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  • MaykeS1's instructable A DIY Imaging Fluorometer's weekly stats:
    • A DIY Imaging Fluorometer
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      4 comments
  • MaykeS1 commented on MaykeS1's instructable A DIY Imaging Fluorometer
    A DIY Imaging Fluorometer

    Hi Timothy, Thanks for your kind comment. Yes, I am happy to throw some names where you can get the filters. I would recommend to check the pages of the following companies:https://www.andovercorp.com/https://www.thorlabs.com/https://www.edmundoptics.euhttps://midopt.com The filters offered by these companies are high quality, but prices are a big wall for hobbyists, if you need customisation as I did, it's a no-go.I used a couple of Chinese manufacturers that I found through Alibaba, one of them is:https://www.alibaba.com/trade/search?fsb=y&IndexAr... I cannot comment about quality and precision but, so far, the filters look OK. Usually, filters' price increases according to the materials they are made of and the steepness of the curve at cutoff. I believe you can get some very good …

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    Hi Timothy, Thanks for your kind comment. Yes, I am happy to throw some names where you can get the filters. I would recommend to check the pages of the following companies:https://www.andovercorp.com/https://www.thorlabs.com/https://www.edmundoptics.euhttps://midopt.com The filters offered by these companies are high quality, but prices are a big wall for hobbyists, if you need customisation as I did, it's a no-go.I used a couple of Chinese manufacturers that I found through Alibaba, one of them is:https://www.alibaba.com/trade/search?fsb=y&IndexAr... I cannot comment about quality and precision but, so far, the filters look OK. Usually, filters' price increases according to the materials they are made of and the steepness of the curve at cutoff. I believe you can get some very good filters from China from around USD $200 per unit (the same filter, from the above Western companies can easily get to the USD $400 mark, without customisation), but it will depend on the size, shape and cutoff wavelength. The Chinese are very responsive, so you can have a quote in no time. Finally, I must admit that Instructables is not very 'instructable friendly'. If you go to hackaday.io, you can see that I have provided even manufacturer's parts numbers to make easier to source all the components. Check the link below:https://hackaday.io/project/174580-a-diy-imaging-f... I will provide with an estimate cost once I finish assembly. Most of the costs are high because of the small quantity of parts and because customisation is expensive. Someone with a lathe, cnc milling machine, swivel bandsaw, a 3D printer and some other tools could build a much better version of the fluorometer at smaller costs, but hey! You still need to pay for the machinery, right?What sort of spectrometer have you got in mind? What sort of detectors are you talking about? Photodiodes?

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  • MaykeS1 commented on MaykeS1's instructable A DIY Imaging Fluorometer
    A DIY Imaging Fluorometer

    Hi Mark. Thank you for spotting that mistake. It is in fact 660nm. I have corrected it accordingly.Regards, Mayke

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  • A Raspberry Pi Multispectral Camera

    This post is old, but it answers your main question.https://goldentreefrogblog.wordpress.com/2018/12/28/my-low-cost-multispectral-camera-spectral-pi/

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  • A Raspberry Pi Multispectral Camera

    I am!Getting nearly there. what are your requirements? My first carrier board already arrived, but I have to solve a small issue so I will have to wait for V2 to field testing. Bear with me :)

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  • A Raspberry Pi Multispectral Camera

    Hi, How do you want to detect fires? thermal footprint, machine vision? That sounds complicated. I think you are better off just buying one of the flir lepton boards:https://groupgets.com/campaigns/588-purethermal-mini-pro-with-flir-lepton-3-0

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  • A Raspberry Pi Multispectral Camera

    Hi Jake, Thank you for your comment. If you have a quick look at the comments' thread you'll find the answers to your questions about cameras and filters.Kind regards, Mayke

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  • A Raspberry Pi Multispectral Camera

    Hello @204manal,I use 2 cameras because one captures the red, green and blue channels, while the other camera captures the nir spectrum using a special filter. Does that make sense?Regards, Mayke

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      • A Raspberry Pi Multispectral Camera
  • Your questions in order: 1. No necessarily. The biggest problem is to discern or differentiate between the stress and daily changes in reflectance, the type of stress (hydric, heat, disease), etc. Plants are living organisms; they will not behave exactly the same way all the time. When you feel cold, you put a jacket on; if you are hot, you drink a cool lemonade; plants will close stomata in severe cold and open it in hot conditions; chemical quenching will occur to dissipate heat and evotranspiration will speed up. Do you think these phenomena will affect the sort of data you are aiming to get? YES!2. There is also a problem of scale; how granular needs your data to be?3. More cameras mean more wavelengths in one go, the difficulty of the project is proportional to the …

