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  • DIY Bench Grinder to Belt Sander Conversion With Templates

    I use the belt sander to sharpen lathe and woodworking chisels. The problem with downward travel is that the belt is traveling towards the workpiece's sharpening edge often catching it and shoving it into the table. That can ruin a fine chisel blade and/or send it flying into your hands, feet or elsewhere. There is also no easy way to hold the chisel at the proper angle. With upward travel the table is angled downward so the blade points up making the belt travel away from the chisel edge, not towards it. It's important to wear a face-shield anyway and stand slightly to one side to keep sparks from flying into your face, but in my mind that has to be safer than downward travel. When I need the belt sander to sand wooden or metal parts I will use it in the "normal" fashion s…

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    I use the belt sander to sharpen lathe and woodworking chisels. The problem with downward travel is that the belt is traveling towards the workpiece's sharpening edge often catching it and shoving it into the table. That can ruin a fine chisel blade and/or send it flying into your hands, feet or elsewhere. There is also no easy way to hold the chisel at the proper angle. With upward travel the table is angled downward so the blade points up making the belt travel away from the chisel edge, not towards it. It's important to wear a face-shield anyway and stand slightly to one side to keep sparks from flying into your face, but in my mind that has to be safer than downward travel. When I need the belt sander to sand wooden or metal parts I will use it in the "normal" fashion so the belt travels downward.

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  • DIY Bench Grinder to Belt Sander Conversion With Templates

    Nice instructible! Very sturdy looking tool that should provide years of good use. I want to do the same as I need a belt sander to help me sharpen chisels and the like. I bought one from Harbor Fright some years ago but, not surprisingly, it turned out to be junk. I need to solve these problems first: 1. How to make the band move upwards rather than downwards;2. How to reduce the speed of the motor; 3. How to make the parts without requiring a welder and other exotic tools.I don't have the budget, nor space for the added tools (welder, angle-grinder, bandsaw, etc.) that I'd need to make your metal one. I figure the first problem can be handled by moving the grinding platform to the rear - essentially assembling the parts in mirror image. The second problem will require a Variab…

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    Nice instructible! Very sturdy looking tool that should provide years of good use. I want to do the same as I need a belt sander to help me sharpen chisels and the like. I bought one from Harbor Fright some years ago but, not surprisingly, it turned out to be junk. I need to solve these problems first: 1. How to make the band move upwards rather than downwards;2. How to reduce the speed of the motor; 3. How to make the parts without requiring a welder and other exotic tools.I don't have the budget, nor space for the added tools (welder, angle-grinder, bandsaw, etc.) that I'd need to make your metal one. I figure the first problem can be handled by moving the grinding platform to the rear - essentially assembling the parts in mirror image. The second problem will require a Variable Frequency Drive which can get expensive. The last problem will require the most thought, but I thank you for the inspiration.

    VFDs work with induction motors which is the type used here. They apply full voltage to the motor as they vary the frequency, which in turn, varies the speed. Torque is maintained more evenly than using SCR/Triac type speed controllers, like the Harbor Freight device mentioned above, which achieve variable speed by chopping the 60 Hz line frequency every cycle or half cycle depending on whether an SCR or Triac is used. This reduces the power you can get from each cycle which reduces speed but also the torque. I bought the Harbor Freight device some years ago but it didn't work at all. Very poor quality control so I don't recommend it. I ended up designing my own circuit and fitting it inside the HF box. Works for incandescent lights and corded electric drills but not much of anythi…

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    VFDs work with induction motors which is the type used here. They apply full voltage to the motor as they vary the frequency, which in turn, varies the speed. Torque is maintained more evenly than using SCR/Triac type speed controllers, like the Harbor Freight device mentioned above, which achieve variable speed by chopping the 60 Hz line frequency every cycle or half cycle depending on whether an SCR or Triac is used. This reduces the power you can get from each cycle which reduces speed but also the torque. I bought the Harbor Freight device some years ago but it didn't work at all. Very poor quality control so I don't recommend it. I ended up designing my own circuit and fitting it inside the HF box. Works for incandescent lights and corded electric drills but not much of anything else. Thanks for the link. Mr. Fielding is very knowledgeable and gives good, clear overviews of motor and speed controller types in his videos.

