The 72 Plant Vertical Garden




This instructable will cover the details of the Vertical Garden built for my "Hydroponic, Automated, Networking, Climate Controlled Greenhouse Project". The vertical garden is a space saving way to grow up to 72 small plants (such as lettuce, spinach, strawberries and lots of different herbs) all with the plant health benefits of hydroponics. The Vertical Garden is designed with modularity in mind, to be brought into the greenhouse and installed as a single unit, with only connection to the existing plumbing required before you're ready to grow. The installation of additional Vertical Garden units should be quick and easy.

Other Instructables that cover elements of the "Hydroponic, Automated, Networking, Climate Controlled Greenhouse Project" are listed below with many more to come:

Part 1: Construction of the Greenhouse
Part 2: The 72 Plant Vertical Garden

The greenhouse when completed should be equipped with a large, centralized hydroponics system capable of supporting up to 40 large plants (tomatoes, bell peppers, banana peppers, etc.) and up to 72 small plants (lettuce, spinach, strawberries, etc.) for a total of up to 112 plants. The greenhouse will be equiped with an arduino based climate control system capeable of monitoring the indoor environment through a variety of sensors (temperature, light intensity, humidity, CO2 concentration, etc.) and automaticly adjusting each variable by controlling different devices (exhaust fans, louvre doors, heaters, grow lights, solenoid valves, pumps, etc.). The readings from all the sensors as well as the on/off status of all of the devices should be sent out over the internet and be viewed remotely and in real time from any computer or mobile phone.

As of this moment the greenhouse's skeleton is all that is completed. I didn't get as much done over the summer as I had hoped because of the nasty weather. However, over the winter I am working on constructing most of the hardware to go inside the greenhouse including the climate control system. I hope to be up and running by the time it's warm enough to start growing.

Each major section of this project should be it's own instructable and when it's all finished I'll compile it into a guide. Right now I'll show you the features of the Vertical Garden ready for installation in the spring.

Step 1: The Supporting Frame

Every good project starts with a frame, including the Vertical Garden. The frame is constructed out of 2 by 6 lumber that was ripped down into 1 1/2 by 3/4 inch strips. Every attachment was made first by gluing the joint and then fastening it with 18 gauge 1 1/4 inch brad nails.

Each horizontal piece holds one PVC grow tube, with a small machine bolt passing through the PVC pipe and the horizontal member and then secured with a nut and washer. Each PVC tube is secured with two fasteners. Each fastener is located near a hole for a mesh pot. That way a screwdriver can be easily inserted into the bolt head while the nut on the other side can be tightened with a wrench.

The vertical members are positioned so that they match up with the studs in the corner of the greenhouse. When the Vertical Garden is installed, it will be attached to the studs via these vertical members.

Finally, at the top and bottom of each outer vertical member is a diagonal cross member that keeps the whole structure from flexing while it is free standing. The bottom cross member is also a point of attachment for the supply manifold.

Step 2: The PVC Grow Tubes

The grow tubes are made from 36 inch long pieces of 3 inch PVC sewer pipe. Each tube has 6 holes that are 1 and 7/8 inches in diameter to accomodate a 2 inch mesh pot. The holes are spaced 6 inches on center from each other and spaced 3 inches on center from the ends of the tubes.

On one end of the tube is a plain 3 inch PVC end cap. The end cap is not glued in place but still fits snugly on the end of the pipe and makes a watertight seal. The cap can be removed from time to time so a brush or similar item can be used to scrub out plant debris.

On the other end of the tube is another end cap with holes drilled for the water supply and drain lines. The fitting for the drain line is a CPVC 1/2 inch male threaded adapter. The threaded end of the adapter is inserted into the end cap and secured on the inside first with a rubber O-ring and then with a 1/2 inch PVC lock nut. The supply line connector is a 1/4 inch O.D. tubing bulkhead union also secured to the end cap with a rubber O-ring and lock nut.

Step 3: The Nutrient Supply and Distribution System

The Nutrient Supply and DIstribution system is designed to hook up to the main supply line for the whole greenhouse through a single plumbing connection and distribute fresh nutrient solution to each of the 12 grow tubes. The input for the system is a short vertical piece of 1/2 inch CPVC pipe at the bottom of the Vertical Garden unit. The actual connection to the main greenhouse supply  line will be made with a Watt's 1/2 inch Push-to-Connect union.

