Update 22/08/2015: Top diffusor now printable in two parts.
Update 20/08/2015: Top diffusor now in a version that can be joined with the top wave disk.
Update 19/08/2015: Top diffusor is finnished, at least for the model itself.
Will get an additional plate or similar for the printable version (if I figure out how to make these shape printable).
If you are a bit older and fascinated about old technologies you might have heard about Victor Schauberger's Repulsine.
Same of course if you are one the many UFO and conspiracy fans ;)
This not an Instructable of the usual kind as it less about actually making something for real but more about re-creating something that no longer exists in a complete form.
I have spent several weeks on the net trying to gather as much infos as possible, watched tons of videos and of course ripped my hair out sorting it all.
So if you are interested keep reading and stay updated on the progress over next few weeks or months.
For those only insterested in the models skip to step 3.
Step 1: Who Was Victor Schauberger?
Victor Schauberger was born in 1885 and Holzschlag, Austria and died there 1958.
A bit of info can be found on the english Wiki page and on the German Wiki page which has much more infos.
As it absolutely no problem to find tons of articles about his life and work I will make it short here (and refer to the WWW ;) ) and only focus on the Repulsine.
Fact and fiction...
The most famous stories in relation to Schaubergers work are not about water or proper ways of treating nature.
If you know the name you most likely know it because of claims one of his Repulsine devices had such a violent lift off that it crashed through the steel roof of the hangar it was placed in.
Some stories go as far as claiming it happened despite massive chains (used to tow tanks) connected to the Repulsine and anchored in the 2m thick concrete floor.
Although these stories are good reading there are no reliable sources for what really happened.
The only thing that is 100% sure is that all the materials and documents related to the Repulsine project were taken by the US forces after WW2.
Official claims of the time were that it was war material.
So, at least for this bit there will never be a "true" story.... :(
However, there is something very interesting for the UFO guys.
Schauberger started to work on the Repulsine quite early as a modified version of his "Home heating generator" (a device claimed to warm an entire house for the cost of a single lightbulb).
His inspiration for the work might have come from another inventor that created a "sucktion motor" for air planes.
Henri Coandă not only was famous for what we know today as the "Coanda Effect" but also for the plane he build.
Instead of using propulsion, like on any other propeller machine, Coanda used an engine that sucked the air in through a vortex and expeled it over a rotating disk back out.
When you check the two designs it is hard to deny certain similarities.
Before and during the WW2 times there have been a lot of UFO sightings in and around Austria.
All mention a weird looking disk, egg or the classic flying saucer.
Images and drawings of these sightings look pretty much identical to the shematics for the repulsine in it's later design stages.
Right after the war ended there have been no more "UFO" sightings in Austria, but the exact same flying things have been sighted in the US, mainly in the Arizona region.
Considering all of the Replusine work was taken to the US the timing of the sighting, or better their disappearance in Austria could make you think that Schaubergers Repulsine actually worked as planned.
Sadly again there is no 100% authentic image or witness report bringing bothe together and the US till today refuses to provide unaltered copies of Schaubergers original documents - all you get is a lot of pages with most of the content blacked out.
Think what you like about this one ;)
Victor Schaubergers grandson traveled to the US to see the last remaining model of a Repulsine during a test run.
Dr. Harold Puhoff of the Institute for advanced studies was impressed with the build quality and performance.
According to him even with modern technology it would hard to build it much better.
During these reserches it became apperent that several parts of the Repulsine are missing.
Some have been recreated from old images but the most vital parts remain lost.
These missing parts are what Victor Schauberger described as "energising devices and directors".
They might have been similar to what was used in his other inventions like the water energiser and purifier or the home heater but nothing is certain.
As I do not have any original images and copyright is always an issue I will not include any here, please check the WWW and you will find plenty of info about the things I talk about here.
Step 2: Is the Repulsine an UFO, a Flying Machine or Something Entirely Different?
Be my guest and make you own educated guess here.
With no evidence available anymore the conspiracy theorists will be happy but everyone interest in the real fact is left out.
I think after reading so much about it I tend to say his original intention was to build the next version of his home heater.
