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# M40

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74CommentsPeople's Socialist Republik of Taxachusetts

Tell us about yourself!

• You can't live without salt... the average person has a salt level equaling about half of one percent of their body weight (ie: a 200 lb. person has about a pound of salt). And the body breaks most of that salt into its constituent elements (sodium and chlorine). So yeah... look at a half pound puck of swimming pool chlorine and figure you've got that in your body at any given time.

Look at those big chlorine pucks they put in swimming pool skimmers, and remember that the average person has about that much chlorine in their body at any given time.

You can't live without salt... the average person has a salt level equaling about half of one percent of their body weight (ie: a 200 lb. person has about a pound of salt). And the body breaks most of that salt into its constituent elements (sodium and chlorine). So yeah... look at a half pound puck of swimming pool chlorine and figure you've got that in your body at any given time.

Your body not only has, but NEEDS chlorine. Without salt (also known as sodium CHLORIDE), you'll die. Salt separates in your body to sodium and free chlorine. The average person is about 0.5% salt by weight, so a 200 pound man has a pound of salt in him... which means about a half pound of chlorine.

• Yup, there's many out there with advanced degrees and high IQ's but almost no hands-on applied experience that correlates with real-world usage. One of my favorite illustrations (in joke form) that you might enjoy:_________________A physicist, and engineer and a statistician go deer hunting. They eventually come across a deer standing several hundred yards away.The physicist pulls out a notebook and furiously starts scribbling ballistic calculations. He then takes his rifle and aims it up in the air at a steep angle, and BOOM… he sends a round flying high into the sky in a steep arc. The bullet eventually starts its long plummet back to earth, and after 10 seconds… THWACK! The bullet kicks up a puff of dust about twenty feet in front of the deer.The engineer laughs, and says, “Hah! You …

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Yup, there's many out there with advanced degrees and high IQ's but almost no hands-on applied experience that correlates with real-world usage. One of my favorite illustrations (in joke form) that you might enjoy:_________________A physicist, and engineer and a statistician go deer hunting. They eventually come across a deer standing several hundred yards away.The physicist pulls out a notebook and furiously starts scribbling ballistic calculations. He then takes his rifle and aims it up in the air at a steep angle, and BOOM… he sends a round flying high into the sky in a steep arc. The bullet eventually starts its long plummet back to earth, and after 10 seconds… THWACK! The bullet kicks up a puff of dust about twenty feet in front of the deer.The engineer laughs, and says, “Hah! You calculated for a vacuum!”. He whips out his own notebook and makes a few corrections for the bullet’s aerodynamics and factors in the air temperature/density at various altitudes. He then grabs his rifle and aims it in a slightly less steep arc. BOOM! He sends another round high into the sky. This round takes another ten seconds and then, THWACK… this bullet kicks up a puff of dust about twenty feet BEYOND the deer.The statistician thinks for a moment, and then starts jumping for joy, yelling, “We got him! We got him!”.

• Yup... charcoal (carbon) filters are preferable, but sand (silicon) filters work well too. Life on earth developed as carbon based life forms because carbon bonds quite well with pretty much everything. This makes it pretty great as a filtration medium because it grabs onto every little thing... kinda like chemical duct tape! Scientists have surmised that if there is any other life in the universe, it would have to be either carbon or SILICON based life. Because looking at the elements, silica is the only other element that comes anywhere near carbon in the ability to bond. So it's not surprising that silicon (sand) filters work. I'd probably go a good bit deeper than a 2 liter bottle full of sand, maybe grab a few feet of pipe to fill with sand. But it should work.Still... charcoal is S…

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Yup... charcoal (carbon) filters are preferable, but sand (silicon) filters work well too. Life on earth developed as carbon based life forms because carbon bonds quite well with pretty much everything. This makes it pretty great as a filtration medium because it grabs onto every little thing... kinda like chemical duct tape! Scientists have surmised that if there is any other life in the universe, it would have to be either carbon or SILICON based life. Because looking at the elements, silica is the only other element that comes anywhere near carbon in the ability to bond. So it's not surprising that silicon (sand) filters work. I'd probably go a good bit deeper than a 2 liter bottle full of sand, maybe grab a few feet of pipe to fill with sand. But it should work.Still... charcoal is SO easy to find/make, that it's be ridiculous to rely only on the sand. I'd do both. Start with a foot of sand, followed by a foot of charcoal. You'd be reasonably assured of pure water out the other side. Not too many chemistries I can think of that would make it past both.

