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  • Build a Martian Electronic Eye

    I saw the original movie in a theater in New York City during the summer of 1956 (a hint to my age!) with my Dad. He enjoyed the movie, too. We were wowed by the excellent special effects, and I remember Sylvia's scream when she saw the eye (and the eye's view of Sylvia on the screen). When Steve Spielberg did the remake, I also saw it in a theater, and I have both versions on DVD. I an expecting to watch a new British version that is based on the original 19th century environment as in the H.G. Wells novel.Excellent Instructable!

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  • Automotive Current Detector

    Using 14 VDC as the battery voltage is correct and well because each cell voltage is 2.2 V each, or a total of 13.2 V when fully charged, Some cars charge high, up to 15 V. I suggest using a screw instead of the 8-32 bolt because a screw has a sharper tip, which is useful for very small test surfaces and can scratch away some of the grime that can coat the test surface. Adding a silicon diode in series can prevent reverse voltages and lower the resistor size.

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  • The Valuable Coffee Jar

    I can recommend using jars that hold liquids such as tomato sauce. After emptying and cleaning, paint the inside with red enamel paint (for tomato sauce), then use that jar to store even more valuables. Line it with paper or plastic to prevent scratching the paint inside. If you use a large mayonnaise jar, and paint the insides creamy white, you can even store large items in it, and in the refrigerator.

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  • DIY Arduino Multifunction Energy Meter

    "Unit of Energy is Watt Hour or Kilowatt Hour (kWh)"Not true. The real unit of energy is the Joule, which is one watt-second:E= PxtWhere E is in joules, P is in watts, and t is in seconds.If we convert the common but erroneous kilo-watt-hour (kWh) into joules, we get 3.6 x 10^6 J, or 3.6 megajoules. Since your sensor is measuring small amounts of power and energy, , it is much more correct to express it as joules.

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  • Simple Animatronic Mouth Using 3D Printing, Arduino and Python

    This is what I will need to anime my own MechaGozilla head Popcorn Bucket (see image). It has a movable jaw which can be animated, but it has two lasers inside its mouth. I wish to use white LEDs for those lasers and yellow LEDs for the eyes. If I can, I will also add a recording of its scream. For those who are Godzilla fans, this head has the purple and green colors of EVA-01 from the Evangelion anime, since the producer of that anime series is the same that produced the new Shin Godzilla. In Japan they have a new attraction where the EVA-01 unit fights Shin Godzilla. And that is where they sell this popcorn bucket (they have another using EVA-01's head). You can buy this popcorn bucket head at eBay.

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  • Layered Birthday Cake for Your Dog!

    You can make it and eat it for your own birthday, since it is much healtier than a regular cake.

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  • Alexa Controlled Bookshelf Lighting

    I have two Echo devices working with my four home sensors that I put in myself, even one in my mailbox. When the mail carrier opens the mailbox, Alexa alerts me. Since you can create routines, anyone can have her say "You have Mail".In addition, Alexa powers on six of my lights downstairs and four more upstairs according to my special schedule. She can even power on and off my Vizio TV. So home automation still works under Alexa.

    I bought this sensor at Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07VBC36WM/The small part is the magnet, which I stuck on the inside of the mailbox door. The large part is the Wi-Fi sensor. transmitter which I stuck on the box interior and lined up both to be close together when the cover is closed. Alexa can reply with a routine when the sensor is detected open or closed, and she can also reply with the status when asked ("Alexa, is the mailbox closed?".). I have two more on my doors, and I know that it can be used for many other applications.

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  • Windmill / Electric Generator

    That is NOT a "windmill" because you are not milling wind! The official definition is a wind powered turbine, and with a generator it is called a wind powered turbine generator.

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  • DIY Automatic Alcohol Dispenser (No Arduino Needed)

    If the pump is submersible, all the electrical contacts are sealed inside and no sparks will happen. Besides, you also need oxygen for a spark to ignite the alcohol, and while it is inside the fluid, there isn't any oxygen.

    If the cap is deep enough, install all the components inside, and just drill out a hole or holes for the sensor. A rechargeable Li-ion cell may also fit, so the cap can have a USB change port instead of the cable.

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  • Safe Handling & Decontamination Procedures for COVID-19

    One tip that I recommend not just for reducing contamination but also for elderly seniors is to replace the faucet grab handles on all sinks with level or paddle types. If you have visited hospital or medical bathrooms, you see that the faucets have long levels or paddles. This is to reduce the effort and skin surface contact for opening and closing the faucets. If your hands are dirty or contaminated, you can use the back of the hand (or even your wrists if you are tall enough) to push the level open and later to push them close without using your fingers or palms.. This same benefit applies for the weak or elderly that cannot grab or pull a faucet handle. Watch TV ads, medical news articles, or even medical TV and movie programs (such as "New Amsterdam") and observe how the me…