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    Your questions in order: 1. No necessarily. The biggest problem is to discern or differentiate between the stress and daily changes in reflectance, the type of stress (hydric, heat, disease), etc. Plants are living organisms; they will not behave exactly the same way all the time. When you feel cold, you put a jacket on; if you are hot, you drink a cool lemonade; plants will close stomata in severe cold and open it in hot conditions; chemical quenching will occur to dissipate heat and evotranspiration will speed up. Do you think these phenomena will affect the sort of data you are aiming to get? YES!2. There is also a problem of scale; how granular needs your data to be?3. More cameras mean more wavelengths in one go, the difficulty of the project is proportional to the amount of cameras you use.4. Blue or red filter means nothing to me. Please familiarise yourself with Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR), and the type of wavelengths used by plants in photosynthesis. What you want is to measure reflectance and then derive from it some stress scale. For that you need to look at infrared light so, you need an IR or NIR filter. Good luck and keep asking if needed

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  • Hi, There are fundamental differences between what you get from a multispectral camera and from a thermal camera. Furthermore, water and heat stress will affect the plant differently and therefore will show up different symptoms. So, my first recommendation, particularly if this is academic related, you need to narrow down this further.Cost reduction. How are you planning to use it? A fixed rig, as in no moving around, will substantially reduce your need for multiple cameras, or even render the CM unnecessary. You could buy a raspberry pi and a multiplexer, and as many cameras as wavelengths you may need. Filters are not cheap though, and the more precision you are after, the more expensive they’ll be. So, again, set a realistic baseline with regards to what quality your data must have.La…

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    Hi, There are fundamental differences between what you get from a multispectral camera and from a thermal camera. Furthermore, water and heat stress will affect the plant differently and therefore will show up different symptoms. So, my first recommendation, particularly if this is academic related, you need to narrow down this further.Cost reduction. How are you planning to use it? A fixed rig, as in no moving around, will substantially reduce your need for multiple cameras, or even render the CM unnecessary. You could buy a raspberry pi and a multiplexer, and as many cameras as wavelengths you may need. Filters are not cheap though, and the more precision you are after, the more expensive they’ll be. So, again, set a realistic baseline with regards to what quality your data must have.Lastly, the CM allows you to connect two cameras, as well as buy/design an IO board for your specific needs. The latter is far, far away from amateur/school projects, as you need to invest money and longer time scales to achieve things. A raspberry pi = 1 camera. As I have said above, you can always use a multiplexer to connect more cameras; but bear in mind that they will trigger in a successive order. If you are not moving around, that should not be a big problem.Hope this helps

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  • Hi,Thanks for your comment. Feel free to ask any questions

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  • maykef at gmail dot com

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  • Hi @sakaic, Happy to answer your questions. Just email them through.

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  • Congratulations for your project!Any plants already growing?

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  • This one: https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B01E5IEIUU/ref...I know I know, extremely cheap but I'll buy something better later...

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  • Oh yes!Going for it as soon as I receive my X100 Microscope Objective.Congratulations @jbumstead

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  • Hi texacoon,Adding extra cameras would be advantageous if you want to have more control over specific wavelengths. For example, using 4 cameras would enable you to filter the red, green, blue and NIR light down to a specific wavelength and bandwidth. The question is, do you really need that level of control over the spectrum? Maybe not. Visible light, that is, red, green and blue, might not need that level of control if you simply want to produce NDVIs to detect general stress in plants. In that case, all you need to do is to add an extra band such as NIR (840nm with a bandwidth of 20-40nm) to detect stress. That means that you can have just 2 cameras, one getting RGB, the other one getting the NIR, for you to produce NDVIs.If you give me a little bit more of information I might be able t…

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    Hi texacoon,Adding extra cameras would be advantageous if you want to have more control over specific wavelengths. For example, using 4 cameras would enable you to filter the red, green, blue and NIR light down to a specific wavelength and bandwidth. The question is, do you really need that level of control over the spectrum? Maybe not. Visible light, that is, red, green and blue, might not need that level of control if you simply want to produce NDVIs to detect general stress in plants. In that case, all you need to do is to add an extra band such as NIR (840nm with a bandwidth of 20-40nm) to detect stress. That means that you can have just 2 cameras, one getting RGB, the other one getting the NIR, for you to produce NDVIs.If you give me a little bit more of information I might be able to be more specific in the requirements you need. What drone do you use? Are you a farmer yourself? If so, what crops do you grow? What is it that you want to detect? Water or nutrient deficiencies? Maybe all you want to see is if your crop is growing uniformly across your field? When you say overpriced camera, what sort of product have you checked/used? Most available products such as the Micasense Rededge/Sequoia cameras are not overpriced, they are simply targeting a specific niche with specific requirements. Having said all that, I'm about to finish a second iteration of the multispectral camera so, it would be very interesting for me to add your feedback on the new specifications. The final product would be considerable cheaper than the products available on the market now.