• Sounds about right... Clorox company website agrees - https://www.clorox.com/how-to/disinfecting-sanitiz...The numbers shown in the instructable are nearly double what Clorox and other sources provide... but still nowhere near harmful levels. Sounds like the writer was erring on the side of caution, although he got the "sniff test" backwards.

Yup... he got the "sniff test" completely backwards. - If you can still smell bleach after that much time, then the water is clean. It has killed everything and there is still free chlorine there to smell. - If you CANNOT smell the bleach, then it has all been used up (it breaks down as it oxidizes away the bacteria). And if it's been used up, there's no telling whether anything is still alive in there... time to re-treat, wait and repeat the sniff test!

Poison?? Seriously? Let's not get hysterical here. The average person drinks bleached water all the time. Treating water with chlorine is perfectly safe, and in fact the most commonly used method by towns, cities and other municipalities to treat what comes out of your faucet. Your body not only has, but NEEDS chlorine. Without salt (also known as sodium CHLORIDE), you'll die. Salt separates in your body to sodium and free chlorine. The average person is about 0.5% salt by weight, so a 200 pound man has a pound of salt in him... which means about a half pound of chlorine. Note that a gallon of bleach weighs about 8 pounds, and is only about 5% chlorine. So the average person has far more chlorine in them than a gallon of bleach.As a (self-proclaimed) particle physicist, you should know b…

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Poison?? Seriously? Let's not get hysterical here. The average person drinks bleached water all the time. Treating water with chlorine is perfectly safe, and in fact the most commonly used method by towns, cities and other municipalities to treat what comes out of your faucet. Your body not only has, but NEEDS chlorine. Without salt (also known as sodium CHLORIDE), you'll die. Salt separates in your body to sodium and free chlorine. The average person is about 0.5% salt by weight, so a 200 pound man has a pound of salt in him... which means about a half pound of chlorine. Note that a gallon of bleach weighs about 8 pounds, and is only about 5% chlorine. So the average person has far more chlorine in them than a gallon of bleach.As a (self-proclaimed) particle physicist, you should know better than to get hysterical over basic chemistry.

• M40 commented on mikeasaurus's instructable Easy Waterproof Clothing

It's not a recipe for homebrewed GoreTex if that's what you're asking. It's waterproofing, pure and simple. The waterproof/breathable fabrics are membranes that have pores large enough to allow water vapor to pass through, but small enough to prevent liquid water molecules from entering.

• Very nice! Would be cool to add more of the knotwork patterns to the blade itself to tie it in with the handle.I've done a few hatchet heads kind of like that.

It's an Estwing hatchet that I took to a full flat grind. The artwork was cut from sign vinyl which is applied to the blade as a mask. The etch was done in ferric chloride, followed by plenty of buffing with jeweler's rouge.

• M40 commented on JonneMila's instructable How to make a Bottle Prison

Sorry, but if someone gave me that, I'd have that bottle free in about a minute with a cutoff wheel on an angle grinder... and I'd probably giftwrap the destroyed cage and give it back to them.

Why would an angle grinder throw "shrapnel" or damage the bottle? You could zip through those threaded rods in about a minute with no damage to the bottle at all.

• For safety, a mower blade needs to bend before breaking and deform before chipping. Basically, a low carbon mild steel is actually preferable for this application... and cheaper. So most of the companies that make mowers will go with the best (and cheapest) material. A few of the better companies out there will use medium carbon material and then selectively harden ONLY the cutting edge. If you happen to have one of these, then it may work for you.Advice... do NOT go through a bunch of work making a blade unless you know what material you're working with. It would be a shame to put all that work into something you can never harden! Cut off a small chunk and test harden it.

• I don't think mower blades will harden at all. They are very mild (low carbon) steel.

• I didn't miss any point. I think each project should be evaluated by each person as to whether it is worth their time to tackle. In my case, I evaluated all the work put into this project and determined that I will not attempt to do my own recycling of HDPE... it's way more trouble than its worth. I therefore THANK the author for the warnings about all the things that can and do go wrong. It's cheaper and easier to simply buy recycled sheets from any of a dozen different sources.

• M40 commented on TimAnderson's instructable Instant Caltrops

Legos... the ultimate midnight surprise for barefoot parents.

• M40 commented on makendo's instructable Battery powered fog machine

For vaping e-liquid. It's actually the number one way to quit smoking and allows you to gradually decrease nicotine content from cigarette levels to zero. Even after hitting zero nicotine, many vapers (including myself) continue to enjoy it as there are many flavors of vapor out there. You can effectively get the sensation of smoking with none of the health issues.