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    One tip that I recommend not just for reducing contamination but also for elderly seniors is to replace the faucet grab handles on all sinks with level or paddle types. If you have visited hospital or medical bathrooms, you see that the faucets have long levels or paddles. This is to reduce the effort and skin surface contact for opening and closing the faucets. If your hands are dirty or contaminated, you can use the back of the hand (or even your wrists if you are tall enough) to push the level open and later to push them close without using your fingers or palms.. This same benefit applies for the weak or elderly that cannot grab or pull a faucet handle. Watch TV ads, medical news articles, or even medical TV and movie programs (such as "New Amsterdam") and observe how the medical staff washes their hands. As incredible as it may be known, this is an old practice since running water was piped in for medical needs.Consider replacing all your bathroom and kitchen sink handles with levels or paddles. The cost will be recovered when you or your family reach the age that you will really need them!

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  • LED Distance Indicator Dog Harness

    This is niece as a pure analog solution, and very simple to understand and build. I am lucky that my own dog (a 12 year old Llasa Apso) doesn't stray far from me when I walk, so I don't need this project. But I recommend it for those dog owners who tend to lose their pets. I recommend adding an audio output at the collar (transmitter) and train the dog to search and walk back to the owner when the audio signal is active.

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  • Safety Armband (with ATtiny85 and WS2812)

    Can this be modified as a dog collar so the dog will be very visible day and night? Maybe the leather belt should be replaced by a softer material so it will not harm the dog (BTW, my dog weighs 22 pounds or 10 kg). I have a walking harness that can hold the electronics, and I wish to add a bright white LED on the front part that faces forward, so it can function as a "headlight"..

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  • "Is It Conductive?" Makey Makey Experiment

    I wish to comment about this item:"A resistor is actually a semi-conductor that changes the flow of a current in a circuit." This is not true. A resistor is a device that limits the current flow in a circuit. The Ohm's Law defines resistance as the physical property of a conductor that is inversely proportional to the current flow when a voltage is applied. Only semiconductors such as transistors change the flow, not resistors.

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  • PiNAS - the Raspberry Pi NAS

    Instead of the female Micro USB breakout board for power input, I recommend a USB type C female breakout board or socket. The type C connector allows more power, has stronger contacts, and is reversible (cable can be plugged upside down). This connector can handle 5 A which is 25 W of power. And USB type C power supplies are common now, since Samsung and Apple use it with their newer devices. If you add more external (or larger) drives in the future, then extra power is what you will need now.

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  • Storage Evolution

    I had a Data General Nova 2 minicomputer that loaded its software in a green paper tape format. It took hours to read in those tapes in order and load to its 16 KB magnetic core memory (I have that memory board), then boot up the machine. We later replaced those paper tapes and the reader with a 9-track tape reel unit.

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  • 2000 Watts Induction Heater

    As the article says in its first sentence, this is a LC oscillator and the frecuency (if not posted) can be calculated from the hand wound inductors and the capacitors in the Bill of Materials. I estimate that the frequency is in the high kilo-Hertz (kHz) range.

    For those who may think of it, this is how induction cooktops work. I have a Sears unit with four elements and the entire unit only consumes 2kW (the same as this Instructable), so if you wire the inductor coil in a flat circular spiral format (use special shellac to keep the wires stuck together) you can create a similar inductive cooktop unit. My wife loves the cooktop, and it has a black glass cover, so all spills are easy to clean up.

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  • How to Make a 18650 Li-ion Battery Pack!

    "mah" is milli-Amp-hour and "ah" is "Amp-hour" So just divide the "mah" by 1,000 (or move the decimal point three digits to the right) to convert to "Ah" ("Amp" uses the upper case "A"). Each cell has the "mAh" rating printed on the label, so to match all the cells in series, they must have the same rating, or the pack must be devalued to the lowest capacity cell rating in the series.

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  • Tesla Cybertruck DIY Made of Paper! :)

    Wow! Now anyone can make a full size Cybertruck out of cardboard, mount it over a regular car body, and tell the world you have a Cybertruck! Oh, if you cover it with aluminum foil, it looks as the real truck, although the panels are not sledgehammer proof or the windows impact proof. ;-)

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  • DIY Miniature Gasoline Generator

    I like your article very much, although I don't need to build one, since I have a 2014 Ford Fusion Hybrid that does almost the same. The 2.0 liter gas engine generates electricity to charge the 400+ HVDC battery, which powers the traction motor inside the transaxle and moves the car. There is also a DC-DC converter to produce 12 VDC for all the accessories and charge up the small lead-acid battery. The same generator attached to the gas engine also starts the same engine by computer control when the main traction battery has a low charge. So now anyone can see how this project is related to hybrids, and maybe motivate someone to convert a regular gas car to a small hybrid, using a large electric motor, a set of batteries, and this tiny gas engine charger. You cold get over 50 MPG. My Fusi…

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    I like your article very much, although I don't need to build one, since I have a 2014 Ford Fusion Hybrid that does almost the same. The 2.0 liter gas engine generates electricity to charge the 400+ HVDC battery, which powers the traction motor inside the transaxle and moves the car. There is also a DC-DC converter to produce 12 VDC for all the accessories and charge up the small lead-acid battery. The same generator attached to the gas engine also starts the same engine by computer control when the main traction battery has a low charge. So now anyone can see how this project is related to hybrids, and maybe motivate someone to convert a regular gas car to a small hybrid, using a large electric motor, a set of batteries, and this tiny gas engine charger. You cold get over 50 MPG. My Fusion Hybrid gets 54 MPG which is excellent for a 4,000 pound car.

