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AlphaOmega1

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  • 3D Printed Orthotic Shoes for a Tiny Dog

    That's great! It's nice to return freedom and dignity. I assumed that the "hanging" mould was to be used to support the pads in the "correct" position.Old dogs are so tolerant/resigned. Our 17 yo Jack Russel was quite happy to be carried in a doggy back-pack toward the end, I carried the little bugger miles! He seemed to enjoy the vantage point and short ambles in new places.

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on ThysStrydomOd's forum topic please help?

    First of all, get AntiVirus software installed. 0.oi'd probably tackle it like this... Disconnect EVERYTHING. Assume nothing! Check the PSU. Run "blink" on the Ardino to prove it works. (worth testing all the ports. Then write a simple stepper motor driver, you only need one channel! Test both motors (i assume no bed height adjustment). Test both motor drivers. SAFETY FIRST Test your laser. Reinstall GBRL. Get a simple user interface and ensure that you can joggle the head using g-codes- does everything move in the correct direction? Download a simple test (draw a square etc.). Upload a simple test of your own.Take baby steps. test ONE thing at the time. You will learn a great deal besides finding the fault.i wish you the very best of luck!

    PS, just looking at your imageyou should probably have heat-sinks on your drivers (we use forced-air cooling too, even on our low-end kit). and it is vital that you tune them correctly. To do this you will need the motor specifications.

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  • it's called weeding. Use the sharp tip of an Exacto knife etc. to lift the material. Obliviously it needs care and a steady hand so that the material being masked is not damaged.

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on oxerdam's instructable Felting a Hippopotamus
    Felting a Hippopotamus

    Just like to say..... WOW!

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  • How to Control a Servo Using GRBL

    ESP32 Is a great work horse! Check out offerings from lilygo. Fascinated to know how the motors worked out as i failed in the past to do this. Steppers are so much cheaper now, and if you buy enough, you can even set the specification for just a few 100 units.The point of course of a stepper is that they hold the armature at all times within the magnetic flux of the field windings, and that they can be moved in discrete steps; depending upon the controller, easily as little as 360/200/32 degrees or 0.056 deg degrees, and stay put! To achieve this with a conventional motor, one would need a substantial gear reduction as well as feed back. Basically a servo with 360 degree rotation. A worm drive helps with torque, allowing the motor to be switched off, otherwise they tend to hunt as the m...

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    ESP32 Is a great work horse! Check out offerings from lilygo. Fascinated to know how the motors worked out as i failed in the past to do this. Steppers are so much cheaper now, and if you buy enough, you can even set the specification for just a few 100 units.The point of course of a stepper is that they hold the armature at all times within the magnetic flux of the field windings, and that they can be moved in discrete steps; depending upon the controller, easily as little as 360/200/32 degrees or 0.056 deg degrees, and stay put! To achieve this with a conventional motor, one would need a substantial gear reduction as well as feed back. Basically a servo with 360 degree rotation. A worm drive helps with torque, allowing the motor to be switched off, otherwise they tend to hunt as the motor falls between stable feedback positions.

    Very nice project. Good detail :)May I point out an error? It doesn't detract from the project, but servos do not use Pulse Width Modulation [PWM], Yes, I know, it's all over the web - but it's wrong!This is why you use a Servo library and not a PWM library to drive a servo.PWM operates in a fixed time frame with the ON (or OFF) being a percentage of that (fixed) frame length.A servo signal has an ON period that is proportional to the position of the servo, followed by a fixed period of OFF, thus the time frame changes as the the required position changes.The ON pulse is usually in the range 900 and 2100 microseconds [uS], with FSD occurring at about 1000 & 2000 uS respectively and so of course the centre or null is around 1500 uS. The off period is usually about 10 uS. Thus the tim...

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    Very nice project. Good detail :)May I point out an error? It doesn't detract from the project, but servos do not use Pulse Width Modulation [PWM], Yes, I know, it's all over the web - but it's wrong!This is why you use a Servo library and not a PWM library to drive a servo.PWM operates in a fixed time frame with the ON (or OFF) being a percentage of that (fixed) frame length.A servo signal has an ON period that is proportional to the position of the servo, followed by a fixed period of OFF, thus the time frame changes as the the required position changes.The ON pulse is usually in the range 900 and 2100 microseconds [uS], with FSD occurring at about 1000 & 2000 uS respectively and so of course the centre or null is around 1500 uS. The off period is usually about 10 uS. Thus the time frame varies from about 910 to 2110 uS across the range of movement.It is also evident that this is somewhat slower than the slow Arduino PWM (depending upon processor and pre-scalers used) of about 347 Hz which has a period of about 2940 uS - way too fast, and I understand, possibly damaging (although I have never tried).I hope this is useful?

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  • Spring Making / Wire Bending Machine

    There are many, many measuring systems that have been In existence far longer than the Inch, that does not make them more or less appropriate for general usage based upon age. Tying the Inch to an accurate standard legitimises It, and of course means that any serious science can be represented in archaic formats, such as Miles (US or Imperial), Fahrenheit, leagues, fathoms, grains, gallons, pounds, ad Infinitum.You shouldn't intentionally take everything as a personal insult (only a troll would take that stance), being corrected, or shown other truths would be considered a blessing by some, I certainly do. I'm glad to see that you've been reading up on the matter though, good man!Not a strong subject for me, but could one actually mistake a liberal for a communist, or are these just Ame...

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    There are many, many measuring systems that have been In existence far longer than the Inch, that does not make them more or less appropriate for general usage based upon age. Tying the Inch to an accurate standard legitimises It, and of course means that any serious science can be represented in archaic formats, such as Miles (US or Imperial), Fahrenheit, leagues, fathoms, grains, gallons, pounds, ad Infinitum.You shouldn't intentionally take everything as a personal insult (only a troll would take that stance), being corrected, or shown other truths would be considered a blessing by some, I certainly do. I'm glad to see that you've been reading up on the matter though, good man!Not a strong subject for me, but could one actually mistake a liberal for a communist, or are these just American Insults?And, since you mention It, counting on fingers is a fascinating subject!And yes, I must hang my head in shame admit that i do count on my fingers, often to 1023.... I did say that power's of two were cool.

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  • Spring Making / Wire Bending Machine

    Your argument is self-destructive, since the foot and the pound are defined against the Metre and Kilogram. Weird but true!if you think about it, dividing a 'known' long length e.g. from the pole to the equator, by 10 million is a smart idea, assuming that you don't have our knowledge.The French guy (Jean Picard - nothing to do with the Enterprise) did not arbitrarily chose the length of a handy baguette, he was attempting to use scientific method, by using time to define the length. The crux of the Metric system is that all units are absolutely defined and the definitions are inter-connected - making maths (note the s) simple. in this case, the Second defined the Metre and the Metre the Second! if you have one, you have both!The length is now rounded to a number of wavelengths of ligh...