Yup, that exact power supply (called a "mod" in vaping parlance).As for the atomizer head, most RTA's would work, but I would make sure to use one with really good juice flow and really open airflow.

For future reference... the store you bought that kit rebrands and marks stuff up. You have the following: - The base is an eLeaf iPower 80 watt mod. They cost about \$30-35 - The atomizer head (tank style) is a JoyeTech Ultimo which costs about \$20While that base is probably ideal for this application, the tank is not. I would get a decent RTA (Rebuildable Tank Atomizer). With the rebuildables, you can easily make your own wicks and coils to suit the application. This saves you from having to constantly buy new coil modules.The coils that come with the tank you've referenced do not wick very fast. I'm betting that you have limited burn time before you can smell burning wick. With the RTA type, you can make really fast-wicking coils that will feed juice as fast as it vaporizes off.Also, f…

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For future reference... the store you bought that kit rebrands and marks stuff up. You have the following: - The base is an eLeaf iPower 80 watt mod. They cost about \$30-35 - The atomizer head (tank style) is a JoyeTech Ultimo which costs about \$20While that base is probably ideal for this application, the tank is not. I would get a decent RTA (Rebuildable Tank Atomizer). With the rebuildables, you can easily make your own wicks and coils to suit the application. This saves you from having to constantly buy new coil modules.The coils that come with the tank you've referenced do not wick very fast. I'm betting that you have limited burn time before you can smell burning wick. With the RTA type, you can make really fast-wicking coils that will feed juice as fast as it vaporizes off.Also, for bigger, denser clouds, simply buy vegetable glycerine. It is VERY cheap stuff. If it's too thick to feed quickly, it can be thinned with about 10-20% water.

Atomizer getting hot... you're okay. Battery (mod) getting hot... STOP.Warm to the touch is okay... but when it surpasses that, you seriously need to stop and let it cool a bit. We're dealing with a lithium ion cell. Think... Samsung phone meltdown scenario.

• M40 commented on danthemakerman's instructable Saw Blade Knife

True... if someone just wants it for looks and for the experience (and has some scrap saw blades kicking around), then that's fine. But why go to the extra steps to harden and temper if it doesn't buy you anything? It's not hard to test a scrap piece.And yes... I was waiting for someone to take this as criticism and jump down my throat. I'm not criticizing... just warning folks to know the steel you're working with before you put a ton of work into something.PS - You can buy a billet of really great blade steel for less money than a saw blade, so anyone that was planning on running to Home Depot to buy a saw blade for this project should be warned that you can get better steel for a lot less money!

I usually go through Jantz Supply (kind of a one-stop bladesmith shop), but occasionally go other places to get various grades of steel... I'll check out the Baron though, thanks!

I watched but (mea culpa), I fast forwarded through all the talking parts to where I saw the whole saw blade with you tracing the blade shape. I didn't realize that there was the (out of sequence) bit where you ground off a piece for testing.Even then, how do you know what the steel is? It could be an oil quench... or water... or even an air quench. And then the tempering times and temp settings could be fine... or you might ruin it. Always better to spend a few dollars on a known grade of steel before you put a LOT of work into something. Knowing the steel lets you look up the correct temp and soak to form carbides.... what quench medium to use... how much time you have to quench (some grades allow you a solid 5-10 seconds to get your temp down, and others you have under a second)... an…

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I watched but (mea culpa), I fast forwarded through all the talking parts to where I saw the whole saw blade with you tracing the blade shape. I didn't realize that there was the (out of sequence) bit where you ground off a piece for testing.Even then, how do you know what the steel is? It could be an oil quench... or water... or even an air quench. And then the tempering times and temp settings could be fine... or you might ruin it. Always better to spend a few dollars on a known grade of steel before you put a LOT of work into something. Knowing the steel lets you look up the correct temp and soak to form carbides.... what quench medium to use... how much time you have to quench (some grades allow you a solid 5-10 seconds to get your temp down, and others you have under a second)... and correct tempering times and temps to get the hardness you want.PS - I've played the risky game of using scrap metal to make blades. Some didn't really harden, and a couple others were... heartbreakers (fractured or warped during the quench).

• M40 commented on Earlsart's instructable Tiffany-style light shades

Reminds me of something that happened in middle school. We were sitting in class when the teacher (a man) announced, "Okay kiddies, close your books and get your pencils out... I've got a little quizzie for ya!"We were all groaning as he began handing out the pop quiz. One girl looked over the quiz and announced, "Quizzie? Geez... I'd hate to see your testies!".The teacher tried to hold back laughter... failed... and had to leave the room. We could hear him bellowing laughter all the way down the hall.