    This works well because the rotor(attached to the shaft) has permanent magnets attached to the inner circumference. This also how the gas engine generates the spark energy to fire the cylinder.

    A car alternator has one problem. It need a startup current to magnetize the stator coil, so the rotor can convert that field to electricity. You can prove this by spinning an alternator with no load and see that no voltage is generated. One solution is to replace the stator coils with permanent magnets. This is what builders do t make a wind turbine. The use of a permanent magnet motor is ideal.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on SirDan's instructable Engine Block TV Stand
    Engine Block TV Stand

    I prefer to mount my flat screen TV sets on walls directly and save floor space for regular furniture, but this is unique. BTW, wouldn't it be easier to just buy a block from a machine shop? Sometimes they have old blocks that were damaged by broken rods or bad bearings, and abandoned, so the project could be simpler and cheaper. I know about scrap yards, but I doubt anyone can find a good looking block easily and rust free in such a place.

    I have torn down one car to rebuild another in 1974. Both were 1965 Rambler Americans, and the engine was a 250 CI inline six. That is the best on-hand schooling for mechanics, but I am an Engineer.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on EdChamberlain's instructable Edison Desk Lamp
    Edison Desk Lamp

    Using real incandescent Edison bulbs may be traditional, but we of the modern era prefer LED bulbs, yet we can still get that warm "Edison" light with less energy. Try using these bulbs: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Vintage-Equivalent-Filament-Antique-ST64/dp/B07FPL1J8C/These consume only 4 W each. I have four bulbs in one of my bathrooms and everyone who visits asks me where did I get them. I bought my set at Costco in Puerto Rico.

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  • Build Your Own Electric Car!

    I see that you also own a Chevy Volt (2nd Gen). Since the Volt was discontinued, do you believe you can convert a gas car or CUV to an EV using just the Volt's transaxle, controller, and battery (or other)? GM missed a great opportunity by not offering a hybrid or electric Equinox.

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  • Commodore 64 Revamp With Raspberry Pi, Arduino and Lego

    I admire the complete build, but I foresee a power issue in the Micro USB port in step 12. I strongly recommend upgrading to a USB type C port, which is very common now for Samsung and Apple products, has no issue if the plug is inserted upside down, and can carry over 5 amps (25 Watts) of power. After replacing many Micro USB ports in laptops, smartphones, and even Chromebooks, I know that the USB type C port is the much better power option.

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  • You do need a protection circuit to monitor each cell in a group, either in series or parallel, for over voltage, over current, and under voltage conditions. Many battery packs or packages in laptops, notebooks and tablets have then built in the pack or attached on the cell.

    Some 18650 cells are rated at 2.5 Ah or 2500 mAh, so for a 10 mAh load, the usable time is about 250 hours or less. And for the low voltage for recharging, I recommend 2.8 V per cell or higher. Any lower can cause physical damage inside the cell, due to material migration, and if you try to recharge that level, the internal resistance increase will convert that charge to heat and continue to degrade the cell to its destruction. That is why battery manufacturers add a under voltage shut off protection circuit in packages to prevent that damage. Any raw cells that have dropped below 2.8 V should be carefully monitored during a recharge! Or just dispose of it with care at battery recycling centers.Use a good cell brand, such as Panasonic (that is what IBM, Ford, and Tesla uses), which can ho…

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    Some 18650 cells are rated at 2.5 Ah or 2500 mAh, so for a 10 mAh load, the usable time is about 250 hours or less. And for the low voltage for recharging, I recommend 2.8 V per cell or higher. Any lower can cause physical damage inside the cell, due to material migration, and if you try to recharge that level, the internal resistance increase will convert that charge to heat and continue to degrade the cell to its destruction. That is why battery manufacturers add a under voltage shut off protection circuit in packages to prevent that damage. Any raw cells that have dropped below 2.8 V should be carefully monitored during a recharge! Or just dispose of it with care at battery recycling centers.Use a good cell brand, such as Panasonic (that is what IBM, Ford, and Tesla uses), which can hold its charge for longer periods of unuse, but always remeasure unused cells after several months, and recharge to almost full (about 4.0 V) to keep the cell useful.

