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There are probably a few ways of doing it. This way used windows as a middleman which is not really the best way of doing so. I have not been keeping up with either Arduinos or scanners, but maybe you can do something over bluetooth.
You can't under the current set up. There is nothing electronically set up from the lock to tell you if it is locked or unlocked. Only that you sent the command to it. I'm sure there are ways to do so, a different lock, a extra sensor, ect. But testing if it actually locked or unlocked, short of just manually testing, was not included in this instructable.
They should work very similarly, but those locks use a lot more power than the small one I used. But the idea should be the same.
You could but it would eat up batteries pretty fast. Here the spring keeps the door lock, and when it gets power it charges the electromagnet that pulls back the pin to unlock. If you invert it you would have to flip that some how where the power is always on pushing the pen to keep it locked. What i would do is have a way to supply backup power to the unit. For example i have a electronic lock that i use on a door in the house. The batteries are kept inside the locked area, so if the power goes out there isnt a way to access it from the outside. So what the company did was put a connector hidden on the outside, so if the power went out i just had to connect a battery to the front to power it long enough to open the door.
If its a simple electronic one that just needs a current of some kind to open then it should work fine.