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  • OPEN DESKTOP ENCLOSURE    for Raspberry Pi or Similar SBC

    Fantastic project, and a great way to provide a good education to some of the poorer regions of our planet! I like that this enclosure completely avoids fans which are often the first things to go in dusty environments. I'd put a small heatsink on the CPU chip anyway. Could keep it from overheating in classrooms that are not well air-conditioned. Some air ventilation holes in the tilt cover would help as well.

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  • kmpres commented on douwe1230's instructable UV Curing Station
    UV Curing Station

    An excellent explanation. I had thought that the motor would load the circuit down some but was thinking in terms of current drawn from the power supply. The equivalent resistance concept makes it so much clearer, thank you.

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  • kmpres commented on douwe1230's instructable UV Curing Station
    UV Curing Station

    Nicely done project! I like the construction using CNC cut sides - makes for a very professional looking enclosure. A few comments, if I may: First, you say that a 1K to 10K voltage divider will produce 6V if 12V is fed to the ends? By my math, that will produce 10.9V. The formula is Vout = (Vsource x R2) divided by (R1 + R2). Numerous online calculators will confirm this. Also, I agree with other commenters about the safety issues with UV light so perhaps adding springs to the door hinges will keep the UV light in the box except during short inspections. Also, a micro-switch added to the door to turn the UV LEDs off whenever the door is opened will prevent any exposure.The greater safety hazard, in my opinion, is the use of UV curing resin to begin with. As anyone who owns a UV …

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    Nicely done project! I like the construction using CNC cut sides - makes for a very professional looking enclosure. A few comments, if I may: First, you say that a 1K to 10K voltage divider will produce 6V if 12V is fed to the ends? By my math, that will produce 10.9V. The formula is Vout = (Vsource x R2) divided by (R1 + R2). Numerous online calculators will confirm this. Also, I agree with other commenters about the safety issues with UV light so perhaps adding springs to the door hinges will keep the UV light in the box except during short inspections. Also, a micro-switch added to the door to turn the UV LEDs off whenever the door is opened will prevent any exposure.The greater safety hazard, in my opinion, is the use of UV curing resin to begin with. As anyone who owns a UV printer should know, but many who don't own one may not know, you don't want to get the resin on your skin. It is difficult to remove, and when sunlight hits it, it cures in your pores - definitely not a good thing. Care should be taken at all times when handling the stuff.

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  • kmpres commented on RobBest's instructable Cat Repellent
    Cat Repellent

    Nice project! I wonder, does it work on dogs, too? I heard that some anti-bark devices work on a similar principle, but one has to fire the device every time a dog barks or he'll not associate the sound with the bark. I should warn, though, that too loud a sound, even if it is ultrasonic, can hurt your pet's ears just like loud noises can hurt our ears, so beware!

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  • Giant Luxo L-1, "Luxo Senior"

    Very nicely done! I have modified similar but much smaller lamps for use on my electronics bench. Good use of concrete in yours. I had considered a similar solution for my lamps but opted instead to clamp the existing base to the table top using a $5 clamp designed for lamps with a stud in the base joint to allow the arm to swivel. I also modified the base joint to allow the arm to come forward and extend to almost flat - a big improvement as the originals were very restricted in this movement. One thing you might try on your lamp is to shorten the length of your springs an inch or two to increase their pull strength. That might help you tune them so they hold up the exact weight of your lamp in any position without it rising or falling.