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    Your argument is self-destructive, since the foot and the pound are defined against the Metre and Kilogram. Weird but true!if you think about it, dividing a 'known' long length e.g. from the pole to the equator, by 10 million is a smart idea, assuming that you don't have our knowledge.The French guy (Jean Picard - nothing to do with the Enterprise) did not arbitrarily chose the length of a handy baguette, he was attempting to use scientific method, by using time to define the length. The crux of the Metric system is that all units are absolutely defined and the definitions are inter-connected - making maths (note the s) simple. in this case, the Second defined the Metre and the Metre the Second! if you have one, you have both!The length is now rounded to a number of wavelengths of light in a vacuum. (Personally I'd change the length to be a less arbitrary number of wavelengths, i.e., round to a "sensible" number, and change the length of the Metre. But what do i know?)BTW, an acquaintance of mine has recently been honoured for his work on the definition of the Kg. The last of the units to be absolutely defined relative to the other units.Using Metric units means that wherever i am in the world, 50 litres of fuel is the same, whereas in the States, I'm going to think that I've been short-changed if i order in gallons, since a US gal is smaller than a UK gal. And of course, both are pretty arbitrary! ignoring the expansion of the fluid of course, which as you know will have a temperature measured in K (or possibly degrees C which sits on the same scale). Quite why Fahrenheit didn't make the boiling point of water 180 degrees F is odd.There are many merits associated with working with metric units, but as i started by saying, imperial units have their place too. Bases 60 and 12 are so much cooler than base 10, but then bases 16 and 2 are cool too! Let's not choose based on prejudice, but upon need and understanding. Nobody is forcing anyone to choose, There are 100's of unit converters on-line. if you want, create your own "CPUDOCTHE1" units, as long as others can repeat them if you are going to share information - and that is entirely the point of standard units, sharing of knowledge and information.The American 'cup cake' recipe was an ingenious way of getting around the problem of being able to weigh out ingredients. By using relative volumes of say a cup, the actual weights (or units of mass) no longer mattered, want a bigger mix? Use a bigger cup! The ratios stay the same, But cakes made in different houses would feed different numbers of people. Could be tricky at a bring a cake party ;)

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  • Spring Making / Wire Bending Machine

    Your son should realize that metric length is just a measuring system! ;) One that's built on logic and absolutes, rather than the arbitrary length of someone's foot.Having said that, the imperial system is much more "human" in scale and has the advantage of many common denominators 1000ths & 64ths being common options. What could be more pleasing that describing a length as 1 and 13/64ths, rather than 30.5594mm (assuming that you can measure to 4/10000 of a mm) okay 30.56mm then! :) explore the forbidden in the new year! :D

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  • Just thinking out loud - you can use a CMOS device say e.g. 4001 to have a very high input impedance, say a mega ohm or two. Touching the patent would cause the gate to oscillate (Pick up mains f.). This could trigger a monostable that would in turn clock a counter (a second monostable could gate the input to prevent a retrigger until the probe is reapplied.Much of the logic could be done with an Arduino etc.You would need to be isolated from the probe of course, So a metal handled scalpel for instance would not be suitable.

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  • It will depend upon what you want to do! LiPos are probably going to give you the best power to volume density. Buy you need to give more information about the application, and remember that different battery chemistries will have different charging requirements. In most instances, coupling a battery directly to a cell (at least via a diode) is probably going to damage the battery. Check out lesson 4 as an example.

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  • High Resolution Frequency Counter

    Very cool, gotta make one!Nice sig gen too

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  • Bicycle Speedometer Display

    Very nice as a learning project, but as said, not very practical (fine on an indoor trainer though). And also as mentioned, the UNO (etc.) has an onboard regulator.I like that the project isn't based around 3D printing though.Maybe you should extend the project to investigate the design cycle? (pun intended) i.e gradual improvements.One could use I2C to talk to the display to reduce cabling. Use a much smaller processor board. Say a WeMos, which has WiFi, so you could display on your phone via a web page! Store and download speed profiles for a ride, add an RTC. Do away with the IR which is power hungry and affected by sunlight. Examine reed or inductive detectors. Add cadence, temperature, beep when you reach 88mph, manage your lights, by combining speed and cadence you could display ...

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    Very nice as a learning project, but as said, not very practical (fine on an indoor trainer though). And also as mentioned, the UNO (etc.) has an onboard regulator.I like that the project isn't based around 3D printing though.Maybe you should extend the project to investigate the design cycle? (pun intended) i.e gradual improvements.One could use I2C to talk to the display to reduce cabling. Use a much smaller processor board. Say a WeMos, which has WiFi, so you could display on your phone via a web page! Store and download speed profiles for a ride, add an RTC. Do away with the IR which is power hungry and affected by sunlight. Examine reed or inductive detectors. Add cadence, temperature, beep when you reach 88mph, manage your lights, by combining speed and cadence you could display gear (front & rear sprocket selection) etc.You are unlikely to match any commercial units, I recently purchased a cycle 'computer' with speed (current, max, ave), odometer, temperature, cadence (current, max, ave), time, heart-rate (current, max, ave), and support for two wheel sizes, all for £8.50 and runs for months on two button cells! Mad! But the beauty of a practically useful project, especially if it supports another hobby, is that it makes a great starting block for learning and improving, or for providing unique functions that you can't find in the wild, or at a reasonable cost.

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  • Scrolling Text Display (A to Z Guide)

    Sorry, I had no idea that I had a reply.Thanks for the link. Bookmarked! Takes the tedium out of it.....

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  • Collecting a Bee Swarm

    This is an interesting question, and all that you say is true.As Norah has said, one should use swarm prevention techniques, and at the same time, queen management.* Using a Queen Excluder [Qx] to manage swarming is lazy and not very smart.* Not only does swarming remove about 60% of the bees (most of the flying bees) and deplete stocks, and so removing the workforce, it also causes an ongoing population crash due to the new queen not beginning to lay for about a week. Even then she will not be in full production for some time.* You are also preventing drones from flying. Reducing genetic diversity in the area and possibly killing the hive due to blocked entrances (dead and stuck drones)* You may end up with no queen or a drone layer. Queens will fight, workers will also intercede by b...

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    This is an interesting question, and all that you say is true.As Norah has said, one should use swarm prevention techniques, and at the same time, queen management.* Using a Queen Excluder [Qx] to manage swarming is lazy and not very smart.* Not only does swarming remove about 60% of the bees (most of the flying bees) and deplete stocks, and so removing the workforce, it also causes an ongoing population crash due to the new queen not beginning to lay for about a week. Even then she will not be in full production for some time.* You are also preventing drones from flying. Reducing genetic diversity in the area and possibly killing the hive due to blocked entrances (dead and stuck drones)* You may end up with no queen or a drone layer. Queens will fight, workers will also intercede by balling and tearing down queen cells. If a virgin queen is left, how will she escape the hive to mate?I may advise using a Qx * If you were say going on holiday - but you have done your inspection first! - and remove (and inspect) immediately on your return. And then only if you have touchy neighbours etc.* If you have just installed a swarm and have a history of swarms absconding. This is best only done with primary swarms. (You may have a mating swarm or a cast with an unmated queen) AND don't feed swarms. You are just refuelling them for a move if they don't like the hive! If you must, then wait a few days until the queen is laying.Feral colonies, to my mind are very important! They provide a local genetic pool that is tuned to the local conditions, and provides a buffer of potential colonies in the form of swarms. Some will wail and gnash their teeth when they hear of a feral colony, citing them to be disease carrying etc. and a danger to their hives. And I have to agree that in the Americas, where Africanised bees are prevalent, they are a potential problem. But lets put this in context: Bees have been on the planet for millions of years longer than man and have done pretty well without bee keepers in that time. So all the BS about EFB, AFB etc. is just that in my opinion.The biggest problem that bees have, is man trying to make things better!

    "But having a little less honey at the expense of making more colinies would appear to be a smart thing."If you are a bee keeper, check out Snelgroving techniques for swarm control and colony increase.His books are a bit heavy going and so many people don't understand what he's doing or how to use his system. But if you break it down it's not only simple and effective, but cheap on equipment too since you only need a Snelgrove board, a brood box (or modified super) and frames. Whereas most techniques require a a floor, roof, stand, crown-board etc. too.You can even run a two queen colony if you're keen! ;)

    Bumblebee colonies used in VERY LARGE commercial greenhouses are usually purchased in a cardboard hive. I understand that those used in U.K. greenhouses come from Holland (correction please).However...* The climate in a small (non commercial) greenhouse will fluctuate so much that the bees will probably die.* A non commercial greenhouse will probably not provide enough pollen and nectar to support a colony, and so they will die.* Yes, you need the queen to maintain the colony.* Polination is carried out by many species of insects (all in decline) not just bees, Try leaving your greenhouse doors and windows open. My own crops seem to set without problems.* Please do not attempt to take bees from the wild If you have a commercial greenhouse, them I would look at the trade publication and ...