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  • My wife uses our Whirlpool washer and dryer set, which has musical tones for each selection. When she sets up the loads, I hear them and I know what she is doing even if I am in a different room. And when the cycle is done, both appliances gives out new musical tones. My Sears Elite toaster gives an audio note when it is done. Some other kitchen appliances generates musical tones when their keypads are pressed, and when their operations are completed.Maybe this type of article will open the minds and hearts of our designers and engineers to add a voice or musical output option to all appliances, so the visually limited can hear what settings and operation each appliance is doing. Send this to Samsung and probably they will accept your idea and add voice or musical output to their newer mo…

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    My wife uses our Whirlpool washer and dryer set, which has musical tones for each selection. When she sets up the loads, I hear them and I know what she is doing even if I am in a different room. And when the cycle is done, both appliances gives out new musical tones. My Sears Elite toaster gives an audio note when it is done. Some other kitchen appliances generates musical tones when their keypads are pressed, and when their operations are completed.Maybe this type of article will open the minds and hearts of our designers and engineers to add a voice or musical output option to all appliances, so the visually limited can hear what settings and operation each appliance is doing. Send this to Samsung and probably they will accept your idea and add voice or musical output to their newer models.

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  • If you want to prevent pink clothes due to colors running out and staining others, use "Shout! Color Catcher" sheets (one per wash): https://www.shoutitout.com/en-us/products/color-ca...It saved my marriage!

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  • For anyone planning to replace older lead-acid, nickle-cadmium, or nickel-metal-hydride cells with lithium-ion cells, remember that Li-ion cells don't like overcharging. They will warm up, and some will even expand (gassing), which can lead to a catastrophic explosion and damage to the equipment. Always use the nominal 3.7 VDC as the divisor for replacing packs according to the original battery charging voltage. For example, if you wish to replace a 12 VDC pack with Li-ion, be careful that most 12 VDC charging circuits go up to 15 volts, so use 15 /3.7 = 4 cells in series. The minimum will still be 3 * 4 or 12 volts, so this is acceptable. Ni-Cad or Ni-MH hold just 1.25 VDC each, so one Li-ion cells can replace three of the older cells (3.75 volts). But some are set up in batteries with j…

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    For anyone planning to replace older lead-acid, nickle-cadmium, or nickel-metal-hydride cells with lithium-ion cells, remember that Li-ion cells don't like overcharging. They will warm up, and some will even expand (gassing), which can lead to a catastrophic explosion and damage to the equipment. Always use the nominal 3.7 VDC as the divisor for replacing packs according to the original battery charging voltage. For example, if you wish to replace a 12 VDC pack with Li-ion, be careful that most 12 VDC charging circuits go up to 15 volts, so use 15 /3.7 = 4 cells in series. The minimum will still be 3 * 4 or 12 volts, so this is acceptable. Ni-Cad or Ni-MH hold just 1.25 VDC each, so one Li-ion cells can replace three of the older cells (3.75 volts). But some are set up in batteries with just two cells in series or 2.5 V, so even one Li-ion cells is too much. You may need to drop the voltage with a resistor, two silicon diodes in series (1.4 V), or a voltage regulator. This needs more than just cells in series.

    Raw or plain Li-ion cells always need protection against voltage overcharging and current overload, so these BMS boards offer some protection. The packaged cells as found in cellphones have the protection built in. Some even carry a fuse and will blow if overloaded or shorted, and some will open even if overheated. Only use these types for experimenting if you can control the charging and loading because the fuse is irreplaceable.

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  • The copper wire sensor should be insulated. Professional voltage detectors have insulated probes, so this one also should be. This allows insertion into outlets to detect AC voltages.It will not reduce sensitivity.Add a warning label "AC only" because it may not detect high DC voltages, unless the detector circuit is modified.by adding a ground reference wire.to the circuit under test.

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  • Nice idea, but I find it cheaper to buy those Chinese clone remotes for a few bucks each than buying a 3D printing machine and making them. Or make all your remote unreachable by placing then on high shelves, then make all adult users remember to return the remotes to the shelves after using them.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on megardi's instructable Digi-Comp II Replica

    As a child, I have read about mechanical computers, including one that used a large rotating drum as the body, paper templates for the programming, and spring contacts to run a battery supply current to power the "computer" through the templates and compute results. Your project is an unique physical computer that I have not read about before. It can be a great project for children who wish to build a "computer" and not need electronics to do logical problems. Good job!

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  • This is an interesting but complex project. I do recommend using a spelling checker or ask someone to do a proof read before publishing. You missed "coin" for "coil" and "UDB" for "USB". This happens to many of us but a proof read will prevent the errors from being published.

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  • I was taken back on how simple this project can be used for other application. One idea that immediately came to my mind was the production of medical emergency informational straps, bands, or tags for the elderly, mentally limited, or special patients with life-treating conditions. I can foresee these straps helping an unconscious person due to a trained person reading the information through NFC, including the person's identification and emergency details. It can hep save lives and money! Maybe in the future, the FDA will approve an implantable version under the skin (with a tattoo for location marking) as a permanent personal storage for such emergency medical information.Good job!

