Instructables

Color Organ Triple Deluxe II

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Picture of Color Organ Triple Deluxe II
Making Refinements to th e Old Project

I put together the Color Organ Triple Deluxe over a year ago. It was a bare minimum version of color organ circuit using LEDs instead of incandescent lamps that traditional color organs use.

The circuit worked pretty well, considering the simplicity of the circuit. However I just kept feeling like this project deserves further refinements. So I went back to the drawing board (or breadboard) and took a hard look at the circuit...

The result? Please take a look at the video.

 
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Step 1: The Problems & The Solutions

Picture of The Problems & The Solutions
The Problems

There were a few problems. The transistors in the circuit was biased in the way that it was supply voltage dependent, as well as device dependent - in other words, if the voltage was too high or too low, or the transistors had a bit of different characteristics, the circuit did not perform well.
The filter performance was also a bit poor - the separation between the frequency bands were not so great.

The Solutions

First, I changed the initial gain stage from single transistor design to two transistor design. It's a basic class-A common emitter amplifier followed by an emitter follower. They are direct coupled for optimum performance, as well as reduced part count (always important for me to design circuits with the least number of parts). Adding the emitter follower stage allowed the low output impedance needed for the filters to perform well. The biasing circuit was also revised to be less device and voltage dependent.

Second, the filters were refined to have better separations. Input and output impedance to the filters are better matched to achieve better efficiency as well.

Third, the LED driver circuits were given another transistor. Actually, in the original design, the output buffer and the LED driver was done by the same transistors. Now the filter outputs are buffered by emitter followers, then the filtered audio waves are rectified before going into the LED drivers.

Those changes made a huge difference. And I tweaked the component values obsessively to get the best performance. Sensitivity adjustment control is also added.

There are many additional parts compared to the earlier version, but the result is totally worth it. The LEDs now respond to music very, very nicely.

Step 2: Circuit

Picture of Circuit
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Here are the circuit schematics, BOM, as well as the PCB layout. The filter response graph is also shown. Keep in mind that the graph is more of a perceptual one than actual.

The circuit is loosely based on the many vintage circuits before it, with a few improvements.

The input buffer/gain stage is designed to have low output impedance. This is important for the filter stages that follow. This stage is also designed to give high gain and maximum output signal level, since the filters are of passive type so will lose some signal.
(This amplifier stage took me the most time to design. I tried out many topologies and parameters. I think I found the best balance between simplicity, stability and performance. Unlike using op-amp, designing amplifier with transistors is an art of compromise.)

The use of emitter follower as rectifier is my original idea. (Q3, 5 and 7) Combined with the bias point set (by R8 and 9 and so on) right below the point the LED driver turns on makes this color organ very sensitive to the lower volume of audio input, while eliminating the diodes typically used here.


BOM
  • 3x 47 ohm - R4,17,20
  • 6x 150 ohm - R10,15,16,16b,21,21b
  • 2x 270 ohm - R11,11b
  • 1x 470 ohm - R6
  • 2x 1k ohm - R1,2
  • 2x 4.7k ohm - R7,12
  • 4x 10k ohm - R3,9,14,19
  • 3x 270k ohm - R8,13,18
  • 1x 1.2M ohm - R5
  • 1x 10k ohm potentiometer - VR1
  • 1x 4.7nF (0.0047uF) - C9
  • 2x 22nF (0.022uF) - C6,7
  • 1x 0.22uF EC - C3
  • 1x 1uF EC - C4
  • 3x 4.7uF EC - C5,8,10
  • 1x 10 uF EC 16V or higher - C2
  • 1x 47uF EC 16V or higher - C1
  • 8x MPS2222A or Equivalent - Q1-8
  • 6x Red LED (super bright type recommended) - D1-6
  • 6x Green LED (super bright type recommended) - D7-12
  • 6x Blue LED (super bright type recommended) - D13-18
  • 1x 3.5mm Stereo Jack - CN1
  • 1x DC Power Jack

All resistors are 1/8W (or higher) carbon film type, 5% precision. Small capacitors are film type, and 0.22uF and above are electrolytic type having voltage rating of 16V or higher.