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  • How to Rebuild a BionX E-Bike Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

    Whoa, slow down. I'm old-school. I can't read-stream-of-consciousness messages when they don't follow standard rules of grammar, spelling or proper sentence structure. I gather you're trying to charge a 12S battery with a 10S charger. It won't work because you need slightly more voltage than what the battery's maximum charge voltage will be to reach full capacity. A 12S5P battery (12 clusters in series, 5 cells per cluster in parallel) has a nominal voltage of 44.4 volts (3.7 volts per cell). When fully charged it will reach 50.4 volts (4.2 volts per cell). Your charger has to be able to go past 50.4 volts. If it can't, you won't ever get a full charge into your pack. You have two choices: Buy a good balance charger that can charge 12S batteries, or buy a higher voltage standard …

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    Whoa, slow down. I'm old-school. I can't read-stream-of-consciousness messages when they don't follow standard rules of grammar, spelling or proper sentence structure. I gather you're trying to charge a 12S battery with a 10S charger. It won't work because you need slightly more voltage than what the battery's maximum charge voltage will be to reach full capacity. A 12S5P battery (12 clusters in series, 5 cells per cluster in parallel) has a nominal voltage of 44.4 volts (3.7 volts per cell). When fully charged it will reach 50.4 volts (4.2 volts per cell). Your charger has to be able to go past 50.4 volts. If it can't, you won't ever get a full charge into your pack. You have two choices: Buy a good balance charger that can charge 12S batteries, or buy a higher voltage standard charger with a BMS that has taps for 12 cells. A third option is to charge your pack in two halves of 6 clusters each but you'll still need a BMS for each half. Make sure that when you rejoin both halves back together, they are at exactly the same charge level or the stronger one will attempt to charge the weaker one. The inrush of current can damage them both if you're not careful. Either way you're going to have to spend some money. A good charger will make your battery last a long time. A bad one will destroy it in no time flat.

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  • kmpres commented on Woodbrew's instructable Homemade Drum Sander
    Homemade Drum Sander

    Well done! Nicely thought out and executed. About the only thing I'd have done differently is move the bearing holders 90 degrees so the oil cup is on top. That should keep the oil from leaking out and running down those nice melamine sides you've made.

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  • Giant Functioning Emergency Stop Button

    I'm sure that's true, but I was specifically referring to the switches seen in the instructable. The author refers to them as limit switches and limit switches should only pass signals, not power. Also, the link he provides indicates that they are good for 5 amps, but I usually down-rate anything I buy on eBay and Amazon as one never knows if the Chinese manufacturer is being honest with his ratings.

    Most are rated at around 0.1A to 3A. Those salvaged from printers and other home mechanisms, as those appear to be, are usually in the 0.3A to 0.6A range. You can buy higher rated switches but they are hard to find and cost more.

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  • Giant Functioning Emergency Stop Button

    Nice! I'm glad you said in your intro that this is a fun project and that it should not be used as a real emergency button. Those limit switches are designed to pass signal currents only, that is, not more than a few amps at low voltages. Any power circuit, even a small one, will fry them. Some on-off LEDs for demonstration purposes, though, would be ideal.

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  • kmpres commented on gabbapeople 's instructable Arduino Barrel Piano
    Arduino Barrel Piano

    Very nicely done! I've been mentally designing such a system off-and-on since I bought my first piano in the 1970s. Never built it because I couldn't figure out how to add true piano-forte capability. How do you vary the loudness of each note so your device plays loud and soft notes like a human piano player does?

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  • How to Rebuild a BionX E-Bike Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

    The only BionX battery type I am familiar with is the one in my instructable. If yours is different then the instructable may not be relevant to you. However, we can make a few assumptions as some things will be the same for all 37 volt packs. First, you say that your pack is 5P12S? If you mean 12S5P then that is a 44.4 volt pack (12 x 3.7v = 44.4v). The correct convention is S-P (Series-Parallel) so a 37 volt pack should be 10S4P or 10S6P. Please verify that before you go any further. Then you'll need to test each cell group in your pack to verify that they are charging properly. When fully charged they should all read very close to 4.1 volts with very little variation between them. If any are less than that after a full charge then your pack is not balanced and it will only las…