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  • If you do have an old cellphone available for the project, don't you need to have it working with an active account so it can call? If the phone is inactive, how can it dial your number? And if it is an analog phone, are you sure your carrier will activate an account for it?

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  • If you have the Windows 7 key, you can install Windows 10 directly. Microsoft offers Windows 10 as "free" only as an upgrade with Windows 7 or 8 keys. Just go to the Microsoft web pages and download the installation files onto a USB drive or on another computer which has a DVD recorder for the machines that have no USB boot support (the BIOS setup will give you the information to boot from a DVD or a USB drive). Windows is simple to install and Microsoft has been offering online help to do so since 1981.

    Look for the Lenovo web pages, as they may have the instructions to recover the machine with a forgotten password. Some of the older IBM Thinkpads used a EPROM chip that holds the machine passwords, and I only read that removing that chip and installing a blank one will allow the machine to boot.

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  • Nice and simple design. But I suggest adding some comments on how does this Class A amplifier works. The theory behind the design is important not for just explaining how it operates, but it gives hints to improve the design, and helps identify the problem and solve it if it doesn't operate.

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  • Very well made. Frank Whittle would be proud (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Whittle).I suggest making a intake cowling so the air flow will be smoother, and adding a small DC motor/generator to the input shaft. That motor can spin the engine, and after it started, the motor can be used to measure RPM and generate electricity.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on KJMagnetics's instructable DIY Induction Stove

    Great idea! I have been using induction cooktops since 1994. The first unit was made by Sharp, and its electronics failed, so I open it up. It uses special heavy gage copper coils and powerful switching IGFETs to generate the magnetic fiends. The advantage of this system is a feeedback that can sense if there is or isn't a steel or iron cooking utensil, and shut down the power after ten seconds if the utensil is removed. I have a second niti and it is better made. Both were sold by Sears.A mechanical system such as the version presented here is simple and cannot sense the utensil but maybe you can use an optical sensor to do it.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on KJMagnetics's instructable Brushless DC Motor

    Well done! I will suggest using an optical interruptor instead of the reed switch. You can use a commercially made optical sensor, or make one with a photodiode and attaching a paper disk with two cutouts to let light pass through and trip the photodiode. A Hall switch can replace the reed switch, too.

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  • This is more an educational project than practical, since commercial incandescent bulbs are cheaper to buy already fabricated than the cost of making your own, just as making your own mechanical clock or even making a simple LED digital watch. This shows how it is made and opens up the mind to think what can be done to make it better or cheaper. Thomas Edison would be proud!

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  • You can try to get an identical machine in good physical conditions but not operational. I have done this in the past, and recently with three broken Samsung Chromebooks making two good one out of the three. Some manufacturers HP, IBM, Lenovo, etc) do sell parts for all their machines, so try to contact the manufacturer for your machine.

    Some of the older laptops (including the IBM and Lenovo Thinkpads) use individual lithium ion cells welded in a series-parallel arrangement to get more power in a pack. So the battery may be repairable but if not, some web sites do sell refurbished/reconstructed batteries. Search for them before considering the laptop refurbishing.

    You are asking the most important question: "What do we want to use it for?". Many laypersons (non-tech) just think of "Windows", yet never use all the computer's potential and thus spend too much money for a job (such as browsing and reading web pages) that a simpler or older machine can do. You chose Ubuntu which is a great choice for a Linux laptop. But you can also make it a "Chromebook" and there are sites to download "Chromium" which is Google Chrome for Intel processors. As I read it, your Lenovo laptop can run Windowws 10 but it will need 4 GB and the correct Windows 7 product key which can be bought elsewhere if you cannot use the original label.So to anyone reading this Instructable, plan your purpose for the old laptop and remember that l…

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    You are asking the most important question: "What do we want to use it for?". Many laypersons (non-tech) just think of "Windows", yet never use all the computer's potential and thus spend too much money for a job (such as browsing and reading web pages) that a simpler or older machine can do. You chose Ubuntu which is a great choice for a Linux laptop. But you can also make it a "Chromebook" and there are sites to download "Chromium" which is Google Chrome for Intel processors. As I read it, your Lenovo laptop can run Windowws 10 but it will need 4 GB and the correct Windows 7 product key which can be bought elsewhere if you cannot use the original label.So to anyone reading this Instructable, plan your purpose for the old laptop and remember that laptops are hardware limited for upgrades by the manufacturer, unlike a desktop or deskside tower type that has space and allows easy PCI board and disk drive upgrades. I have worked with computers since January 1972, configured and operated many IBM mainframes (System/360 to zSeries z10), almost the IBM PC and laptop models (including Lenovo), and hundreds of IBM servers (from PC/AT to PS/2 to xSeries), so I understand exactly how this Instructable will help revive older machines. Good job!P.S. I do recommend installing a SSD for the O/S as it will speed up file searches. You can find good offers for used SSD sizes below 100 GB. Watching an O/S boot up in less than ten seconds still gives me a smile!