Parts Substitutions

This type of analog circuits tend to be picky about the part values, so it's best not to change out resistor values, etc. unless you know what you are doing.

Resister and capacitor types are not very critical, so just use any type you might have. Using ceramic capacitors instead of film for example, is fine.

I used MPS2222A transistor, which can be substituted by number of general purpose transistors of similar specs. The ones I tested are 2N4400, 2N4401, and 2N3904.

Q1 is more critical than other transistors in this circuit. The biasing is adjusted for transistors having the hfe around 200. If you use different transistor, you might want to check the voltage at Q1 collector - the voltage here should be between 4.5 to 6V when 12V supply is applied. Adjust R5 or try different transistors for Q1 if it's too high or low.

PCB Layout
PCB layout is provided as PDF for home brew PCB makers. It's a single layer design, so it should be easy to make your own.

Kits and PCBs
Kits and PCBs of this project are available at my website.

Step 3: Assembly

Picture of Assembly
TPP_7994.jpg
There are 8 transistors, and many resistors, capacitors and LEDs, but the assembly is very straightforward as they are all familier through hole parts (and no ICs). In a way, Color Organ Triple Deluxe II is built like circuits from the 70's. If you are like me, you will appreciate the modern vintage feel of all discrete part design.

I recommend soldering the lower profile parts, first, then move on to taller and taller parts. I arranged the BOM in the order of soldering below:

Soldering Order
  • Resistors (bend the leads) (reference on color code)
    • 3x 47 ohm (yellow, violet, black, gold) - R4,17,20
    • 6x 150 ohm (brown, green, brown, gold) - R10,15,16,16b,21,21b
    • 2x 270 ohm (red, violet, brown, gold) - R11,11b
    • 1x 470 ohm (yellow, violet, brown, gold) - R6
    • 2x 1k ohm (brown, black, red, gold) -  R1,2
    • 2x 4.7k ohm (yellow, violet, red, gold) - R7,12
    • 4x 10k ohm (brown, black, orange, gold) - R3,9,14,19
    • 3x 270k ohm (red, violet, yellow, gold) - R8,13,18
    • 1x 1.2M ohm (brown, red, green, gold) - R5
  • 1x 3.5mm Stereo Jack - CN1
  • Capacitors (watch the polarity for electrolytic capacitors - long leads go into the holes with "+" sign on the PCB)
    • 1x 4.7nF (0.0047uF) Film Capacitor - C9
    • 2x 22nF (0.022uF) Film Capacitor - C6,7
    • 1x 0.22uF Electrolytic Capacitor* - C3
    • 1x 1uF Electrolytic Capacitor* - C4
    • 3x 4.7uF Electrolytic Capacitor* - C5,8,10
    • 1x 10 uF Electrolytic Capacitor* - C2
    • 1x 47uF Electrolytic Capacitor* - C1
  • Transistors (polarity - make sure to orient them to the shape printed on the PCB)
    • 8x MPS2222A or Equivalent - Q1-8
  • LEDs (polarity - make sure to orient them to the shape printed on the PCB)
    • 6x Red LED - D1-6
    • 6x Green LED - D7-12
    • 6x Blue LED - D13-18
  • 1x DC Power Jack
  • 1x 10k (50k) ohm potentiometer - VR1

Notes on Solder Resin/Flux
Some solder resin/flux is electrically conductive. (resin or flux is inside solder wire to help solder to adhere to the joints) Some parts of Color Organ Triple Deluxe II are very sensitive to even a tiny amount of electrical leakage caused by soldering resin/flux. If the LEDs on Color Organ Triple Deluxe II stays lit without any sound signal coming in, you need to clean the PCB to remove the resin/flux.
"No Clean" type flux cause no problems (as the name implies), but more typical resin type flux can cause good amount of leakage, and cleaning might be required.
You can use an acid brush or an old toothbrush immersed in rubbing alcohol to scrub the back of the PCB. Rince out the brush, wet with alcohol again and scrub another round or to until all the resin residue is gone. Make sure to dry the PCB completely before connecting to the power supply.