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  • Holy Moly! It Rocks this project!!!

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  • Filters can be acquired from Andover Corporation (https://www.andovercorp.com/products/bandpass-filt...). Cameras need to be PiNoir from Raspberry Pi.Cheers

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  • Drop me an email at maykef at gmail dot com

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  • The radiance sensor is not fully usable with those cameras, the only function that really does is to add some more information to the metadata of the images. I think you should play with the camera without connecting it to the radiance sensor. You can use a lambertian surface to calibrate the camera. It will work better than the sensor, and it's recommended by Micasense. You don't really need an RGB mosaic in most cases. In fact, you can create a real color image with the Sequoia, mixing the four bands. It may not look as nice and sharp as the RGB mosaic of the Zenmuse Z3 (I don't know which camera you own).This is my platform BTW.

    The reality is, these things are complicated. The problem with RGB sensors is that they let you play with images but, as you progress and need to do more complicated analyses, you'll realise you need a sensor that is capable of picking up the right wavelength. Read this post for example: https://publiclab.org/notes/khufkens/11-02-2015/ov5647-raspberry-pi-camera-spectral-response-quantum-efficiency/ Now, I'm a bit intrigued. If you own the DJIs cameras and a Parrot Sequoia, they should be more than enough for NDVIs. What is exactly that you want to do? What do you mean by the Parrot Sequoia failing?

    Hi Jose, It depends on what issue you refer to. Camera sync? That's not difficult if you can design your electronics from scratch. But that costs money. The cameras I've seen have FPGAs for each of them, so obviously you are holdingthe info there while channeling through your BUS to the sim card. But they do much more than just that. As I said above, RGBs are not suitable for multispectral imaging; and most modifications I've seen are just for amateur projects. If you are serious about multispectral imaging you need to have all your bands separated, calibrated and aligned.Good luck with your peoject!

    Hi @Kankamuso, a) You can definitely focus it at infinite.b) Yes, I did experience blurring. It's not suitable for taking pictures while the drone is moving. You could potentially stop over your AOI and take some photographs. The more serious problem is that the cameras would not trigger at the same time; there is a lag between of around 8 miliseconds, which is disastrous if you are moving too fast.c) FOV should not be a problem, at least if you are flying over 50m. You don't need to crop the images, but you'll have to align them either using a commercial software like Arcmap, or following few tutorials to use Opencv with C or Python for that purpose. Either way, you should get good results. You'll also have to take in consideration things like vignette effect, row gradient and irradiance…

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    Hi @Kankamuso, a) You can definitely focus it at infinite.b) Yes, I did experience blurring. It's not suitable for taking pictures while the drone is moving. You could potentially stop over your AOI and take some photographs. The more serious problem is that the cameras would not trigger at the same time; there is a lag between of around 8 miliseconds, which is disastrous if you are moving too fast.c) FOV should not be a problem, at least if you are flying over 50m. You don't need to crop the images, but you'll have to align them either using a commercial software like Arcmap, or following few tutorials to use Opencv with C or Python for that purpose. Either way, you should get good results. You'll also have to take in consideration things like vignette effect, row gradient and irradiance calibration if you DO want to make something serious out of it. d) Remember that you get what you pay for, so do not get too excited about excellent results with this system. A commercial multispectral camera costs around $5K, at least 10 times more than this simple camera, but on the other hand, you get monochrome sensors, perfect sync, and technical assistance. I still believe that thus system should be enough to intro hobbyists into multispectral imaging, learn the basics, and then move on. I hope this helps.

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  • I haven't followed up on new versions of the CM. As far as I remember, you can use both camera versions. There's a caveat though with the V2 cameras, but that's addressed in the tutorial, and I don't think it is a problem with recent versions of Raspbian.Does this answer your question?

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  • As far as I know the Pi Zero does not have wifi connection. You should start by explaining how you solved that, then go onto explaining how to set up wpa_supplicant.

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  • You need to follow the instructions here:https://github.com/andreafabrizi/Dropbox-Uploader

    Hi, The camera has just two lenses. The case I 3D printed had six holes, but that was for another system. Sorry for the confusion.

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  • MaykeS1 commented on anil8tor's instructable Solar Heater for My Shop

    Mind-blowing!This could be a very nice water desalinator in remote islands with no electricity supply!

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  • You don't need a multispectral camera for indoors, do you?In any case is a extremely good setup for outdoors, you can leave the original raspicam lenses to have a wider angle of view.

    Raspicam V2 8mp, 16mm M12 lenses, bandpass filter 840mn for NIR from andover corp.

    Definitely, you can actually use the following and add another capability to the camera.Have a look at this:https://groupgets.com/manufacturers/flir/products/flir-lepton

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