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    The only BionX battery type I am familiar with is the one in my instructable. If yours is different then the instructable may not be relevant to you. However, we can make a few assumptions as some things will be the same for all 37 volt packs. First, you say that your pack is 5P12S? If you mean 12S5P then that is a 44.4 volt pack (12 x 3.7v = 44.4v). The correct convention is S-P (Series-Parallel) so a 37 volt pack should be 10S4P or 10S6P. Please verify that before you go any further. Then you'll need to test each cell group in your pack to verify that they are charging properly. When fully charged they should all read very close to 4.1 volts with very little variation between them. If any are less than that after a full charge then your pack is not balanced and it will only last as long as the weakest cell group lasts. When that cell group loses its charge the voltage of the whole pack will suddenly drop and the monitoring circuitry will cut the supply to the motor in order to protect the pack from over discharge. Also, all batteries should be rated for the same capacity. Do not mix battery capacities or old and new batteries of the same capacity as they will not charge or discharge evenly. I recommend you balance charge your pack rather than use the stock BionX charger as that will guarantee that each cell group will charge to its full capacity. The instructable goes into great detail on how to do that.

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  • Micro Sandpaper Detailing Tool

    Powdered grit is available online in many sizes. It's often called lapping compound, check McMaster-Carr for examples. You can even buy diamond dust online, but why bother with the mess when some excellent fine and super fine wet/dry sandpapers are available very inexpensively. The stick part is easy - just use a popsicle stick or tongue depressor. A single piece of sandpaper can make maybe 50 sanding sticks. Coarse and fine sides of the stick can also be made with two or more different grits.

    Nice idea! I could use this in radio restoration projects. Have you tried dipping the hot-glued Q-tips into pots of polishing compound instead of onto disks of sandpaper?

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  • How to Rebuild a BionX E-Bike Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

    Absolutely! Any Lithium-Ion 18650 cell will work but the Panasonic NCR18650B cell's high capacity and a high discharge capability make it particularly well suited for use in electric vehicles, including e-bikes and high performance cars like the Tesla Model S.

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  • Magnetic Loop Controller for 4 Antennas

    Very interesting project! I have been researching magnetic loops for some time now while trying to set up a ham radio station in space that is much too small for a traditional antenna. I have a few questions, if I may. First, is your loop a transmitting antenna, and if so, how many watts can you transmit, or do you use it just for receiving signals? Also, your video suggests that you can tune a loop from 7 mHz to 30 mHz. That's quite an amazing feat for most loops as they usually can't transmit on more than two bands without running into severe SWR problems outside their resonant ranges. How did you achieve such a wide tunable range for your loop, and how low can you get your SWRs for the various HF bands? Finally, can you show us a video of your loop antenna so we can see the capa…

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    Very interesting project! I have been researching magnetic loops for some time now while trying to set up a ham radio station in space that is much too small for a traditional antenna. I have a few questions, if I may. First, is your loop a transmitting antenna, and if so, how many watts can you transmit, or do you use it just for receiving signals? Also, your video suggests that you can tune a loop from 7 mHz to 30 mHz. That's quite an amazing feat for most loops as they usually can't transmit on more than two bands without running into severe SWR problems outside their resonant ranges. How did you achieve such a wide tunable range for your loop, and how low can you get your SWRs for the various HF bands? Finally, can you show us a video of your loop antenna so we can see the capacitor in action as you change frequencies? Thanks for sharing a great instructible!

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  • Fixing an Expensive Photo Lens ( Canon 85mm F1.2 L II )

    Good tip on the ultrasonic cleaner. I recently acquired one to use to clean radio parts. It's also been a few years since I wrote my last instructible. You might check them out if you're interested. Thanks for the quick response.

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  • Fixing an Expensive Photo Lens ( Canon 85mm F1.2 L II )

    Excellent instructible! It reminded me that I have a Canon AE1 Program with, if I recall correctly, a 75 to 200 mm zoom lens that has not been used in probably twenty years. I took the kit to a professional camera shop for resale evaluation and he said he could see evidence of mold growing inside the lenses. To my eyes the mold was very minor, like tiny dust specs, but he said the camera and lenses were worthless and could not be repaired. Worthless! I was so annoyed! What he probably meant was that it was not profitable to disassemble and clean them. OK, that just means that I will have to do the work. The lenses work perfectly otherwise. So that leaves the question, how can I clean the lenses without damaging their coatings? What chemical should I use? Thanks!