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    Bumblebee colonies used in VERY LARGE commercial greenhouses are usually purchased in a cardboard hive. I understand that those used in U.K. greenhouses come from Holland (correction please).However...* The climate in a small (non commercial) greenhouse will fluctuate so much that the bees will probably die.* A non commercial greenhouse will probably not provide enough pollen and nectar to support a colony, and so they will die.* Yes, you need the queen to maintain the colony.* Polination is carried out by many species of insects (all in decline) not just bees, Try leaving your greenhouse doors and windows open. My own crops seem to set without problems.* Please do not attempt to take bees from the wild If you have a commercial greenhouse, them I would look at the trade publication and websites.

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  • Make Your Own Honey Cow (Top Bar Bee Hive)

    Cool. Very nice, easy to follow project.I'd like to expand on your article if I may...Hint: Your starter strips will work better with the screw head hidden and with a sharp edge rather than a half-round. A bead of wax tapered to a sharp edge works well too.Hint: Even a thin layer of expanded polystyrene stuck to the inside the metal roof will help with solar radiation cooking the hive.Does the plastic not heat up too?I would say that TBHs are not the best option for beginners although they appeal due to being cheap. They are virtually unmanageable and so often lead to failed colonies in the first year, causing people to give up - which is a great shame after investing time and emotion into their bees.A semi-circle may help, but the "perfect" shape for a hive is thought to be a...

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    Cool. Very nice, easy to follow project.I'd like to expand on your article if I may...Hint: Your starter strips will work better with the screw head hidden and with a sharp edge rather than a half-round. A bead of wax tapered to a sharp edge works well too.Hint: Even a thin layer of expanded polystyrene stuck to the inside the metal roof will help with solar radiation cooking the hive.Does the plastic not heat up too?I would say that TBHs are not the best option for beginners although they appeal due to being cheap. They are virtually unmanageable and so often lead to failed colonies in the first year, causing people to give up - which is a great shame after investing time and emotion into their bees.A semi-circle may help, but the "perfect" shape for a hive is thought to be a catenary, this seems to offer the least amount of bridging comb to the side - one of the main problems with TBHsANY hive type can be a TBH, and specific (so called Warre) TBH hives are sold, and so your point about commercial hives is perhaps disingenuous?If you have not already done so, then you may be interested to read the history of the KTBH & the TTBH, where, how and why they were developed, you may be surprised. The "Warre hive" was "invented" (chosen from many 100s) as a cheap hive for the French peasants, made of fruit boxes. Alongside the hive, Warre "developed"/stole/collected his odd ideas about bee keeping and seemed very much vested in the idea of not spending money. His main argument against frames was in fact the cost of them and the newfangled extractor. In fact early editions of his book show some odd 3 sided frames with dowel sides (emphasis on cheap manufacture). The Warre hive and the ideas are not inseparable, even though many worshippers of Warre would disagree!I would urge you to read his books not "Warre" websites, then make your own mind up. IIRC Warre hives were "rediscovered" in Wales in the 1970s and were soon latched onto by the hippy culture of the time. Unfortunately they have a cult following that is clearly not borne out of understanding, and with the liberal use of the word "natural", more well-meaning people are sold a fabrication. There is no need to whitewash with words like "appropriate", "natural", "holistic". argumentum ad nauseam just proves a lack of strong argument. Just tell it like it is - it's not very good, but I like it, why don't you try it?Some very nice ladies came to our club to teach us all about Warre and "natural" bee keeping. We were very gentle with them, but it took just minutes to find that they had no idea about what happened in a hive, how to manage swarms, check for diseases etc. We then took them to the apiary and showed them just how easy bee keeping can be.Bee keepers moved away from TBH, skeps, tree gums, etc. in favour of framed hives from about the 1850s for very good reasons. TBHs are certainly not more "natural" than framed hives - bees are wild animals. If they didn't like framed hives, they certainly wouldn't arrive as uninvited swarms! At the end of the day we are interfering with the bees, but framed hives make this easier and less destructive. No mysticism, just easier, more expensive? yes. And if you want to follow Warre and not open the hive (because he couldn't) then that's fine too!That's not to say that TBHs in all their forms are not interesting, and certainly have a place in the corner of an apiary as an oddity (our club has a couple), and in some parts of the world they are de facto due to cost.This is certainly not aimed as a barb at the author, but at prospective beekeepers who will see a super-cheap hive.To all bee keepers, keep up the good work!

    Spacing on wild comb is about 38mm but may be as small as 32mmDadant (common in France?) use 38mm for broodIn the UK, the national frames are pitched at 38mm but UK Hoffman tend to be 35mm (?) and Langstroth (American) are 35mm pitch.In the super you can use wider spacing since we are not dependant upon pupae length and bee spaceRemember that in a TBH, the bars are generally touching side by side and so you need to add 1/2 a bee space (about 6mm/2) to the depth of cell, otherwise the bees will draw one side more fully than the other, resulting in wavy comb.

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  • The input current of 0.3A will be worse case @100V (Supposedly 30W)This will dictate cabling and fusing requirements and so may be slightly over rated regarding the current to allow for multiple devices on a circuit.The device output is limited to 24V at 0.5A (12W output maximum)As you say the unit can get quite warm and must be able to dissipate heat even if covered, so allowance must be made for thermal dissipation. Is the device (case?) wattage displayed?IIRC it's not unusual for switching regulators to be 98% efficient, lets say this one is, so we'd expect an input current after initial inrush etc. to be a little more than 0.12A at 100V assuming that the device is actually drawing 0.5A. TBH I'd take much of this with a large pinch of salt!Have you measured the input current (using a...

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    The input current of 0.3A will be worse case @100V (Supposedly 30W)This will dictate cabling and fusing requirements and so may be slightly over rated regarding the current to allow for multiple devices on a circuit.The device output is limited to 24V at 0.5A (12W output maximum)As you say the unit can get quite warm and must be able to dissipate heat even if covered, so allowance must be made for thermal dissipation. Is the device (case?) wattage displayed?IIRC it's not unusual for switching regulators to be 98% efficient, lets say this one is, so we'd expect an input current after initial inrush etc. to be a little more than 0.12A at 100V assuming that the device is actually drawing 0.5A. TBH I'd take much of this with a large pinch of salt!Have you measured the input current (using an AC ammeter), while checking the output voltage and current? It should all add up, but It may make interesting reading :)

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on Gofish's forum topic Hacksaw lore.?

    LOL passive aggressive answers! Yonatan24, there certainly IS a right and wrong! I wonder why manufacturers go to the trouble of making different TPI and specifying different blades for different materials? Even saws for cutting something as soft as wood come in different formats. When did you last see a tenon saw designed for wood, cutting a slab of steel?Good rule of thumb Gofish, and two hands? Yes always, control your tool and keep your hands safe, no matter the size of the saw. Pointing the index finger of the rear hand can help stabilise your tool too.You can, if you wish, cut in either direction, It's personal choice. "European" tools are designed to cut on the push cut, this is where they expect the forces to be and hence their design. In some instances the weight of...

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    LOL passive aggressive answers! Yonatan24, there certainly IS a right and wrong! I wonder why manufacturers go to the trouble of making different TPI and specifying different blades for different materials? Even saws for cutting something as soft as wood come in different formats. When did you last see a tenon saw designed for wood, cutting a slab of steel?Good rule of thumb Gofish, and two hands? Yes always, control your tool and keep your hands safe, no matter the size of the saw. Pointing the index finger of the rear hand can help stabilise your tool too.You can, if you wish, cut in either direction, It's personal choice. "European" tools are designed to cut on the push cut, this is where they expect the forces to be and hence their design. In some instances the weight of a rocking body is preferable to the pull of triceps.With the correct blade; hardness, thickness, material, hardening, set, TPI, lubrication and the correct tension on the blade for the material to be cut, and of course technique, there is no need to force the blade, whatever the direction. "Let the tool do the work".I can't answer for Gofish, but I get mad at people pushing out dogma that is unsafe or just plain wrong, because -they- know no better, or saw it (see what I de there?) on the internet being done wrong, doesn't make it right. That's not to say that you can't applaud someone for trying, or smiling at the pure joy of someone trying to pass on a skill that they have just learned. But when someone, who does this for a living, says "hey, that's wrong, do it like this!" there is a damned good possibility that they are right, and that they want you to do it right and be safe too.Gofish, more power to your elbow my friend ;)Hehe, same goes for hammer handles Drewno52! :)

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  • DIGITAL MULTI-FUNCTION MEASURING TOOL

    Interesting project, Well done.Did you think to keep your calibration values in flash? Simply read them in during boot. Your calibration option can auto save them without needing to reprogram.This function could be extended to have a secondary offset used for repeating angles, showing zero when correct or else the difference from the required angle.