Like a perpetuum mobile the device was planned to run forever without using energy - in fact the motor used to start it was supposed to work as a generator once up to speed.
What you see on images about the Repulsine that is very old shows it as a flying machine in the classic "Roswell UFO" style.
Later images from the remaining parts only show the internals of the Repulsine but not the housing around it that gave it the UFO look.
Comparing those old images with some of his inventions like the heart pump show a very similar design.
My guess is that the outer shell of the Repulsine was similat to that of the heart pump.
Which means the the air coming out the part that we now know as the remaining Repulsine was directed into a vortex that concentrated in the center.
With air being sucked in from the top and the added "vortex energised" air coming partially back in from the bottom the only real outlet was a hole in the bottom center of the outer hull.
Imagine these vortex shapes on the wings of a plane during take off and landing - they curl from the wing tips inwards.
The same happened inside the hull - but the vortex was in three dimensions.
Like the Kudu horn or the famous sprial pipes Schauberger created, the air followed a specific flow and it is claimed that Schauberger perfected this design to the state where there was no friction anymore.
Todays claims about these features of friction free water transport are again inconclusive.
For example one study claims there was neither a gain in flow rate nor a reduction in the power levels the pump used.
Another study however claims that at certain flow speeds a resonance effect happens and that during that resonance the friction (and pump power) was reduced to a barely measurable low.
Problem with that resonance was to keep it resonating as even the slightest variations in temp, flow rate and even outside air pressure affected it.
It does not matter if like weird science, old technology or just nature in general - Victor Schauberger showed us a better way.
Too bad that most of it is long forgotten.
But if you check the Lily- or Harman- Impeller you see how other people make a good profit by re-using Schaubergers old designs.
Time to bring back more of his inventions! :)
Step 3: The Model So Far....
Here I will show the parts of my model once they are finnished and I am satisfied with the result.
Please keep in mind that they are not meant to be accurate in terms of being a replica but that they are meant to be a 3D printable model once all is finnished.
Please keep in mind that it is simply impossible to re-create the original if there are missing parts!
Also consider that the final pieces will be modified to make them printable on a normal 3D printer as I have no access to a fancy resin or powder printer.
The first objects to arrive here are the "wave disks":
Time to create the basic shape: About 6 hours to get it right.
Time to create the cuts for the air: About 3 weeks until satisfied with size, shape, angle and location.
Time to clean the model in Sketchup after cutting out the air vents: 2 weeks!
Reminds me that there are certainly better programs for the job....
(Tried cleaning and fixing with the usual external programs and webservices but either the filesize exploded or the shape was changed in spots required to fit the other parts of the model)
The bottom part was taken from a model on Thingyverse and served as the guide to the scale of other all other parts.
At first I tried to use the top part of that model as well but it was unsuited for the diffusor I have in mind.
The next part to come will be the the top diffusor that has to fit tight into the top disk.
Give me some time to create it ;)
Here is the cutout for the the diffusor.
I still need to desgin and match the outer body that mounts to the wave disks but it will follow ;)
And the finnished diffusor:
Here the one to be joined with the top wave disk:
Next will be the top air intake, which provides a challenge as there is little to zero info on it available.
But from the images I got I assume it must be similar to what was used in the home heater and other projects, so I will try it the same way.
Step 4: Printable Parts
Step 5: Not Forgotten...
I have a job, I have a life I have hobbies and projects...
But I also spent some time pondering about this old and never complete device.
You can find pictures, you can find notes and reports from people who claimed to have seen a replusine working.
Sadly it all ends where US military and science secrets start.
I was able to put together a lot of details that were involved in the original construction.
The more I found the more I realised it comes down to what we now call "Vortex math".
At least in terms of understanding some of the claimed working principles.
Resonance effects are multiplied throughout the system and combined with cavity effects and effects related to those found in molecular vacuum pumps.
To get the whole thing started a powerful and fast motor had to start the rotation.
Superheated steam was then introduced to the upper inlet areas.
The water vapour allowed for a much faster accelleration of the air than the rotation alone.