Step 4: Use

Picture of Use
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Color Organ Triple Deluxe II is designed to run by 12V DC power supply. The circuit works pretty ok with 9V power, though. However 9V battery is not recommended as a power source because of the relatively high current draw (about 25mA at idol).

It's best to connect to a regulated 12V DC power supply. Be careful if you want to use a typical wall wart - they can output much higher voltage than they are rated - sometimes as high as 18V from a 12V one. Color Organ Triple Deluxe II can operate safely from up to about 15V power. (If you want to use non-regulated AC adaptor, try a 9V rated one - they typically produce around 13V).

Audio source can be any "line level" output from audio equipment, or headphone output from computer sound cards and iPod/MP3 players. If you want to listen to the music while using Color Organ Triple Deluxe II, you might need a splitter cable.

Connect Color Organ Triple Deluxe II to your audio source of choice, and give it a play. I found music with good amount of beats to give best results. Adjust the potentiometer (sensitivity level) according to the sound level.

The LEDs react to the sound volume in a pretty linear manner that it feels like the Color Organ is translating sound into light.

The light out of the LEDs are blinding bright. You can use Color Organ Triple Deluxe II as a wall wash - project the light towards walls or ceiling and dim the lights in the room.

You will discover a new joy of listing to music.
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i need help with the circuit schematic i don't understand the part about 12 v power to

nckeyman1 month ago

I wish you had a stereo kit. :/ So I just ordered two kits. To make each Kit a single channel (Left or Right) should I use (let's say) Audio 1 on one kit for left and not bother putting in R2 or should I instead hook up left output from my device to both Audio 1 and Audio 2? I am also intending on have the LEDs off the PCB and mounted differently. If I used a small gauge solid copper wire for a few inches, do you think the resistors (i.e. R11 & R11b etc.) will need to be reduced?

ledartist (author)  nckeyman1 month ago

I know stereo version would be cool, but I thought you can always use two. I use a splitter cable (found at Radioshack) to divide L/R channels. This cable has stereo jack on one end, and two mono plus on the other end. Mono plugs are connected L and R each. I can't find the model # though...

As for resistors for the LED, I don't think you need to change the value because even thin wires would only have an ohm or less of resistance at most (unless you run a very long distance, which I won't recommend because of inductance effect).

Aki

diabloboy3 months ago

is it possible to add more LED's rather than having just 18?

acep63 months ago

I tried this project on a breadboard and it works perfectly. Thanks for sharing this idea sir. :)

But I would like to change the output into a single color LED Strip (12V – 3A). What would I change or add into the circuit? Thanks.

baileygrib7 months ago
Hey there I just put this together and I cant manage to get a splitter AUX cable to work with anything to play the music while using the lights... I even tried to connect to a bluetooth speaker and use AUX at the same time and that didn't work... HELP!
Aremon9 months ago
Hello :)

May I have a question? What kind of transistors should I use to work it with, for example lamps/bigger leds (more powerfull)?
ledartist (author)  Aremon9 months ago
You can try experimenting with larger transistors such as TIP31, but you might have to modify the circuit somewhat. So it might not be that simple.