    As the machine starts up, does any information appear on the screen at all? Can you hear or feel the hard drive spinning and moving while starting up? Your video circuit may be bad. If you absolutely need to access the data on the hard drive, you may have to try two options:1. Ask and borrow an external monitor (some LCD TV can do it), get a VGA cable and attach the monitor (or TV) to the machine, then try to start the machine again. If an image does appear and you can get into Windows and your files, great! You still have a video problem but the external monitor will allow you to decide what to do and save your data.2. Take the hard drive out, get a enclosure with a USB interface, install the drive in the enclosure, then take it and a USB cable to another computer to read it as an extern…

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    As the machine starts up, does any information appear on the screen at all? Can you hear or feel the hard drive spinning and moving while starting up? Your video circuit may be bad. If you absolutely need to access the data on the hard drive, you may have to try two options:1. Ask and borrow an external monitor (some LCD TV can do it), get a VGA cable and attach the monitor (or TV) to the machine, then try to start the machine again. If an image does appear and you can get into Windows and your files, great! You still have a video problem but the external monitor will allow you to decide what to do and save your data.2. Take the hard drive out, get a enclosure with a USB interface, install the drive in the enclosure, then take it and a USB cable to another computer to read it as an external drive. You decide what to do and save your data.If your machine is not too old, maybe the manufacturer has a shop for servicing or have it serviced by mail. It will cost you but it may be less cost than buying a newer machine.

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  • This reminded me of a similar circuit that appeared in Popular Electronics in the late 1960s, where one uses a match to "light up" a table lamp (with an ordinary 120 VAC bulb), then blow it out. The circuit used a thyristor, a photo-resistor, and other parts. The trick was the match illuminated the photo-resistor which turned on the thyristor and the lamp. The secret was the photo-resistor was mounted near the bulb so the bulb light kept the thyristor on. To "blow it out", one would carefully "hold" the lamp and with a finger cover the photo-resistor as one blew on the bulb. The covering would power off the thyristor and turn off the lamp.

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  • You have a error in this statement:"Computers (which are microprocessors).." Computers are NOT microprocessors! They can use microprocessors are the main unit (also known as a CPU), but need more than a microprocessor to be a full "computer". There were many computers in the market way before Intel produced the first 4-bit microprocessor in 1971.I work with all sizes of computers since 1972 when they had physical transistors and held just kilobytes of memory, from the IBM System 360/30 (with 16 KB RAM and 10 MB disk) , and the Arduino and Raspberry Pi now.. So don't mix a "computer" with just a "processor" or a "controller". Each one is different, no matter the size from mainframe to midrange, mini, and micro.

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  • For Step 3 I recommend using a can opener (electric or manual) that uses an edge cutting wheel that leaves a smooth edge. I use this type of can opener for dog food so I can use clean dog food cans to stash safely, since who could guess that dog food will hold precious stuff inside?

    Some of the high quality paint brands, such as Behr which is sold at Home depot, use plastic paint cans. This will make cutting and preparing the paint can easier and safer.

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  • Sears Craftsman hand saws have triple grounded blade that are perpendicular, and cut in both directions (push and pull). I have used my saw to cut up a palm tree after Hurricane Maria hit us, knocked the palm tree down, and we were without power. It took effort but the cut was smooth. I suggest anyone who prefer hand tools to visit the local Sears store to see and feel the modern Craftsman hand saws.

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  • For those of us that have long haired breeds (I have a Shih-Tze and a Llasa Apso), I strongly recommend rolling the belt edges together and stitching them to form a rolled or "round" collar. This prevents matting or wear out, and allows the collar to slide around the neck more freely. I buy my rolled collars here: https://www.collarsandmore.com/shop/collars/rolled...This is an extra step but your pet will enjoy wearing th ecoller better than a flat collar.

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  • I had to do this for my Shih-Tze many years ago. I also recommend getting a cat/kitten collar with a bell attached so when the puppy is hidden, you can find it by the sound. Our Shih-Tze likes to hide under and behind our platform bed, so the bell collar was our best way to know where it was.

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  • As a Electrical Engineer, a computer programmer since January 1972 using FORTRAN on an IBM 1130 minicomputer), a programming instructor since September 1979, and a present Arduino user, I find this "Instructible" interesting, but coding with "TinkerCAD" awkward instead of just coding in "Processing" and using the simple ICE environment. Coding is simple to type and execute instead of using a mouse and moving blocks around. And I can document my ASCII character code easily to teach others, including sending it by SMS if needed, and verbally.

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  • I also use a heat gun purchased through Walmart. It has two settings for temperatures, and it is ideal for removing multiple pin chips, especially SMT. But it is dangerous for plastic bodied part such as sockets and connectors which can soften up, and when you pull these components after heating, the pins stay on the PCB.