• They claimed 2014 was the "warmest on record".. but it was later found to be a lie. Then they claimed 2015 was the "warmest on record".. but it was later found to be a lie. Now they're claiming 2016 was the warmest... do I need to go on?The fact is... we only have 30 years of 'good' climate data (satellites). The rest of earth's history is based on sheer guesswork. Over the last century, we can see LOCAL trends, (mostly from airports and cities). Some might call that "weather". But we were missing vast swaths of the planet where there was no recorded data at all, so NOBODY can say with any certainty at all what the "mean temperature" of earth was. Heck... we can't even claim to knoow that with certainty today.The centuries and eons before recorded t…

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They claimed 2014 was the "warmest on record".. but it was later found to be a lie. Then they claimed 2015 was the "warmest on record".. but it was later found to be a lie. Now they're claiming 2016 was the warmest... do I need to go on?The fact is... we only have 30 years of 'good' climate data (satellites). The rest of earth's history is based on sheer guesswork. Over the last century, we can see LOCAL trends, (mostly from airports and cities). Some might call that "weather". But we were missing vast swaths of the planet where there was no recorded data at all, so NOBODY can say with any certainty at all what the "mean temperature" of earth was. Heck... we can't even claim to knoow that with certainty today.The centuries and eons before recorded temperatures are VERY subjective. We can look at tree rings, ice cores and such to fill in some blanks... but the guesswork grows. All we can say for certain is that earth has gone through a LOT of periods MUCH warmer than today. We've also seen ice ages. We have absolutely NO idea what earth's "normal mean temperature" is (or even if there is any such thing).And so we're looking at a 30 year data set. That's not a "trend". Heck, it's not even a "blip" when measured against the geologic time spans that global climate has spanned. Anyone claiming we're too cool... or too warm... is spouting utterly non-scientific nonsense.

• WOW... that's an amazing level of warming you're surmising, which is completely unbacked by any real data. The CO2 changes come significantly AFTER temperature variations... that's the dirty little secret that real scientists are now admitting all over the world. The only ones still on board with anthropomorphic warming are those who've hitched their financial wagons to the "global warming" gravy train. Many are now ABANDONING the whole thing...______________________“The Kyoto theorists have put the cart before the horse. It is global warming that triggers higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, not the other way round." - Andrei Kapitsa, a Russian geographer and Antarctic ice core researcher.“I personally cannot in good faith continue to contribute …

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WOW... that's an amazing level of warming you're surmising, which is completely unbacked by any real data. The CO2 changes come significantly AFTER temperature variations... that's the dirty little secret that real scientists are now admitting all over the world. The only ones still on board with anthropomorphic warming are those who've hitched their financial wagons to the "global warming" gravy train. Many are now ABANDONING the whole thing...______________________“The Kyoto theorists have put the cart before the horse. It is global warming that triggers higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, not the other way round." - Andrei Kapitsa, a Russian geographer and Antarctic ice core researcher.“I personally cannot in good faith continue to contribute to a process that I view as both being motivated by pre-conceived agendas and being scientifically unsound,” - Christopher W. Landsea, IPCC author and reviewer, NOAA National Hurricane Center "The whole climate change issue is about to fall apart — Heads will roll!" - UN Scientist Dr. Will Alexander“Worst scientific scandal in history. When people come to know what the truth is, they will feel deceived by science and scientists.” - UN IPCC Scientist Dr. Kiminori Itoh, PhD environmental physical chemist.“Temperature measurements show that the [climate model-predicted mid-troposphere] hot zone is non-existent. This is more than sufficient to invalidate global climate models and projections made with them!”- UN IPCC Scientist Dr. Steven M. Japar, PhD atmospheric chemist"A Death Spiral for Climate Alarmism" "We can expect the climate crisis industry to grow increasingly shrill, and increasingly hostile toward anyone who questions their authority" - UN IPCC Scientist Kenneth P. Green, IPCC expert reviewer for the United Nations“Gore prompted me to start delving into the science again and I quickly found myself solidly in the skeptic camp. Climate models can at best be useful for explaining climate changes after the fact.” – Meteorologist Hajo Smit, Dutch UN IPCC committee.“The claims of the IPCC are dangerous unscientific nonsense” – Dr Vincent Gray, IPCC reviewer and climate researcher."We’re not scientifically there yet" - Tom Tripp, UN IPCC Lead Author “The IPCC has actually become a closed circuit; it doesn’t listen to others. It doesn’t have open minds… I am really amazed that the Nobel Peace Prize has been given on scientifically incorrect conclusions" – Indian geologist Dr. Arun D. Ahluwalia “We need recognition among the scientific community, the media, and policymakers that the IPCC process is obviously a real conflict of interest, and this has resulted in a significantly flawed report.” - Dr. Roger Pielke, Colorado State Climatologist.________________________HUNDREDS more scientists are dropping this nonsense every day... like a hot potato. When the brief (northern hemisphere) warming trend stopped they TRIED to change the name from "global warming" to "climate change" in a transparent attempt to blame all climate fluctuations on mankind. But the theory never progressed beyond theoretical hyperbole. NONE of their predictions came to pass, and NONE of the validating studies bore any fruit. In scientific terms, the theory should now be considered disproven. But there are those for whom this issue has left the realm of science and become RELIGION. They continue their march on "faith"... and a LOT of tax dollars.