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  • How to Dry a Cell Phone

    Can't reply to Mastros Published Jul 2nd, 2018He states that the comma [,] is the correct decimal separator.This is not quite so, the ISO standard states that either the comma or decimal point (baseline) can be used. The decimal point is most often found in English speaking countries.It is usual in mathematics and computing to state which radix point character is being used since (for instance) a comma may be used to separate thousands, thus 1,234 could represent "one thousand, two hundred and thirty four" or "one point two three four"Of course the radix is usually assumed locally.The above is an over simplification of a subject that is quite convoluted. I personally prefer the decimal point (baseline or centre line) with (if any) a comma for thousand separator..

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  • Scrolling Text Display (A to Z Guide)

    Nice project sir.These LED matrix are supposed to be staked end to end, not side by side. I use these quite a lot. I wrote my own driver because nearly everything out there uses the same code, which forces the user to solder them side by side (as here), rather than using plugs and sockets, one to the other, which is much nicer. :) I have one in the back of my car (four segments) "Caution (triangle symbol) (long space) Live Bees"And at the moment I have a "Christmas" one at work (5 segments) with X mass messages, snow flakes, xmas trees, holly leaves and sledges etc.Making your own graphics is easy, just edit "unused" characters. The sledge is made from two characters. You can write a little excel sheet to convert your patterns of 1s into the correct numbers.

    If you add an acetate gel sheet to the front of your display, the same transmissive frequency as your display (i.e. red in this case), you get a better contrast and you don't so easily see the 'off' LEDs.

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on a mateen's instructable Razor Saw
    Razor Saw

    Thanks for the update Mateen, as I said "maybe a locality thing", In retrospect, I think that "gent" is a UK only name. I have quite a few Japanese saws but I've never translated the names (I just refer to them in my internal monologue as Japanese, pull or draw saws). They are all very fine kerf, most are zero or just a slight set. Even the widest kerf is narrower than my finest tenon saw. None have a back though. On the other hand, I suppose that there are many styles that I have never seen. Take Japanese culinary knives, there is one for every imaginable task and a few beside!It's funny how language changes, we talk about as "thin as a razor", and yet a traditional (cut throat) razor is quite thick!

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on a mateen's instructable Razor Saw
    Razor Saw

    My father took on some Ugandan Asian carpenters when they were exiled. They had to be supplied with (UK) carpantry tools, having left the country with nothing. The first thing they did was 're-handle' the saws, looking very much like the initial saw above.

    Very nice results. I'm sure that your father would approve. I love making and repurposing tools. May I ask why you called it a razor saw? It's more like a Gents (maybe a locality thing), looks a bit big and not disposable.BTW, having made it cut on the pull stroke, you didn't need the back. I have fine draw saws that you can easily bend without any effort (fingertip pressure), and yet cut true and easily. On quick jobs I cut to the line because the finish is so good and so accurate!

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  • It's not really correct, a butchers block has end grain on the working surface not long grain. I used to have a Saturday job (in a butchers) that included cleaning the blocks! :(Using end grain makes them self healing and unlikely to chip. Long grain in a bench worktop is fine :)The blocks are cleaned with a brush comprising scrapers in the form of flat (rather than round) 'wires'.That was a poor description, so here is an image.https://www.ibexindustrialbrushes.com/php/product.php?id=186

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  • RF Transmitter and Receiver

    For a scope to keep in your pocket and for the price, they are great. BUT get an original there are many copies that don't work well.I was given a kit a few years back. I had a few issues, but the manufacturer was very helpful (and open to suggestions). I don't use it very often, but find it good enough that I don't bother to dust off my Philips CRT scope.BTW, a 'scope requires a certain level of skill and knowledge to use and get meaningful results from. But a very powerful tool.I also use a USB logic analyser (these are cheap from China) with software that understands many protocols including i2c, making fault finding much easier. Again, a powerful tool that requires understanding to get the most from it.

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  • Start a Back Yard Honey Bee Hive

    Good quality hives are made of red cedar and do not need painting, they will weather to a rather nice silver grey.However painting is fine. Use a non-toxic paint. Microporous is good, designed for outside use. Don't paint the mating faces, nor paint when the hive is assembled since the boxes may stick.Many bee keepers use different colours to "help the bees find their own hive".White can help reduce solar heating in the summer and of course extend the life of older hives.I make much of my kit and don't paint much of it, however I do put a few mm of expanded polystyrene between the metal cover and the roof box to reduce heating. (two layers of the type used for lining behind wallpaper.)Enjoy your bees! :)

    Hopefully you are up and running now? :)Obtaining your first bees is an important step in continuing your hobby. Buying packages of bees and starting with a swarm are both unpredictable (although I'd prefer the later). And it's important that you are successful in your first year/winter. So many people give up at the first colony loss (usually from too much fiddling!) Which is a great shame.The best option is to contact a local bee keeper and purchase/pester/trade a nuc. This is a small colony (usually 5 or 6 frames) with a young queen that is laying well. Place the nuc into a full size hive, add a super or two and sit back!Bees are wild creatures and WANT to succeed despite our efforts. They do this very well in the wild without our "help" ;) So many new bee keepers keep open...

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    Hopefully you are up and running now? :)Obtaining your first bees is an important step in continuing your hobby. Buying packages of bees and starting with a swarm are both unpredictable (although I'd prefer the later). And it's important that you are successful in your first year/winter. So many people give up at the first colony loss (usually from too much fiddling!) Which is a great shame.The best option is to contact a local bee keeper and purchase/pester/trade a nuc. This is a small colony (usually 5 or 6 frames) with a young queen that is laying well. Place the nuc into a full size hive, add a super or two and sit back!Bees are wild creatures and WANT to succeed despite our efforts. They do this very well in the wild without our "help" ;) So many new bee keepers keep opening the hive. When asked why they are opening up, they don't know, or "need to see the queen". If you don't have a good reason, not opening is the better option ;)Enjoy

    A nice little share :) Bees are so cool and you never stop learning about them!I'd like to make a few comments if I may.The mesh at the bottom of the hive is for added ventilation and to help manage Varroa. Control of "critters" is done with hot backsides! ;)The use of an entrance feeder is not good practice. Always feed inside the hive and if possible apply the feed at dusk.I'm not sure what "organic cane sugar" is, but syrup should be clear from pure sugar (definitely no substitutes either, e.g. corn syrup). Take care that the syrup is not burnt (caramelised). Boiling can help break down the sucrose in to simple sugars (monosaccharides), but it requires a catalyst to efficiently hydrolyse to fructose and glucose. However the bees are capable of doing this using en...

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    A nice little share :) Bees are so cool and you never stop learning about them!I'd like to make a few comments if I may.The mesh at the bottom of the hive is for added ventilation and to help manage Varroa. Control of "critters" is done with hot backsides! ;)The use of an entrance feeder is not good practice. Always feed inside the hive and if possible apply the feed at dusk.I'm not sure what "organic cane sugar" is, but syrup should be clear from pure sugar (definitely no substitutes either, e.g. corn syrup). Take care that the syrup is not burnt (caramelised). Boiling can help break down the sucrose in to simple sugars (monosaccharides), but it requires a catalyst to efficiently hydrolyse to fructose and glucose. However the bees are capable of doing this using enzymes without our help, so heat just enough to dissolve the sugar at the required ratio.Purchasing queens and packages of bees is okay, but whenever possible, if you have to purchase, always do so locally (from a reputable supplier). This reduces the movement of diseases & pests, and maintains the local genetic make-up. E.g. you may have a neighbour who has been breeding for particular traits, bringing in new genetic material may destroy years of work!And most important, enjoy your bees! ;)

    Ants: No poison! You can try a ring of petroleum jelly around each leg of the hive. You will need to replace it.Robbing is never easy, but prevention is better than cure!Why would you starve a hive? That's ridiculous! You are actually reducing their ability to forage by reducing colony size (the queen will not be allowed to lay if resources dwindle!) A healthy colony with space to add stores will do just that!In the images above, an entrance feeder is being used, and in the states "Yard feeders" are common practice (cheap & easy), but represents poor husbandry. Both of these methods promote robbing. Always feed inside the hive. Adding feed during the day (including frames for cleaning etc.) can also do this. Ensure that hives are in good physical condition.If you can't mov...