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  • Great and simple idea. This uses the protective instinct of being watched by a possible predator. It should work with other birds. It did remind me of the simple defense that Indian men used to prevent tiger attacks. Since tigers prefer to attack when their prey isn't looking, these men use human face masks worn behind their faces or on the back of their heads. This fools the tiger to believe that that man has two faces and eyes on the back so they don't dare attack if that man is looking from behind.

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  • The car's alternator main purpose is not for recharging the battery. It is there to supply the electrical power for the car, such as head and tail lights, radio, horn and wipers. Read about the very first autos of the 20th century and see for yourself. The battery was designed to power the engine starter only, yet now it has evolved to power other items, and the alternator can recharge it later. Some hybrids don't have any 12 V DC battery anymore, taking power from the high voltage traction battery and using the smaller electric motor as a "starter" and "generator". These have a DC-DC step-down converter to power the electronics and accessories.But most other hybrids do use a smaller 12 V DC battery to power the system that controls the HV battery.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on kenmacken's instructable Full Size RC Car

    I admire your building experience since I also had a dream for a car that can be driven remotely or by itself. I have experience in automotive repairs, and I understand why several levels and cable controls have spring returns (such as the accelerator, brake, and engine emission controls) because they need a neutral or rest condition when the controls are not in use. But if you are modifying the systems for electric control with solenoids and motors, I suggest modifying those spring returns for lower tensions and save on power consumption.

    Where is your "drive-by-wire" tutorial?

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  • To warn of a possible overflow, just install a level switch with a ping pong ball as a float near the level you wish to warn, and add that switch as a new input to the Arduino.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on 陳亮's instructable Print Your Own Moon

    That project looks great but most of us are limited in resources to build it. Are you planning to produce them in quantity for sale? I would be interested in buying one.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on androkavo's instructable SMD - Hand Soldering

    You can add some liquid flux to the chip underside then press and align it on the PCB. The flux will dry and hold the chip in place while soldering. It is cheaper and probably safer then glues.

    This is well done and will work for repairing broken off MicroUSB sockets on PCBs. Some soldering tips can be machined or filed to produce that tiny tip. I also recommend using silver based solder as it will conduct better for tiny conductors but needs a hotter temperature to melt.

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  • I have worked with Ethernet (beginning at 10 MPS) since the early 1990's and I know how to use a WiFi router, but this interface is brand new and well designed, even for an experienced engineer such as myself. I like your simplicity to the build and I recommend anyone to fully investigate the Ethernet equipped device and see if it has a fixed IP address. then setup the IP range to cover that address only (or a very small range for more devices). WiFi is becoming better each year and soon we will have vehicles using a special WiFi version for V2V communications.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on Karlstrom's instructable Arduino Apple Watch

    This should work for Android smartphones, too. Samsung and Motorola made the first smart watches that paired for smartphones and some do work with Apple iPhones, too.

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  • No. the pulse modulation will not shorten the life of the motor, There are millions of pulse modulated devices, including all the switching power supplies used in computers (as developed by IBM for their Thinkpad laptops in the 1990s) that many homes have. Good filtering will remove the high frequency noise and produce excellent fixed or variable DC power.

    This is a well explained "instructable". As an engineer, I knew how the Dyson fans work, but this is the first project that I see which actually builds the same fan effect for a much lower cost.Dyson has great designers well trained in aerodynamics, and this fan is one of many of their products.Yet it is simple to understand.

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  • I use several methods but the heat gun is the most effective for SMT and most pin-soldered devices. I heat the part until the solder begins to change color then rap the board on a hard surface. The heat gun I bought was at Walmart which used 120 VAC and has two settings. Since the gun only heats up while pressing the trigger, it is safer than a soldering iron or propane torch, and faster than a soldering gun. Most have a shield to prevent touching it to anything that can burn so it isn't a fire hazard unless it is improperly used. The trigger may tire your finger but I do recommend taking a break every ten minutes or less.

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  • I like your project, but living in a two story home should never be that troublesome to be "falling down the stairs at night with a full bladder". You should have a toilet on every floor. I live in a two-story home and I have two full bathrooms on the second floor. The door of one is less than three feet from my bed. But I do like the LED lights when I need to visit the kitchen at night!

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  • I designed and built my first touch switch in 1974 as my EE project. FETs existed but MOSFETs didn't, so I used some TTL circuits to produce a clock signal that was transferred by my touch though a metal plate to the input of a J-K flip flop which triggered a NPN transistor and a incandescent bulb (only red LEDs existed but were pricey). I got an "A"!! Later I built one using a UJT clock (look it up) and an SCR for the load, and a third using a TRIAC for an AC load. BTW, your schematic diagram is terrible! If you don't know how to use computer drafting or drawing programs, at least use hand tools and a pencil to draw one on paper then scan it in.

    i did give him constructive recommendations: "at least use hand tools and a pencil to draw one on paper then scan it in".The diagram he posted is "terrible" and that is not an opinion. Other posted comments agree with me. Compare how others who have posted "Instructables" have done a better and even professional diagram with component identifications and value. He didn't do such steps correctly. I was a instructor and teacher for ten years in a technical institution, and all my students can draw better than that. As for computer drawing tools, there is "Paint" which is free in Windows.