Loo up Newtons laws os physics if you like but lets just say the tiny water drops have the mass required.
And like air bubbles move water up they move the air around them to the outlets.
On the way through the various stages the steam is cooled down in certain areas so much that is causes massive frost build up on the outside surfaces.
While at the same in other areas it is heated so much that the metal parts started to glow.
The claims are now that a plasma is formed and once the steam is removed the system is self sustaining through air alone.
A lot of claims make sense through findings in modern science, like why the antilope shped inlets were used and why their arragement is like a pine cone or sunflower pattern.
Other things like the fine nozzles used on intake and outlet ares only make sense if realise the connection to other of Schaubergers drawings.
Most of these nozzles are actually tiny venturi systems.
That means they release a medium at high speed while creating a negative pressure differential in a different area.
At the time the high pressure outlet stream also causes the medium to cool down rapidly.
Biggest conundrum was the "wave disks".
Some if not all the drawings are inconclusive to say it nice.
Pictures only show so much...
After a lot of comparisons and checking other things in nature I realised something:
The wave disks are formed like the pattern you see when dropping a small rock into water.
The waves get longer and the amplitude lowers.
I have not been able to establish a formula for this but using LC oscillators shows a match of the amplitutes is possible.
And a well know natural sequence explains the change of distance between the waves.
If you take two harmonic waves like 440Hz and 880Hz and play them the resulting tone sound harmonic too.
Change one frequency just but a few Hz and you hear a pulsating tone.
The same happens in the wave discs with the media passing through.
It is set to swing at two frquencies that are slightly out of tune.
In return the molecules are stretched and compressed also resulting in a puslating and resonant swing.
A similar thing already happened in the inlet areas where the medium is set into a rotation that matches the frequency.
To play with the same numbers as above the rotational speed could be equal to the angular velocity of the medium at 220hz or 1320Hz.
All combined would have caused an amplitute peak and multiplication in the region of 2.45GHz.
This is during the initial start up when steam is used to start the reaction.
Once the steam is removed the replusine will start to speed up the rotation until all water molecules are out of the system.
If not slowed down manually now the air will form pockets of plasma in the resonant nodes along the system.
As plasma has a much higher volume than the air it adds to the pressure build up.
The sudden change from high pressure plasma to supercooled and compressed air releases energy, more energy than what is used.
Most if not all of the excess heat is released into areas where there are either intakes or inlets for the ventury nozzles.
Now hear me out with my homecooked theory:
If all parts work together the way I understand them so far then the excess heat is removed by a set of at least 48 very powerful venturi systems.
As a result the areas where heat would be able to escape would end up in a near vacuum.
And there not much heat at all will be lost...
Balance is the key and resonance is the answer.
The standing waves exiting the wave discs and entering the venturi system are at a high pressure node.
The last shape of the discs act like a circular venturi nozzle.
As a result the outlet streams of the system are at the same temperature as the surrounding air.
A slight change in rotational speed changes the location where the nodes will form and in return the outlet stream can be super cool or super hot.
Depending on the rotational speed the behaviour of the plasma changes.
This results in different magnetic fields to be generated with in the copper structure.
These create massive amounts of electricity that results in a continuous charge of the parts.
In full resonance such a system generates enough lift through the used medium to move a few tons.
Add magnetic and electrostatic fields at a magnitude we struggle to reach in rail guns and you see why a slight variation would cause it literall used the magnetic field of the planet to move along.
Like a magnet in electrical field lines...
The problem with creating a model from all this is that we have lost the knowledge to create such delicate and complex structures from copper or other materials.
Modern powder or resin based 3D printing might be a way out but won't help for creating something from copper.
Math is a problem too.
It is impossible to get accurate enough measurements to create a true model.
Even worse for those missing parts that only exist in written documents with no pictures at all.
With no regard to being complete or accurate a cheap 3D mill could create most parts to make it fit.
But only for looks not in terms of hollow areas, tunnels, pipes or actually doing anything.
Would be like a model of an engine with no moving parts...
A little group of people sharing the interest and at least one of them capable to form metal old school ways could make great progress.