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  • PiNAS - the Raspberry Pi NAS

    Wow. Very impressive piece of work, this Alt-F. Thank you for the info. I now must decide whether my old 321 is worth learning another OS (Linux) just to get it online or stick with the old driver which, though flawed, is as turn-key as it gets. I learned six programming languages and three OSs in my day but Linux came too late for me to master its confusing syntax. Can you walk me through the process of loading Alt-F so I don't brick my NAS or lose my data? Thanks!

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  • PiNAS - the Raspberry Pi NAS

    Very interesting project! I have a ten year old D'link DNS-321 NAS set up for RAID 1 that works well as long as I use an out-of-date Windows driver with a known security flaw. Microsoft fixed the security flaw in one of their Windows updates but it is not compatible with this old NAS. To make matters worse, D'link no longer supports the DNS-321 so I'm now forced to use mine as little as possible and only when I'm off-line. If I build this Pi-NAS, will it be able to access my old D'link drives without my having to reformat them? Obviously I'd prefer to keep my old data in them, if possible. Thanks!

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  • Dementia Friendly Media Player

    Excellent. Before my father passed away we got him a Google Alexa device and tried to teach him how to use it. He couldn't. The modern concept of voice commands was so alien to him that I think he simply couldn't understand how a puck-like device could do all the things it claims to do. However, a Japanese company has invented a cute human-like robot for seniors to talk to and they seem to find that comforting. The simplicity and homey feel of an old-fashioned radio is a great idea. I hope someone thinks of it for me when I get old and feeble.

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  • kmpres commented on tomatoskins's instructable Compact Dust Collector
    Compact Dust Collector

    Very nice! I have two problems: 1. A very small space (even smaller than yours), and 2. I can't stand the noise that el-cheapo shop vacs make. MUCH more irritating than all of my power tools combined. A sound-deadening enclosure is not practical due to the space it requires and the difficulty in providing adequate ventilation through the foam padding while still attenuating the whine of the motor. I have several sets of ear muffs, and they work, but no, I'm not going to put them on just to turn on my shop vac. Call me stubborn, but I think shop vacs should be designed to not make the operator go deaf to begin with. I'm sure are there effective ways around these two problems but I haven't found any I like yet. Any ideas?

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  • Quarter Iso-grid Cardboard Longboard

    Exactly, which is why I suggested the Saran Wrap. It allows you to glue up only the center structure and leave the acrylic layers attached only by the screws. You could also assemble the pieces fully cured but not glued together as you did with just the cardboard taking advantage of the added strength but retaining some of the flexibility you had before. You may even be able to program the degree of flex by gluing some of the pieces together but not all of them, or by tightening the screws a certain way or changing their number in certain areas. Your Fusion 360 S/W looks like a great modeling tool for these kinds of studies. However, these are just ideas to think about. You are to be congratulated for coming up with the original design concept. I hope you'll continue development of…

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    Exactly, which is why I suggested the Saran Wrap. It allows you to glue up only the center structure and leave the acrylic layers attached only by the screws. You could also assemble the pieces fully cured but not glued together as you did with just the cardboard taking advantage of the added strength but retaining some of the flexibility you had before. You may even be able to program the degree of flex by gluing some of the pieces together but not all of them, or by tightening the screws a certain way or changing their number in certain areas. Your Fusion 360 S/W looks like a great modeling tool for these kinds of studies. However, these are just ideas to think about. You are to be congratulated for coming up with the original design concept. I hope you'll continue development of your design and share them with us in future instructables.

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  • Quarter Iso-grid Cardboard Longboard

    Very imaginative design! I love the look of the board. A few words of advice: Glue-ups are tedious things but often necessary. That's what makes hollow doors so rigid and stable. Do away with the glue and you lose rigidity and let time and humidity slowly rot the structure. You'll probably find some flexing in the truck mounts as well which could impact the ride and style of stunts you perform. You could dip the pieces in thin epoxy, then assemble them in place over a Saran Wrap covered acrylic top board. When the structure is fully cured remove the Saran Wrap, trim off the flash with a sharp knife, and reassemble the top and bottom plates. You'll get the same look as before but with a lot more added rigidity as well as protection from humidity, bugs, mold etc.