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    Ants: No poison! You can try a ring of petroleum jelly around each leg of the hive. You will need to replace it.Robbing is never easy, but prevention is better than cure!Why would you starve a hive? That's ridiculous! You are actually reducing their ability to forage by reducing colony size (the queen will not be allowed to lay if resources dwindle!) A healthy colony with space to add stores will do just that!In the images above, an entrance feeder is being used, and in the states "Yard feeders" are common practice (cheap & easy), but represents poor husbandry. Both of these methods promote robbing. Always feed inside the hive. Adding feed during the day (including frames for cleaning etc.) can also do this. Ensure that hives are in good physical condition.If you can't move it. Close the entrance of the robbed hive to a single bee entrance so it can be defended.

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  • Arduino IDE 1.6.x Compiler Optimisations = Faster Code

    I should add that Notepad++ will make the distinction between 0 & O (Zero and the letter "O"

    Very good post, about to play.Thanks for your effortBTW rather than using notepad or wordpad, try Notepad++A nice quick lightweight package that you'll find you can't do without ;)

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  • 3D Printed Radio That Works!! Easy to Make

    LOL and miles of wire stretched across the bedroom - mum would go nuts!

    Looks cool. We used to make these as kids, when the 3D printer wasn't even a gleam in a sci-fi writer's eye!Most important thing is a long aerial and a good earth. Any germanium diode should work. The original "cat's Whisker" used a Galena crystal although a peice of coke was said to work

    It's not the metal, it's the connection to earth, either through the water or via electrical earth bonding of the metal sink.Yes a rod in the ground will work. needs to bee deep and into wet soil

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  • Simple Arduino and HC-SR04 Example

    Nice project, well done. Endless fun with ultrasonic rangers, and so cheap!May I add the following? ...If you are expecting to always range closer objects than the maximum (4M?), then to save time in your loop, you can change the value of timeOut as follows...timeOut is not used aboveduration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH [, timeOut]);By using a timeout, your program spends less time waiting for a reflection that isn't coming back or is too far away to be of use to you.timeOut is in microsecondsWe can set the timeout to coincide with a required max distance quite easily. Since sound travels at about 0.034 cm per microsecond and say we want to measure a maximum of 50 cm. Then...Remember we measure the time to reach the object and then the return journey, so here we are talking about 100cm (1M)...

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    Nice project, well done. Endless fun with ultrasonic rangers, and so cheap!May I add the following? ...If you are expecting to always range closer objects than the maximum (4M?), then to save time in your loop, you can change the value of timeOut as follows...timeOut is not used aboveduration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH [, timeOut]);By using a timeout, your program spends less time waiting for a reflection that isn't coming back or is too far away to be of use to you.timeOut is in microsecondsWe can set the timeout to coincide with a required max distance quite easily. Since sound travels at about 0.034 cm per microsecond and say we want to measure a maximum of 50 cm. Then...Remember we measure the time to reach the object and then the return journey, so here we are talking about 100cm (1M) round trip for this example1cm = 29.4mS so our timeOut value becomes 29.4 x 50 x 2 = 2940If the ping takes longer than timeOut then zero (0) is returned in "duration"! Nice!so, in the above example, something like if ( duration >= 2940 || duration <= 0){ Serial.println("Out of range");}becomesif (duration == 0){ Serial.println("Out of range");}The pulseIn() function requires interrupts to be enabled, so "noInterrupts()" can not be used if using pulseIn()see also pulseInLong()

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  • How to Build a Block Retaining Wall

    I should start by saying that I wasn't denigrating anything you've done, I was trying to catch people from assuming too much from (any) instructable. It would be horrible if someone's house was damaged. I suppose the moral would be "take local professional advice", but I'm all for DIY and skills not being in the domain of the few. If I didn't make it clear before, you've done a good job! Pointing is the application of a water tight (often cosmetic) grout (cement) between the joints on the face, and finishing it in some way (lots of styles, especial on stonework). e.g. it may be recessed, flush, exposed, flat, angled, curved (convex or concave), polished or brushed etc. Often a style will be associated with a locality. Locally we have raised 'snail' pointing on locally quarrie...

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    I should start by saying that I wasn't denigrating anything you've done, I was trying to catch people from assuming too much from (any) instructable. It would be horrible if someone's house was damaged. I suppose the moral would be "take local professional advice", but I'm all for DIY and skills not being in the domain of the few. If I didn't make it clear before, you've done a good job! Pointing is the application of a water tight (often cosmetic) grout (cement) between the joints on the face, and finishing it in some way (lots of styles, especial on stonework). e.g. it may be recessed, flush, exposed, flat, angled, curved (convex or concave), polished or brushed etc. Often a style will be associated with a locality. Locally we have raised 'snail' pointing on locally quarried stone something like this, but less angular pointing It's not clear from the images if your wall is pointed. Pointing will hold back any water behind the wall. Your wall is on a gravel bed and so should cope with drainage, depending on the properties of the barrier. Pointing tends to be hard (brittle) and so will not cope with movement. The line is usually pulled taught at the height of the course being laid and a few mm from the face. Your work should never touch the line. If you were doing anything more complicated, then you would use a "story stick" too. Makes life so easy! Layout This guy demonstrates some of the techniques quite well and shows the use of a story stick. I had to learn all the trades, from groundwork to setting finials on a roof and everything between! Even now I'd say that I could give any of them a fair bash. My brickwork isn't really for fair face work and very slow ;) My plastering is acceptable, carpentry & plumbing is good. I hate painting, I can't tell you how many Georgian and sash windows I've painted. I always used to try to do electrical work, as it's one of the cleanest, driest, warmest trades :D None of the trades are difficult if you break them down, but much easier with hints from a skilled practitioner, and of course you need to be aware of planning and building regs, the law etc.

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  • How to Build a Block Retaining Wall

    Very fine instructable and you've done a nice looking job with the blocks, especially over such a length.I would like to say, especially if people are tempted to go bigger scale, this isn't really a retaining wall. A retaining wall will normally have a high newton block/reinforced concrete wall, often with piers, sitting on a reinforced foundation, even a low one, with (if required) a fair-face wall sitting in front. The wall will also have weep holes to prevent the build up of water behind the wall. This would be suitable in a 'home context', when you start to get a bit more serious, then different techniques are usually employed.They are interesting blocks that you've used, easy to create curves without cuts. It looks like you've pointed the wall. I'd be inclined to take a drill and a...

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    Very fine instructable and you've done a nice looking job with the blocks, especially over such a length.I would like to say, especially if people are tempted to go bigger scale, this isn't really a retaining wall. A retaining wall will normally have a high newton block/reinforced concrete wall, often with piers, sitting on a reinforced foundation, even a low one, with (if required) a fair-face wall sitting in front. The wall will also have weep holes to prevent the build up of water behind the wall. This would be suitable in a 'home context', when you start to get a bit more serious, then different techniques are usually employed.They are interesting blocks that you've used, easy to create curves without cuts. It looks like you've pointed the wall. I'd be inclined to take a drill and add some weep holes, especially lower down.Generally speaking, the above may be fine for a rustic terrace in a garden, but if it's intended to prevent erosion of soil from the footing of the building, then I'd suggest a more robust structure, especially if the ground-slope had been changed. You may not notice the erosion since it's normally a slow process. Your first indication will be cracks within the building. If you are simply creating a terrace by adding soil to the original horizon, then you may well be okay, especially if this is not a new-build and the ground is stabilized. Remember that soil can easily contract and swell 10% between wet and bone dry!Don't underestimate the forces involved. Nature wants everything flat!I can't tell from your photo, but for others looking at your instructable, the line shouldn't touch the wall, but stand off by a few mm, you can set that with a thin lath if wood etc, or you can buy tingles that automatically hold the line off. An experienced bricklayer will usually wind his line around a couple of bricks and set the distance by positioning the brick. If you build any wall longer than your level/straight-edge, you should use a line. In addition to a boat level, and a bricklayers level, a line-level is very useful, and make a habit of rotating your level 180 deg each time. This indicates a build up of dirt under the level.