I contacted several people creating beatufil tanks for motor bikes, who created masterful copper art work.
None of those who answered could offer any possible solution how to create just the antilope horns in this spiral pattern....
Personal or paranoid problems...
During my research I had contact with someone of same interest and living close enough to the museum with a "complete" repulsine to make it a day trip.
We were really exited once we had the idea to use a laser scanner.
A request for this was denied by the museem stating it would interrupt the other visitors and their experience of the museum.
The offer to pay for some after hour time to do a 2 hour scan was denied as well.
Funny enough my friend tried to get at least some decent pictures anyway.
And just by coincidence the area with the repulsine is now arranged that you can only take very basic pictures without violating the set boundaries.
A request to get unredacted copies of repulsine related documents from various US sources resulted in repeating myself over and over.
At some stage I informed that no unreducted copies exist.
Another source claimed the related documents are still classified despite being listed in a bunch of documents declassiefied for public use.
All requests to confirm or deny the existance of any complete and working repulsine remained unanser and ignored.
Seeing that quite similar although much more technical solutions are now used for ion and plasma propulsion engines it might explains some of the secrecy.
For me it still does not answer why (if it really exists) a remaining and working prototype is denied international studies.
The thing is by far old enough to say it should not hold any secrets we don't know from other science experiments already.
Like with other things "we know worked" and had the potential to change the world in terms of energy, transport or just possible weapon use all vital knoweledge seems to be lost.
All doors closed and all those trying to figure it out are treated like they try to sell snake oil to cure cancer.
Now, I like math, I like facts that I can put into relations, connect dots and bread crumbs.
But if I would be paranoid then I would have to say that the options to understand and re-create old or even ancient technolgies are supressed.
Patents we know were lodged and granted disappeared, inventions that were shown off to a public and groupr scientists disappeared together with their inventors.
It just makes no sense why some things that could change or could have changed the world as we know it are reduced to bedtime stories of weird people in old books books and now on youtube.
Step 6: Are There Any Future Plans on Finnishing the Project?
Well, to be honest no.
At least not from my side alone.
With a select group of like minded people willing to explore and gether more detailed informations, maybe...
A "database" of found documents, thoughts, found details and relations.
A way to exchange and collaborate.
Someone with an understanding how to create the required structrures from copper and brass and how to solder or braze it all to result in a balanced system.
People with a real love of math and doing a lot of calculations.
People with an understanding of aerodynamics, vortex and venturi systems.
People that now how to handle and control plasma, who understand who, why and where it could be formed.
People with a great understanding of resonance effects, how sound or waves travel through a media that changes density.
People with no family and friends who love to waste their life finding documents on the internet, in libraries or old news archives ;)
Everyone will have some ideas, some clues, some knowledge on how to make a small part work with the rest.
If we then would also have some really good with computer simulations in regards to such a complex system we might have a chance...
But jokes aside:
The knowledge is lost through time or other circumstances.
We only have pieces of the puzzle and all pieces together might form a more complete understanding.
And who knows, given enough time and people we might even be able to get at least enough drawing and pictures together to say we should have all parts we need.
We won't have original parts or tools, so we need to substitute.
That is where the great variety of people or "hobby scientists" comes into place.
Let me try to explain what I mean:
If someone would provide all details for those venturi nozzles and how exactly they were connected then someone with enough brains would be able to create a simulation that shows under which conditions such nozzle would be most effective.
From there we could extrapolate the required air intake volumes and maybe even velocities.
From here computer models and a lot of input from everyone could find ways to match dimensions and parts to work together the best we understand the system.
For some of the most basic parts you could compare it to saxophone.
With no clue how one works try to build one from desriptions and pictures alone.
Once done try to make it sound like the real thing ;)
But if you would have someone with enough detialed images of all angles and all possible "working conditions" you only need someone to know how the thing must sound to make it complete with a lot of time and experiments.
I estimate that with enough people and dedication a close to working model should be possible within 10 years.
With enough funding and proper eqippment and support much quicker.
Which again makes me wonder why noone seened to have tried this...
If you ever bothered to check my funny experiment how to misuse math for all sorts of things you will love the next part...