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  • For all those who need a better way to charge without having to open their smartphones at all, or risk damaging their charge ports, I recommend the "Volta" magnetic charge cables and connectors: https://voltacharger.com/I have all my tablets, two Chromebooks, and my Samsung phone with them. The magnets are super-strong! I can pick up my phones or smaller tablets by the cord and it will not drop. The magnets also guide themselves to the connectors so I can attach the cables in the dark. The cable head also have a tiny LED to help you see them in low lighting and prove that the cable has power. There are many magnetic cable makers (I bought other brands), but the Voltas are the best.

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  • I like the project but many newer smartphones have sealed backs and will not "qualify". Use older models with removable backs and cells (what is commonly described as a "battery" is just one Li-Ion cell). In my case, all of my phones are Samsung Galaxy models, which had "Qi" wireless charging since the S4 model (the latest is the S8), and was one of the very first to use that "Qi" standard. So if your smartphone doesn't have the wireless charging feature, and has a sealed back, swap it for one that does have it (such as a Samsung), or use an older model that allows such modifications.If you want to protect the micro USB charge port from damage (and not do such modifications), buy a set of micro USB connector and cable with a magnetic attachment. The…

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    I like the project but many newer smartphones have sealed backs and will not "qualify". Use older models with removable backs and cells (what is commonly described as a "battery" is just one Li-Ion cell). In my case, all of my phones are Samsung Galaxy models, which had "Qi" wireless charging since the S4 model (the latest is the S8), and was one of the very first to use that "Qi" standard. So if your smartphone doesn't have the wireless charging feature, and has a sealed back, swap it for one that does have it (such as a Samsung), or use an older model that allows such modifications.If you want to protect the micro USB charge port from damage (and not do such modifications), buy a set of micro USB connector and cable with a magnetic attachment. The connector stays inside the micro USB slot, and the cable attaches easily with a magnet. All of my tablets have this. I recommend Volta which sells cables and connectors for micro USB, USB type "C", and Lightning II.

    It is very difficult to replace a micro USB charge port because I have done this to several tablets (which are bigger and easier to work with). Now I am using a micro USB connector and removable magnetic cable (Volta) on them because they are too big for wireless charging. No more soldering needed!

    The wired USB charger will operate better. But don't do both anyway. It is a waste of energy. You can add a transmitter base to your car, mounted on a space of the center console so you can just lay your phone down for wireless charging. I added this to my 2009 Chevy Equinox for my Samsung Galaxy S4, well before any can manufacturer decided to add this as a sales option or standard feature.

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  • This is a nice construction project, but the idea is decades old. And a plain box is not going to attract many to operate it. A better idea is the coin operated bank that is similar and allows one to make money from innocent participants. My favorite (I have one) is the Godzilla coin bank: At least add some decoration, and use a doll hand (or a monster figure paw) to move the switch.

    Then build it (have the inserted or laid coin bridge the switch contacts) and let it make money for your next Instructable project.

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  • RaymondR6 commented on bekathwia's instructable Solar USB Charger

    The Li-ion cell has a voltage range between 2.9 V and 4.2 V, so if the four cells fall between this range, they may be good. I suggest asking someone to charge then and discharge through a simple load to prove that each cell is able to work for this project. BTW, a "battery" is a group of cells in series or parallel (Ben Franklin created that term). The only common portable power device that is a true "battery" is the 9 VDC battery which has six 1.5 V cells in series.

    Yes, you can use this setup to charge two or three cells in parallel, as long as all have equal characteristics. The charge time is multiplied by the number of cells, so two cells takes up twice the time, and so forth.

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  • Wood will only transmit strong engine noise if the material is in direct contact with the engine. Isolating the box from the frame with rubber will help.

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  • If the ice comes from a freezer that is much colder than 32 degrees F (0 C), then the ice water and salt can actually freeze the contents of the cans. Very cold brine is what wine makers use to freeze the top part of the bottles which forms ice, allowing the removal of the original corks during fermentation, and replacing them with the newer corks or plastic stoppers for retail sales.

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  • "That" will work only if the car is running downhill.

    @ChickenJo There is no gas engine! Read the Instructable from the beginning. There is a video showing the gas engine removal. This is a pure electric car, not a hybrid.

    @MaurisaT: No, the common automatic transmission is hydraulic, and it need the fluid pump, running constantly inside the converter, to activate the transmission and change gears. You need a manual transmission, or a CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) with that electric motor. The good news on the manual transmission is that you only need two speeds, and the other gears may be removed to save weight. The motor can be switched into "reverse" by inverting the polarity to back up.

    @hesym: If you want a "production Electric car", search for used EVs, such as the Chevy Spark Ev and the Nissan Leaf, on the web. Some may be found for less than $10,000, and still give you up to 40 miles of range or more.

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