Way back in 1983 I bought the Ashai Pentax SLR Camera with a 50 mm normal lens. For taking macro photographs with this camera, I need a costlier macro lens, costing more than 500 dollars, in place of the normal one.
Wait a minute... while shopping around I found this little toy costing about 10 dollars.... extension tubes
An easy and cheapest way to convert your normal lens to take macro photography.
Step 1: How It Works
How it works (Image credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ExTubeMacro.png)
Most SLR cameras come with normal lenses which are capable of focusing down to about 12 inches from the subject. Photographs of the subjects closer than this will not be clear and blurred with the normal lens. By inserting a light-tight tunnel, known as extension tubes, between the lens and the camera body, the lens is extended farther thus reducing the focal length. Now it is possible to go closer to the subject, even up to a distance of one inch, and take macro photographs.
Step 2: Extension Tube Parts
The extension tubes are made in sets of three or four screw fittings, which can be used individually or in combination. My camera body has a bayonet mount, so I need a reverse adapter to be fitted between the camera body and the extension tubes and another adapter between the extension tubes and the lens.
Here in the first picture, you can see both the adapters with the extension tubes. in the subsequent pictures, you can see the bayonet mount of the camera body, the adapters being fitted to the camera body and to the lens.
Step 3: The Complete Assembly
For a non-professional photographer like me this cheapest alternative is good enough instead of spending so much of money on a macro lens.