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on SpaceShipOne's instructable Underwater ROV
    Underwater ROV

    Further to comments on IR underwater:Yes the absorption of light increases rapidly toward the longer wave-lengths. However, many aquatic animals use IR, e.g. goldfish. This must have an evolutionary advantage, nature tends not to waste energy in non-working systems. It is probably only useful at very short range, but the difference between being 'blind' or having some sight is massive and resolution is probably not too important at a few inches. It's about horses for courses. Suck it and see!Fun build by the way, hope it stays water-tight. ;)

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  • How to Make a CrossCut Sled for Table Saw

    Nice and clear, simple and efficientMay I suggest a simple modification for safety? Add a block at the rear of the sled so that the exiting blade is covered.The five cut method you mention can make a huge difference. well worth the effort. Anyone making a sled should check this out.

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on ThomasVDD's instructable Hard Drive Speaker
    Hard Drive Speaker

    +1Rosin core solder works well for novices. Well worth spending on.So many people don't have a clue how to solder. A good quality, high wattage temp controlled iron is a good investment.Fun project :)

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  • 10 Woodworking Tricks the Pros Use

    Yes, I'd go with travelfeet, Kerf is both the width/gap left by the cut and a method of bending timber by using a series of cuts. Used widely in guitar making.The set has two effects, it both aids the cutting of the fibres and produces a kerf that is wider than the blade, thus allowing the blade to pass without binding.I like the salt idea, but I think that the hot glue is probably only suitable for rough work ;)

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on 陳亮's instructable Circuit Visualization
    Circuit Visualization

    Very nice, but I have to ask, isn't the point of micro electronics to be inconspicuous? ;) Please read on...The breadboard and any sketches should be fine for "reading the connections", in fact a clear circuit diagram will be your best option, Why do you need to do this on the end product? Having designed and made it, you ought to know how it went together.The drawing is an abstraction, students should learn to work with abstractions rather than dumbing everything down.Do you need to have a rationale for what is essentially a piece of functional art? What not just say, I made this, it looks freeking great! ;)

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  • Say Goodbye to That Formica CounterTop!

    Did you know that you can get many dents out of wood with a hot clothes iron and a wet cloth! You need to remove the finish since you need to get steam into the fibres. They will plump up and remove the dent. Then sand and reapply your finish. ;)

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  • Say Goodbye to That Formica CounterTop!

    Very nice deep gloss finish. :)Good hints and tips.May I mention that a butchers block is made of end-grain. ("Butcher Block Counter Top" title given in the link)

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  • Chain Tension Adjustment on Vintage Honda Motorcycles

    The problem with adding oil to a dirty chain, is that along with existing and newly picked up sand and dirt (English meaning of the word), you are making lapping paste! Grinding away your expensive chain and sprockets.So the first thing to do is remove the dirt (In fact the first thing is to visit the manufacturers website for a full list of do's & dont's to maintain their chain!). It usually means removing the chain to do a good job (I usually had two on the go, one on the bike, one being cleaned). You need to remove the dirt from the sprockets too.Don't use solvents unless advised, some of the better chains have O-ring (sealed chains) to keep the dirt out of the gap between the roller and the bushing that may perish. Mechanical cleaning with a soft brush works (tooth brush etc.) ...

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    The problem with adding oil to a dirty chain, is that along with existing and newly picked up sand and dirt (English meaning of the word), you are making lapping paste! Grinding away your expensive chain and sprockets.So the first thing to do is remove the dirt (In fact the first thing is to visit the manufacturers website for a full list of do's & dont's to maintain their chain!). It usually means removing the chain to do a good job (I usually had two on the go, one on the bike, one being cleaned). You need to remove the dirt from the sprockets too.Don't use solvents unless advised, some of the better chains have O-ring (sealed chains) to keep the dirt out of the gap between the roller and the bushing that may perish. Mechanical cleaning with a soft brush works (tooth brush etc.) When the dirt is gone you need to lubricate the parts in contact with each other using the correct lubricant. (I used to use a hot wax based product, but that is probably old-hat now). Certainly not WD40! That will drive out any thicker lubricants and dirt sticks to it too easily (only good for penetrating, despite what it says on the can!)Then the important bit, you need to get rid of the excess oil that acts as a sticky sand collector.A sealed chain does not need lubricating, but should be kept clean!LOL, just had a gander and found this in seconds, so ignore my blurb above.... http://www.sprocketsunlimited.com/Chainmaintenance.html

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  • Chain Tension Adjustment on Vintage Honda Motorcycles

    Honda CB's ;) Takes me back!Nice clear instructionJust a note for the UK viewers. The pin is a split pin holding the castellated nut from rotating. In the UK a cotter pin is a pin (bolt) with a tapered flat, as used on older bicycle cranks etc.You should replace your split pin since they work harden very easily. They only cost pennies and could save your life.

    Chain quality/size, contaminants (grit), engine power, sprocket size, sprocket wear, sprocket alignment, axis of rear suspension/travel, how big a handful of revs you grab at the lights etc. will all effect chain wear.Simply spraying "lube" on the chain as shown above is a bad idea!

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  • Arduino + Push Switch + Debouncing + Interrupts

    It's not quite that simple. The problem is the "bounce" when you close a switch, the contacts actually bounce, making and breaking the contact many times in a few mS, which is an age for an MPU! we are effectively slowing down time and so "see" the bounce!Mercury whetted contacts, sliding contacts etc. can help (this is a big can of worms!).But as I posted elsewhere (unless MPU time is at a real premium), then software debouncing is a simple and effective measure.In its simplest form you can do the following.(assume a momentary press button, but there are different types of switches and the software may be looking for different press lengths etc.)if contact{pause x mS (this is the equiv of an RC network)it's stopped bouncing by now!check it's still down (could have b...

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    It's not quite that simple. The problem is the "bounce" when you close a switch, the contacts actually bounce, making and breaking the contact many times in a few mS, which is an age for an MPU! we are effectively slowing down time and so "see" the bounce!Mercury whetted contacts, sliding contacts etc. can help (this is a big can of worms!).But as I posted elsewhere (unless MPU time is at a real premium), then software debouncing is a simple and effective measure.In its simplest form you can do the following.(assume a momentary press button, but there are different types of switches and the software may be looking for different press lengths etc.)if contact{pause x mS (this is the equiv of an RC network)it's stopped bouncing by now!check it's still down (could have been an accidental contact - too short for our needs) so exit.Loop until the switch is open again, if time-out then exit(user is sensible and released the button! yippeeeeee)Indicate a valid button press and exit!}But we can be much more subtle when we start to us interrupts and control those interrupts!There are many permutations and techniques for what on the face of it is a simple button press!

    Very nicely presented.What is U1? You don't give an ID (that I can see), a Schmitt might be even better (say CD4093B) . You could of course create a monostable with a better output characteristic using two gates of a CD4000B/7400 rather than one gate.Did your first circuit work? with a N/O switch, and 10K, it's going to keep the pin pretty high! I would have put the resistor in the 5V line. One might use this technique with cmos or TTL logic but...The thing about using microcontrollers is that you can remove a lot of hardware with code!So, if you connect the switch directly to the pin (2) and the other side to ground using a weak pull up, you only need a switch!This gives the pull up....pinMode(interruptPin, INPUT_PULLUP);Then turn off the interrupt once triggered.e.g.button press (nega...