The main supply line leads into the main distribution manifold, with a 1/2 inch CPVC ball valve in between to provide flow control to the grow tubes. The main distribution manifold has four outlets, each of which supply 3 grow tubes. The outputs from the manifold are converted from 1/2 inch CPVC to 1/4 inch flexible tubing in the following steps:

1/2 inch CPVC pipe
1/2 inch slip by 1/2 inch female threaded CPVC adapter
1/2 inch male threaded by 1/4 inch female threaded galvanized bushing
1/4 inch male by 1/4 inch push-to-connect tubing fitting
1/4 inch flexible tubing

The 1/4 inch flexible tubing and push-to-connect fittings are extremely quick and easy. All you have to do to make a watertight connection is cut the end of the tubing off square with a utility knife and push it into the blue collet on the fitting. That's it. A ring of teeth inside the fitting hold the tubing in place with a watertight seal. To remove, all you do is press on the blue collet while the line is unpressurized and pull the tubing out. The tubing and fittings are ment for compressed air systems but I've seen them used for water in industrial applications so I think I'll be alright using them here.

Each supply line from the main manifold in turn feeds a smaller manifold for a total of four. The smaller manifolds are actually a type of fitting you can buy for the 1/4 inch flexible tubing. It has one input and four outputs. One of the outputs is capped off with a 1/4 inch push-in plug while the other 3 each feed a grow tube.

Each grow tube is supplied with a single line of flex tubing that is connected via the 1/4 inch push-to-connect bulkhead union installed in the end cap. The push-to-connect union has a watertight connection for tubing both on the inside and outside of the tube. The plan is to take a piece of 1/4 inch tubing about the same length as the grow tube, poke a bunch of pinholes in it all down the length of the tubing, put a cap on one end and plug the other end into the push-to-connect bulkhead union inside the grow tube. The result will work kind of like a soaker hose that will hopefully spray water in every direction and get the plant roots nice and saturated.

Step 4: The Nutrient Drainage System

Each grow tube drains off excess nutrient solution via a network of 1/2 inch CPVC pipes. Inside the grow tube the connection to the drain network is made with a 1/2 inch male threaded adapter that is secured on the inside of the tube with a rubber O-ring and PVC locknut. The drain fitting is positioned about 1/2 inch from the bottom of the grow tube pipe so that some nutrient will remain in the tube without draining down. This is to keep the plants hydrated while the supply pump is not running.

A vertical drain manifold connects the 6 grow tubes of each column together. There are total of two drain manifolds. At the bottom of each manifold is an outlet. The two outlets are connected together via two 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch CPVC bushings and a 3/4 inch CPVC tee. The expansion from 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch at the connection point may or may not be necessary but since that 3/4 inch section of the drain will be handling the load from both manifolds I thought it's better safe than sorry.

FInally, the bottom of the 3/4 inch tee has a small length of 3/4 inch pipe that drops down a few inches. This will be the drain's connection point to the main drain in the greenhouse. From there nutrient solution will drain back into the greenhouse's reservoir. The connection to the greenhouse plumbing will be made with a Watt's 3/4 inch Push-to-Connect union.

Step 5: Final Thoughts

Well that's it for now. I'll be sure to continue this article as soon as the Vertical Garden is installed in the greenhouse and I have it up and running. Right now I see a feature of the frame that would make it easy to attach 4 foot fluorescent light fixtures to it, maybe for use indoors in the winter. I have a large window facing south that I could set the garden up in front of as well. Hmm...

As always, I hope you enjoyed this article and please stay tuned for more updates soon. I welcome any constructive feedback and any questions you may have just leave it in the comments section so everyone can see and benefit from it. Happy New Year!

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    54 Discussions


    Great work, BUT, as someone who has dabbled in hydroponics, I see some problems...
    1. You're going be miserable with 3" pvc. The plant roots will clog it quickly as they form in to a thick mat.
    2. Your plumbing is overcomplicated. There are many places in your system to clog and leak. I would consider simply pumping the nutrient solution in to the top row, and then letting gravity drain it down to the rows underneath as it makes it way back down to the reservoir. Again, use wide pipe to connect the ends of the rows together to avoid clogging. There's really no need to for manifolds, valves, etc. etc. etc. unless you enjoy tearing it all down and cleaning roots out of them every couple weeks.
    3. Are the five gallons buckets your reservoirs? If so, they're not nearly big enough. Also, I would try to reduce them to one single large reservoir to reduce upkeep. I understand that this isn't always possible depending on the variety of plants you intend to grow... but maybe you can narrow it down to a couple of groups... heavy and light feeders or flowering and nonflowering, etc.

    Overall, if I were you, I'd start with a much, much smaller system to begin with. Learn what works and what doesn't, then scale it up to greenhouse size. Be patient with it (just as with any other form of gardening) and you'll be rewarded. :) Enjoy the journey my friend.

    6 replies

    If you have a look around YouTube there's many videos showcasing hydroponic farms that are tens of thousands of square feet in size growing thousands of large plants such as tomatos, peppers, cucumbers and the like. For the most part they use 4" PVC in strings of at least a few dozen to a hundred plants and don't seem to have any trouble with nutrients delivered through manifolds that serve each individual plant or have any trouble with roots clogging their drains. All the same the vertical garden is installed in the greenhouse now and will be up and running shortly...time will tell if it will work. Thanks for your comment.


