709

256 253 254 64997 65017 -20 1625

256 253 254 64996 65017 -21 1548

256 253 254 65000 65016 -16 2031

256 253 254 65001 65016 -15 2167

256 253 254 65003 65016 -13 2500

256 253 254 65003 65016 -13 2500

256 253 254 64996 65016 -20 1625

256 253 254 64997 65015 -18 1805

256 253 254 64990 65015 -25 1300

256 253 254 64987 65015 -28 1160

256 253 254 64991 65014 -23 1413

256 253 254 64991 65014 -23 1413

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rgcoGeirB3

Answer 10 months ago

To understand the problem I need to see all numbers from the debug: The main thing though is that the 2nd and 3rd column have fairly constant numbers in the range 200-300. If not the number of pulses or the capacitor value, or the coil may need to be changed

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Phantom6

Question 10 months ago

Hi, can I ask that why is the non-ferromagnetic led light up, despite within the coil is a nail that are ferromagnetic material

1 answer
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rgcoPhantom6

Answer 10 months ago

Hi, I noticed this as well, here's my hypothesis: any conductor at high frequencies behaves as a diamagnetic due to the eddy currents (like those aluminum disks that get launched when discharging a capacitor on an electromagnet). So for some materials that are only weakly ferromagnetic, it may be that the effect of the eddy currents (lower inductance) may be stronger than the effect of the ferromagnetism (higher inductance).