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    Very nicely presented.What is U1? You don't give an ID (that I can see), a Schmitt might be even better (say CD4093B) . You could of course create a monostable with a better output characteristic using two gates of a CD4000B/7400 rather than one gate.Did your first circuit work? with a N/O switch, and 10K, it's going to keep the pin pretty high! I would have put the resistor in the 5V line. One might use this technique with cmos or TTL logic but...The thing about using microcontrollers is that you can remove a lot of hardware with code!So, if you connect the switch directly to the pin (2) and the other side to ground using a weak pull up, you only need a switch!This gives the pull up....pinMode(interruptPin, INPUT_PULLUP);Then turn off the interrupt once triggered.e.g.button press (negative transition)having used attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(interruptPin), checkSwitch, LOW); to set up the interruptcheckSwitch being your interrupt service routineenter the interrupt routineturn off the interrupt with detachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(interruptPin));set buttonPressedFlag (volatile of course)exit the interruptIn the main loop restart the interrupt if buttonPressedFlag with attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(interruptPin), checkSwitch, LOW); againand remember to clear buttonPressedFlag (you may want to check for button up first).May I suggest that you keep your ISRs as short as possible, and process everything elsewhere. You can of course explicitly change the direction of the interrupt detection to identify when the switch is released.This technique works beautifully with rotary encoders. You will see many people using all manner of conditioning circuits, but you only require two ISRs to give jitter-free output.I hope that's useful

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  • Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Nyxius is correct, the point of a risk assessment is to understand the risks, and when it goes wrong, you hold it up to the coroner and say, look, we followed these procedures, I'm innocent!When sitting on H&S committees and writing risk assessments, you should hold one word at the forefront, "Reasonable". Are you taking reasonable precautions? And one thought, "who will the coroner point at in the event of an accident?"You can write all the guidelines you like, accidents will still happen, have a chat with NASA.If you are playing with kit in a field on your own, the guidelines will be different from working with others in a formal club. Why? because people want to pass the blame.Today, it's ALWAYS the fault of someone else. Stick you hand into the blades of a mi...

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    Nyxius is correct, the point of a risk assessment is to understand the risks, and when it goes wrong, you hold it up to the coroner and say, look, we followed these procedures, I'm innocent!When sitting on H&S committees and writing risk assessments, you should hold one word at the forefront, "Reasonable". Are you taking reasonable precautions? And one thought, "who will the coroner point at in the event of an accident?"You can write all the guidelines you like, accidents will still happen, have a chat with NASA.If you are playing with kit in a field on your own, the guidelines will be different from working with others in a formal club. Why? because people want to pass the blame.Today, it's ALWAYS the fault of someone else. Stick you hand into the blades of a mincer, it'll be the fault of the manufacturer!To LAB RAT MATT. Well done!

    Igniting it might be an issue too.Phone taps can be fun, especially when the 'tapper' doesn't know that the 'tappee' knows.

    Nobody has to make your prototype hybrid rocket engine (which it clearly is). We live in an age (as mentioned above) where nobody wants to take responsibility for their own actions, yet happy to stand around waving their 'holier than thou' flags with no personal cost; yet it gives them (they assume) the moral high-ground. They are usually the ones that never achieve anything. Anyone can point after the event.I say top marks for your design and planning. You could easily have spent twice as long writing a RA, and yet nobody was hurt despite that! Joining a rocketry club is probably a good idea (although I could just as easily give many reasons for that not being a good idea - you'll be near other people with rockets for one!)I'm keen on extreme sports, and as a kid blew stuff up with my ...

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    Nobody has to make your prototype hybrid rocket engine (which it clearly is). We live in an age (as mentioned above) where nobody wants to take responsibility for their own actions, yet happy to stand around waving their 'holier than thou' flags with no personal cost; yet it gives them (they assume) the moral high-ground. They are usually the ones that never achieve anything. Anyone can point after the event.I say top marks for your design and planning. You could easily have spent twice as long writing a RA, and yet nobody was hurt despite that! Joining a rocketry club is probably a good idea (although I could just as easily give many reasons for that not being a good idea - you'll be near other people with rockets for one!)I'm keen on extreme sports, and as a kid blew stuff up with my own explosives (chemistry is fun!), even made my own bullets using casings from a fun fair. Launched Greek fire balls from a home-made Roman catapult, blasted around on motorbikes (of course), taught myself to repel off of railway bridges, on and on! Why am I here in one piece all this time later? I think about and understand the dangers, and don't trust my life to other people.I have to post a letter in a moment, I don't have a RA, but either way, I could die getting to the post box - such is life.Live life, be safe and don't be put off.

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  • How to Desalinate Seawater

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc_toxicity

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  • 5 Ways to Remove a Stripped Screw

    No need to be that careful. Use a drill bit a little larger diameter than the shank And at least smaller than the diameter of the head. The head will come out quite easily (it will start spinning with the drill bit). Once the pieces are apart, grab the shank and unscrew.

    All very good methods. Great instructable.You can also tap with a centre punch (works on nuts, bolts and machine screws too). Tap at a tangent, forcing the screw to turn. (you can make a starter hole with a 1mm drill bit)Punching down can help too (not too hard), giving a little space for the thread in the timber, although corrosion is often the problemTapping the screwdriver or driver bit can improve the fit, especially on cheap soft screws.If enough head is available, then pliers, mole-grips, water-pumps etc. can often get you out of trouble.Some PVC tape around the screw will help protect the surface before you attack.I once used epoxy to connect a good screw head-to-head with the stuck one and used pliers. I got just enough torque before the glue failed.Don't use worn drivers! This ...

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    All very good methods. Great instructable.You can also tap with a centre punch (works on nuts, bolts and machine screws too). Tap at a tangent, forcing the screw to turn. (you can make a starter hole with a 1mm drill bit)Punching down can help too (not too hard), giving a little space for the thread in the timber, although corrosion is often the problemTapping the screwdriver or driver bit can improve the fit, especially on cheap soft screws.If enough head is available, then pliers, mole-grips, water-pumps etc. can often get you out of trouble.Some PVC tape around the screw will help protect the surface before you attack.I once used epoxy to connect a good screw head-to-head with the stuck one and used pliers. I got just enough torque before the glue failed.Don't use worn drivers! This is especially true on brass slotted screws. The driver should be a tight fit and held square (try a longer handle).Electric screwdrivers can mess up a screw before you can blink! Every tool requires a level of skill.

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on donedirtcheap's instructable Tincloth
    Tincloth

    Toilet rings? Had to google that. Neoprene/rubber doughnuts used here. Although I seem to remember soft rope impregnated with grease or wax for similar use.I would imagine that the wax would not be pure beeswax as it would probably be too hard at room temperature to form a seal, so possibly has softeners in it which would modify the chemistry. That may explain why some people are having issues. I've used pure beeswax to waterproof bush hats, using beeswax blocks, rubbed into the fabric and hot air. If you don't get a good soak then it cracks easily and allows wicking to occur.It will be interesting to try it with a solvent as you have done. Off to Scotland in a few weeks, so a good test :) Wonder if the linseed will repel midges? :)

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  • Scary sharp on a budget

    Glass paper/carborundum paper (wet & dry), some of which is of course cloth backed, makes a good cheap alternative (the cost of abrasives that could go toward some good tools). I find that cheap diamond 'stones' work really fast and are very cheap and more substantial than glued glass paper/carborundum paper.Personally I use 800 grit max, normally 400 is fine (pun intended). Use water or 'hard surface cleaner' spray as a lubricant/de-clogger.The real difference is the polishing! I use a flat board about 250mm x 75mm with a strip of wood 20x30mm glued/screwed to the back so it can be fixed in a vice. To the working face I glue a sheet of leather, suede side up, this is dressed with jewellers rouge and used to polish, using drawing strokes - 30 to 60 will give a very high polish.Just ...