Aki
ezramadden9 months ago
Hi Ledartist
Thanks for posting your circuit. I have built this circuit, but the leds stay on with no audio input.
I have checked and rechecked my layout and all is as it should be. I have also cleaned the veroboard of flux.
I used KSP2222A transistors and added in a 4th channel, an additional midrange channel.
I used 4 Red leds on the low channel, 4 Green leds on the midrange 1 channel, 6 Blue leds on the midrange 2 channel, and 8 White leds on the high channel.
Also, I had no line level input, so I inserted a line level attenuator (a 10K and 1K voltage divider).
What can be the problem?
ledartist (author)  ezramadden9 months ago
Sorry, but it's impossible to tell what's wrong with your circuit.
I can be the circuit itself, error in assembly (most likely), or bad parts (like dead transistor).
I'd triple check the polarity of transistors, component values, and solder joints.
Providing schematics and photos of your board always helps.
country_too10 months ago
Hi. I placed this kit on top of a MonoBox powered speaker as described in Make:Projects and am very pleased with the results. Please take a look at my short video.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OboROUJ39DM
Great Kit.
ledartist (author)  country_too10 months ago
Wow that looks nice!
Thanks for sharing!
ezramadden10 months ago
Hi Ledartist
This seems like brilliant design and it works well on the video.
I would like to have 2 midrange sections by having a "lower" midrange and an "upper" midrange.
Could you please tell me the values of R and C for these 2 sections?
Thank you
Max
country_too10 months ago
Well, through trial and error I figured it out. The 12v connections are labeled on the PCB, no problem. To connect the source, The signal is connected to both holes on the side of the jack drawing on the PCB, while the gnd is connected to the hole in the center of the drawing. This seems to be working fine.
ledartist (author)  country_too10 months ago
I think you got it right. Sorry I could not answer earlier.

Aki
country_too10 months ago
Hello. I just finished this kit and it works perfectly. Great separation and brilliance. If I wanted to hard-wire the DC power and the signal source, which holes on the PCB would I use? I'm a good kit builder but I lack in electronic experience. I want to hard-wire this color organ to a mono powered speaker box I'm building for my grandson. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks again for this wonderful kit.
really nice
camyoyo10 months ago
Hi I've been wanting to buy this kit for a long time now and finally did and it got here yesterday so i soldered it all up making sure to test each led and check the resistors twice and finally after a hour it was done but when i plugged the 12v wall wart[after i made sure it was 12 volts] just the green leds were on and the blue were on but extremely dim. any help would be greatly appreciated and i hope we can get this thing working p.s. i love all of your work
ledartist (author)  camyoyo10 months ago
What happens when you connect audio source - Does it react to audio in any way?

If LEDs are not reacting, the problem could be so many things... I'd check soldering for bridges/shorts, and polarity of all transistors. 

Aki

camyoyo ledartist10 months ago
it only changes the green leds very little not a extremely noticeable amount though and the transistors are facing the right way according to the board and there are no solder joints connected thank you though
chuco6111 months ago
Im working on an art project to create a wearable visor with an LED array lighting to the sound of music.

I have purchased this kit to control the LED's
http://www.makershed.com/Color_Organ_Tr ... /mkla3.htm

What i want to do is ad more LED's to each channel. At least 15 per column. Im new to resistors and LED wiring and need help figuring out if i need a resistor for each LED (im thinking no) or one large resistor to support the 15 LED's.

Will I need to change anything else in this kit to support what i want to do?

Thanks! :D
nicknawa11 months ago
Hey so im building this circuit and i have the first part working well i believe, but i seem to be unable to get the audio signals through the first resistors of any of the actual filters. also the blue LEDs light up as soon as i hook it up to the 12V power supply and dont seem to be dependent on the circuit at all. ive tripple checked all the connections and positions of the actual parts, it just seems like the first resistors (R7,R12,R17) are just keeping anything from passing through them. i did substitute the transistors for 2N3904's. Any ideas on why this would be happening? or how i could possibly amplify the signal before this point?
blite1 year ago
I want to add some more super bright leds like (led strips), what is the right way to do so ?
IgnoreZ1 year ago
Almost done) What voltage LEDs are?
Ploopy IgnoreZ1 year ago
3 volts
The kit on your website comes with the PCB correct? I dont know how to read schematics and if it comes with it, building this would be a lot easier.
ledartist (author)  youtheotube21 year ago
Yes it does. The kit contains all parts in the picture below.
TPP_7979.jpg
imeegan1 year ago
Hi, I built this project and it works great with a line-level input, super simple and easy, well designed. I added this microphone breakout board
https://www.sparkfun.com/products/9964
and it works, but the sensitivity isn't great - high channel only works when the mic is very close to a speaker, or the volume very loud.