Step 7: Why I Think Tesla and Einstein Are Involved ;)
A lot of great people never got the credit for their work during their lifetime.
Other only saw a true realisation of their great ideas long after they were dead.
One thing they all have in common is that a lot of their work only made it out of controlled enviroments many years after they were perfected.
Like your common microwave for example.
In other areas we see similar things throughout history.
For example we were totally happy to move from a two stroke engine to a four stroke.
But after that we set back, relaxed and only worried much later on how reduce emissions, boost efficiency and make it more "eco friendly".
A lot of people claimed over the years to have found the perfect combustion engine or even one running on water.
Only since the internet became available to "everyone" the flood of information literally exploded.
Suddenly people who based their designs of opposing pistons or even went as far as including them in a rotary system are celebrated.
The funny thing how many of these new engines are based on principles we laughed about only a few years back.
It is almost like someone removed the lid from pandoras box and allowed some if it to escape so we all can benefit from it much later.
Quantum computers are used by Google and high end research and military installations, well by Apple too...
What was theory a few years back is now reality with most of us not even aware of it.
Here is were I start my bedtime story for those in demand of fun, all others please skip it ;)
If you see just the so called compter revolutions we can see that old predictions were outgrown years ago.
Also that certain high end ideas never made it into the computer consumer market.
But the same is true for other sectors of science and technology.
We can create stronger and more durable alloys then ever.
Understand how to use special molecular glues instead of screws and rivets, even widely use carbon fibre materials.
Even our TV evolved like a weed from a small BW box to laser projectors or for those with less money wall sized smart TV's.
We humans really like to use pyramids to show certain relations.
Like how many super rich people there are compared to poor and the middle class.
Also to show company structures from the top the lowest worker.
If someone would not attempt use existing predictions that we already surpassed and combines it with more accurate predictions based on the exponential "overshoot" so far....
We would end with some, for most, totally meaningless numbers.
I mean, who would really care when we abandone comustion engines for electrical one or when your laptop will be able to create a virtual reality with input from your brain?
But with all this date we could try to predict when we would reach the peak of technological "evolution" until we need a higher understanding or totally unknow materials.
Depending on what sources or predictions you trust or if you even dare to do your own we end with a timeframe of 10 to 15 years.
By then we will have either developed enough new technology to create even more insane things like carbon nano particles or have found ways to utilise natural sources we ignored so far.
Like minerals, rare metals....
See what we have now like how we got from a BW TV to our modern smart TV's.
You might be able to comprehend how long it took to get there but try to imagine the "TV" of 2030...
The repulsine might re-appear faster than some might think....
What really strikes me about some of these predicted time frames is how they related to space travel and such.
If we find the bread crumbs of the long halted moon program and check the current predictions for the new attempt to finally get up there again we find a striking match.
Same for what the few private comapnie have in visions for our future.
After enough checks the region around 2030 becomes a target zone.
Technology will then be developed like new variations of cookies.
We might even finally reveal the missing laws of physics.
And if you really like good fictional stories you might wonder why Nasa would not make one?
Remember all these end of days asteriod movies?
We already love to get our telescopes out to see a comet pass through the solar system.
So what if there would be one coming really close to us, within the lifespan of most us?
Of course there is time and it is suffient to let everyone know once they can see it on their normal hobby telescopes....
Well, the thing is you would not really need one....
2029 and again 2036 a comet with the meaningful name Apophis will come to visit us.
At a distance in 2036 that is much less than the distance between earth and moon....
What makes it so funny is the date: 13/04 both years.
13 04 2036= 1+3+4+2+3+6= 18 1+8=9
3 x 6= 18 ...
2 x 9= 18 ...
13 04 2029= 1+3+4+2+2+9= 21 2+1= 3 ...
Playing with numbers is fun but a very similar result comes out if we use the ancient maya calendar and the relation to math the used.
Same for a lot of other old cultures that based their calandar on the movements of the moon or planets, like the islam.
You see why would really like to have working repulsine for a crew of 9 by 2028 and a bigger for and additional amount of 72 passengers and cargo by 2035 ;)