• You mentioned that you, "grind off the spot welds. I don't want to forge these into the billet as it will introduce mild steel". Question: What is the transmission chain made of? How can you be sure that it has sufficient carbon content before you take on the project? This is always a question that must be asked when making a blade... whether from cable, chain, old saw blades, or other scrap parts. There's nothing worse than pouring serious time into a project like this only to find your time and effort were wasted.So let's say you test a small piece, and the answer is yes (this is carbon steel and can be hardened). What hardening and tempering profile should be used? Typically you'd want to know EXACTLY what steel you're working with before you start in order to get to the corr…

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You mentioned that you, "grind off the spot welds. I don't want to forge these into the billet as it will introduce mild steel". Question: What is the transmission chain made of? How can you be sure that it has sufficient carbon content before you take on the project? This is always a question that must be asked when making a blade... whether from cable, chain, old saw blades, or other scrap parts. There's nothing worse than pouring serious time into a project like this only to find your time and effort were wasted.So let's say you test a small piece, and the answer is yes (this is carbon steel and can be hardened). What hardening and tempering profile should be used? Typically you'd want to know EXACTLY what steel you're working with before you start in order to get to the correct quench temp... the correct quench medium (air, oil. water, etc)... the correct temper profile(s), and even the correct annealing/normalizing.

• M40 commented on kludge77's instructable Gummy Bear Axe

PS - For simple mold making like this, try the expanding spray foam stuff you get from the hardware store. At 5 or 6 bucks a can, it'll save you the \$200 you spent on pourable mold rubber, and you'll end up with a more rigid mold. Just spray down the surfaces of the item you're casting with a light oil or silicone so the foam doesn't stick to it.

I guess I sort of get the ridiculous duality of a lumberjack wielding a razor sharp, double edged axe... with a gummy bear themed handle. Kinda brings Monty Python's 'Lumberjack' song to mind.I might have gone with the original handle and done a gloss pink base paint. Cover that with copious amounts of unicorns, rainbows, puppies, etc. (either stickers or painted artwork). Maybe some lacy purple ribbon as grip tape. A big 'Hello Kitty' etching on the sides of the blade would finish it off nicely.The end result would be a big, bad, bearded lumberjack wielding his favorite axe, which appeared to have been decorated by a 10 year old girl. Likewise, a guy decked in head to toe black SWAT gear, but toting his favorite Hello Kitty rifle...

• M40 commented on danthemakerman's instructable Kiridashi Marking Knife

Be careful about starting with ANY unknown metal. Lawnmower blades could be pretty much anything, and there's no easy way to tell. Usually it's very low grade, low carbon steel. No use putting a lot of work into something that will not take an edge and never amount to much. There are plenty of blademaking sites that sell decent blade steel and it's not usually expensive. 1095 in particular is fairly cheap and relatively easy stuff to work with. Likewise, 5160 is cheap and easy to process, and will make a really tough blade with decent edge holding.

I know others have answered, but I might have a more complete explanation. There are two attributes that you want in a blade... hardness and toughness. Hardness comes from the quench (rapid descent from orange glowing hot to room temperature). Toughness comes from "tempering"... a specific heat treatment after the quench, usually a trip to somewhere between 300F-450F for an hour or so. Almost all blades are tempered. Those blades you might have seen made (on that terrible TV show about bladesmithing) are not simply quenched. They are ALL tempered. They just don't show that part of the process because it's boring.Let's discuss the properties I mentioned... hardness vs. toughness. Hardness allows a blade to hold an edge through extended periods of cutting softer materials. Toughne…

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