    Reply 3 years ago

    I know this is a very old post but I concur with michaelnelson, I tried a small hydroponics setup with square fence post material, 2" diameter and while it worked fairly well (the plants grew like crazy after seedling stage) once the plants got to a certain size the roots tended to clog things up. Had I used 4" pvc pipe instead I think it would have been fine. That is the size I plan to use on my next attempt. I think this system might be suited for smaller plants with less dense root systems like certain herbs for example, rosemary, dill, ect.


    I think if you give them a second look, the large pvc systems on YouTube tend to grow exclusively greens and small herbs. I'm not saying your system is useless, absolutely not. I just think you're going to see problems with large plants. You still have a very workable setup for greens, though. Happy gardening, my friend!


    To point 1. I have a 5 week old 4" pvc pipe pipe system up and running. 22 feet of pipe and 22 planting sites. tomatoes peppers and squash

    I have giant veggie plants BUT the pipe is clogged AND I cannot get the plants out of the pipe to transplant them.

    To point 2. Cost is another reason to not have all those little connectors n such. Im looking for some ROI on the garden and I saved about $100 by minimizing.

    To point 3. dont forget to consider to the volume of solution the pipes will hold when planning the reservoirs.

    I fully agree with your comments, having experienced exactly the same problems.
    Since then I switched to "sub irrigation" or SIP systems.
    Good luck, Chefmichel.


    Reply 7 years ago on Introduction

    I totally agree about the roots; they are a pain to get out. I have an NFT system that I made with 4" vinyl fence post and I have the same problem. Actually, I agree with everything you said. :)


    Reply 3 years ago

    There are several problems to grow cannabis with this system:

    • First of all, there is no support system for big plants. You will have to use some sort of support. Tomatoes hooks work.

    • The second is that there are too many plants on a small tube. The root system of cannabis is similar to tomato (but tomato is a perennial plant). Eventually you will limit the size of the plant. I did not understand if the intended project was for NFT, EBB or DWC, but there are other setups for cannabis.

    • Another major problem is light. There are phases for growing and flowering. There is not an effective and easy method of doing light on that setup.

    You can read about growing canabbis with hydroponics in several sites and if are ever in Uruguay, I can show you a Cannabidiol farm

    I do not know if your question was a joke, but hydroponics is a serious and effective growing technic well suited to all plants. Just have to study the plant and use your brain to build something that works best for you plant.

    PS: EcoMotive, your setup looks amazing. Use some arduinos as IoT sensors, you will have a lot of fun with it.



    3 years ago on Introduction

    Love what you've done EcoMotive. I'm in the planning stage of my greenhouse, though I'm in Louisiana and will have significantly different problems with heat/humidity, but the comments and pictures are fantastic to broaden my idea landscape. One question though...I'm struggling with installation cost reduction of the polycarbonate. The components for the ends, h channel, etc...are adding up quickly. looking for a cost effective way to install them. Do you have any pictures to illustrate that view?


    3 years ago

    I really love this project would like to build it but abit confused on all the tubing any chance of contacting me ?


    4 years ago

    I understand you're using CPVC. Are you at all concerned with the possibility of leaching phthalates and other such dangerous chemicals into the water? I know that PVC has been shown to do this, but I'm not sure on CPVC. Thanks for the incredible Instructable!!

    1 reply

    Reply 4 years ago on Introduction

    New components made from food grade PVC, or CPVC (which is what your made in USA plumbing is made from) or any other halogenated polymers and pose zero danger to anyone under standard conditions and substances. In this case water and nutrients it will be no issue, prolonged excessive temperatures or pH up and pH down used in excessive quantities as well as allowing them to pond at the bottom should be a concern. An experienced hyrdroponisist will not allow these extremes to occur, of if they do, exposure would be minimal as you are constantly monitoring your system. If you truly are still concerned substitute medial grade piping in its stead...HDPE, LDPE, PET, PP or similar. however, once you start pricing those options i believe you will understand why EcoMotive chose CPVC yes i sell plastics and yes i am an avid hyrdoponisit and very good question! Good luck and yes excellent instructable thank you!!!


    5 years ago on Introduction

    Mr.Lance penney....
    how could i get this pdf plans...for free

    i want to try this at home..thanks

    1 reply

    Reply 4 years ago

    If you make an awesome instructable and get featured they give you a free 3 month pro membership and boom! PDF downloads!


    4 years ago

    This is brilliant!


    4 years ago on Step 1

    What a great work and so creative, I want to try make it, but please, can you help me to know, what its the size from the horizontal PVC tube length and thickness. I hope you can answer me, It would be so helpful.

    thanks in advance