Is there a modification I can make to this circuit that will increase the signal gain to the filters, such that all three channels might respond at practical sound intensities? Thanks for any suggestions
hey man! sup!? i want to do the same thing that you are on, but i have a question, from scratch, did you have to make a preamp circuit for the electret mic or what? I'm doing this for my final project, but i'm more familiarized with mics than with the jack audio connector. any help? thanks anyway
The electret mic in the link I posted has a preamp circuit on the board, so I didn't need to make one myself. All i did was build the circuit from this instructable, added a voltage regulator to get the right voltage for the mic board, and substituted the audio aux input for the electret mic input.

I think R1 and R2 are then unnecessary because I only have the one channel of audio. Hope it works out, but like I said, you need quite a strong source for the mic using the setup I've used, which can be impractical, but does work nicely.
sr. darcia1 year ago
hey man! sup!? i want to do the same thing that you are on, but i have a question, from scratch, did you have to make a preamp circuit for the electret mic or what? I'm doing this for my final project, but i'm more familiarized with mics than with the jack audio connector. any help? thanks anyway
Ploopy1 year ago
Cool project
siddhanth1 year ago
Hi Mate,

I plan to use this circuit for driving 1w Leds. what is the best approach? swap the output transistors to a higher current ones? or take the outputs and make them switch a transistor which has this as base reference, +LED voltage @ collector and led connected @ emitter?

I have one more doubt.. can i connect a microphone @ the place of input 1 and 2? is the gain enough to make the circuit work( filter the frequency and switch the transistors?)

Sorry for my bad english i'm not a native english speaker!
ledartist (author)  siddhanth1 year ago
Hello!

1W LED @ 350mA current might not be too difficult to drive. The current is within the limit of MPS2222A, but the heat dissipation would be too much. Therefore you do need to use physically larger transistor capable of dissipating maybe 3W or so.
I'd use 2 or 3 LED in serial for each band, and insert current limiting resistor to get 350mA at 12V.
As for microphone - you do need a preamp to get the signal to "line level". A simple one transistor circuit will do. Such as this one: https://www.sparkfun.com/products/8872
InstTrash1 year ago
Excellent work!
One question, if I want to feed the 3 bands output to an Arduino so that it control the leds, can I remove Q4, Q6 and Q8 and connect those pins directly to Arduino? Or do I need those transistors anyway?
Thanks!
ledartist (author)  InstTrash1 year ago
You can take the voltages from Q3, 5, and 7 emitters. Remove R10, 15, and 20, Q4, 6, 8. Then connect a resistor (maybe 1k to 10k ohm) in pararel with C5, 8, and 10.
You will have to adjust the values of C5, 8, 10 as well.
Finally, the voltage range you will get is most likely somewhere between 0 - 3V, I think.
Let me know how it goes.
argohunt171 year ago
Hi
Thats a really nice project you have here.
I am atempting to make one of my own using youre schematic but have run into a little problem.First I made the project on a breadboard and it worked but then when ei made it into a pcb i have made a mistake an i cant figure out what it is. The led burn all the time i have added a picture of the schematic i made in eagle.maybe somebody smarter can point out my mistake.
Thanks in advance.
color organ.jpg
ledartist (author)  argohunt171 year ago
Besides R5 being wrong value, I can't see any errors.
Is it possible that the problem is in the PCB routing?

Aki

argohunt17, would you share that eagle schematic?
Thanks!
zkyx071 year ago
i'm confused w/ the wiring of stereo jack.. please tell me where to connect specifically pins 1,2, and 3 :)
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