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    Glass paper/carborundum paper (wet & dry), some of which is of course cloth backed, makes a good cheap alternative (the cost of abrasives that could go toward some good tools). I find that cheap diamond 'stones' work really fast and are very cheap and more substantial than glued glass paper/carborundum paper.Personally I use 800 grit max, normally 400 is fine (pun intended). Use water or 'hard surface cleaner' spray as a lubricant/de-clogger.The real difference is the polishing! I use a flat board about 250mm x 75mm with a strip of wood 20x30mm glued/screwed to the back so it can be fixed in a vice. To the working face I glue a sheet of leather, suede side up, this is dressed with jewellers rouge and used to polish, using drawing strokes - 30 to 60 will give a very high polish.Just yesterday I used a piece of 2x4 as a backing and rapped my father's leather apron around it (no rouge) to polish a 'sticking' but otherwise sharp chisel!Honing guides usually come with an angle setting instruction. You set the angle by how much blade protrudes from the end (but the angle indicator shown is cool and very cheap out of China - I use mine on my bench saw), But try to not use honing guides, it only takes a little practice to get the angle right, you get a better 'feel' for your tools and in fact you may find a variance in angle better suits your woodworking technique.Assuming the angle is correct, as you lift the blade on the 'stone', rocking upward, a meniscus of lubricant will show at the tip of the blade as you equal the angle - this is very easy to see on oil stones and makes angle setting simple.Nice instrucatable, and shows that you don't need the most expensive kit!

    As codswallop says, it depends upon the plane use. Roughing planes often have a curved finish to the iron. taking off the outside edges of a flat blade makes for easy use.

    Google? Depends where you are in the world. If in the UK, these people are worth a visit, their Warminster shop is like a warren of things you can't do without! ;)What's your budget?http://www.axminster.co.uk/axminster-deluxe-honing...

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  • How to Make a 12v Battery Charger

    I have several of these little PSU's, they are general purpose step down PSUs (some provide step up/down). At the current supplied, charge curves will make little difference. SLA used to be used in older motorcycles with the crudest of chargers.I use the bigger PSU of this type to supply a steady current to my Li-Po charger ;)The voltage should be set to 13.8 V (not 14V) for lead acid charging. I'd also set the current quite low as the charger may not cope at higher currents. As the voltage reaches the set voltage, so charging will of course diminish. It's not ideal but is probably more accurate than may mains car battery chargers and at least as good, if not better as those used in burglar (12V) and fire (24V) alarms. In an emergency, for a few pennies, who really cares? In the past I'...

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    I have several of these little PSU's, they are general purpose step down PSUs (some provide step up/down). At the current supplied, charge curves will make little difference. SLA used to be used in older motorcycles with the crudest of chargers.I use the bigger PSU of this type to supply a steady current to my Li-Po charger ;)The voltage should be set to 13.8 V (not 14V) for lead acid charging. I'd also set the current quite low as the charger may not cope at higher currents. As the voltage reaches the set voltage, so charging will of course diminish. It's not ideal but is probably more accurate than may mains car battery chargers and at least as good, if not better as those used in burglar (12V) and fire (24V) alarms. In an emergency, for a few pennies, who really cares? In the past I've charged Ni-Cds via a length of co-ax cable with a car battery charger ;)In addition, this unit will charge a "flat" battery, whereas many of the "electronic" car battery chargers will refuse to supply a charge if the battery voltage is "too low". So useful to get some charge into the battery.I have to agree elsewhere, it's more of a "how to assemble" rather than "make", little more than stripping wires is shown - however still useful to those that don't know.

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  • Bit banging step-by-step: Arduino control of WS2811, WS2812, and WS2812B RGB LEDs

    Very good, nice and clear :)Counting instruction cycles and padding with NOPs, takes me back!For the beginner, who ought not be confused.... I've NEVER heard of a 'pulse wave' (other than in sci-fi films); One may send 'a pulse' or 'several pulses', or 'a train of pulses'. We use square waves in digital electronics (although the edges may get degraded).A 'pulse wave' does not imply square wave, and in this context is unhelpful and degrades the nomenclature (IMHO).It says that acrobotic is a "bloke" in the profile, although references above imply a female hand. The later I hope, as this piece is a strong role model for young women considering a career in electronics..... how it should be done ;)

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  • How To Build A Floor For A House

    Nice little indestructible.An observation, not a comment about the OP. I thought UK houses were built as cheaply as possible and pretty poor today, but wow! No wonder we often see swathes of houses mown flat by hurricanes in the US, and sash99 states a 25 year lifespan! (I have window frames that are nearly 90 years old!) Surely such poor standards must verge on the criminal? No wonder we see your president telling people to flee for their lives in the face of a blow!BTW, how long do chipboard staircase stringers last? I see no bracing in the studwork, and I suspect the I-beams could use some herringboning too.Buy some bricks or quarry some stone guys! Didn't you hear about the wolf that huffed and puffed?

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  • AlphaOmega1 commented on bekathwia's instructable Mounted Storage Jars
    Mounted Storage Jars

    Nice! Takes me back, my father did this with peanut butter jars that were oval, so easy to twist. Must have been 45 years ago! I have a row of coffee jars hanging by their lids from a shelf. Highly recomended!Makes it easy to find nuts, bolts, screws and pins, and doubles storage space too.BTW, if you punch the lids with the inside facing up, you will not buckle the lid as it will be supported.

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  • Turn off headlights when ignition off

    Doesn't the buzzer remind him? Just make it louder :)Maybe replace it with a recording "If your battery goes flat, I'm not driving out at 3am to jump start your car, if your battery...." :DIdeally you want to control the lights through some logic. e.g. as followsignition on + light switch on : lights turn off when the ignition is turned off or the light switch is turned off (As you have it)Ignition off + lights on : lights turn off when light switch is off, or ignition turned on and off again. You may also want to include a delay-off timer while at it. If any one of your mods fails you may have quite an issue! The original setup is pretty robust. You must be able to turn the lights on and off as required. If either fail you may have a dangerous condition. Is a flat battery wo...

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    Doesn't the buzzer remind him? Just make it louder :)Maybe replace it with a recording "If your battery goes flat, I'm not driving out at 3am to jump start your car, if your battery...." :DIdeally you want to control the lights through some logic. e.g. as followsignition on + light switch on : lights turn off when the ignition is turned off or the light switch is turned off (As you have it)Ignition off + lights on : lights turn off when light switch is off, or ignition turned on and off again. You may also want to include a delay-off timer while at it. If any one of your mods fails you may have quite an issue! The original setup is pretty robust. You must be able to turn the lights on and off as required. If either fail you may have a dangerous condition. Is a flat battery worse than a crash?And, BTW, most modern cars (in Europe at least) use CAN or low current signals into the management unit that then controls systems using logic, so adding a light sensor gives, self dipping, auto switch on, auto switch off, delay off etc. this is fairly simply without complicated cabling and lots of relays.On my own car, my lights will turn off if the ignition is off AND I open the drivers door. If I want my side lights left on while away from the car, I have to turn my lights off, with the ignition off, and turn them on again!My wife's car has a buzzer! :( Never left them on.Nice clear instructable though :)

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  • A Marking Gauge You Can't Buy

    @ manuelmascSounds like you are newish to woodworking - check out Paul Sellers on YouTube (IMHO one of the very best). He will show you how to make and maintain tools too. Very clear, focused, down to earth, no assumptions, no shouting at the camera, so he's relaxing to listen to too!@ fred.lam.5201Very nice sir. Nothing like using your own tools to make other items and even other tools. There is something very special about personalised tools, especially when they are as aesthetically pleasing as yours marker is.

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  • Make 4 Useful Things From 9V Dead Battery

    That's why birds can sit on 220,000V lines and live, they are not grounded or connected to another phase. (do they get a static shock as their bodies charge?)

    Until sometime in the 1970's areas of Bristol had a 110V supply. As a kid I had a Saturday job at vacuum cleaner repair shop (some miles from Bristol) and we had a 110V supply for that very reason.BTW "it's the volts that jolts and the millies that killies" - so providing the time was short and the resistance high.... But not a smart way to test ;) Having said that, as kids we used a long length of grass to test cow fencers. Touch the wire with the tip and slowly slide the grass stem, making the distance to your hand shorter until you felt a jolt, or not!

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