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  • DIY Sandblasting Cabinet and Etching Glass

    Nice project. I presume the $50 cost does not include the cost of the air compressor. Also, you should keep the box out of the sun or cover it up when not in use. The reason the plastic becomes brittle is because it breaks down in the presence of UV light. It only takes a year or two for this to happen. White translucent plastic is especially prone to this - don't ask me how I know. One final tip that others have mentioned: If you put in a removable Plexiglas panel in the top you'll both see better and be able to repair or replace it when it becomes cloudy.

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  • Etch a Circuit Board With Kitchen Supplies

    Interesting discussion. It'd been some four decades since I took college chemistry and now I know why I never made it my career -- electricity is complicated enough! As for keeping track of all the chemicals in a home-brew etchant solution, old-fashioned ferric chloride starts to look good in comparison. Very simple to use and you can neutralize it with sodium carbonate (washing soda) to prepare it for disposal. Some kits also come with an agent that converts it to a solid which can then be thrown away in the trash.

    Not a good idea. All laser printers pass the toner-deposited pages through a hot roller called a fuser that bonds the toner to the paper. It can get as hot as 400 deg F. The wax would probably melt all over the fuser roller ruining any prints that followed, assuming the wax paper doesn't jam in the machine as it passes through. The reason why laser printers need a minute or so to boot up from a cold off state is to give the fuser time to reach operating temperature.

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  • kmpres commented on Natalina's instructable Build a Soundproof Wall
    Build a Soundproof Wall

    Nice instructable. I may apply some version of it in my next house if I find the noise coming in from outside is unbearable. Another tip for new house construction I heard over the internet is to make the outer walls of the house two inches thicker than what the studs and opposing drywall sheets would add up to. You then stagger the studs in a zig-zag pattern so the drywall on one side is nailed only to the even studs and the drywall on the other side is nailed only to the odd studs, then fill the space with as much insulation/sound-deadening material as you can fit. This decouples the wall surfaces and makes a kind of pleated but undivided dead-air space between them and also reduces conduction through the studs because each stud touches only one drywall surface. They cannot conduct …

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    Nice instructable. I may apply some version of it in my next house if I find the noise coming in from outside is unbearable. Another tip for new house construction I heard over the internet is to make the outer walls of the house two inches thicker than what the studs and opposing drywall sheets would add up to. You then stagger the studs in a zig-zag pattern so the drywall on one side is nailed only to the even studs and the drywall on the other side is nailed only to the odd studs, then fill the space with as much insulation/sound-deadening material as you can fit. This decouples the wall surfaces and makes a kind of pleated but undivided dead-air space between them and also reduces conduction through the studs because each stud touches only one drywall surface. They cannot conduct sound to the other side because they don't touch the other side. For the same reason it also makes a better thermal barrier for heat retention. You and your readers could now help me with a sound-deadening problem I've been wrestling with. Seems my new shop vac is loud enough to cause avalanches, earthquakes, hair loss and migraines, oh, and hearing loss as well. I need to fit it inside some kind of sound-deadening enclosure so I can use it and still preserve my hearing for a happy, sound-filled retirement. It needs to be light, movable and somewhat form-fitting. Any ideas?

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  • DIY Shishi Odoshi

    Very nicely done! I plan to make one when we move into our new home in a few months. The shishi-odoshi I have seen often have a rock placed under the bamboo spout so when it empties the heavy end strikes the rock giving a nice bamboo "thunk" sound. This is what scares off the inoshishi (wild boars) and shika (deer). No Japanese garden should be without one.

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  • I had no idea this was possible. Looking forward to the lost PLA method of metal molding using one of these.

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  • I never heard of baking a steak. Nobody does that in the country where I live possibly because few people have ovens in their homes. Also, one-inch steaks are insanely expensive and usually reserved for hotels and steak houses. The rule here is to pan-fry the 1 cm thick supermarket steaks in olive oil or char broil marinated strips on a Korean BBQ. It takes just minutes and they taste great. BTW, popular TV programs here have said that searing steaks can increase your risk of getting cancer. Maybe so, but what a way to go!

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  • I'm not sure what you mean by "full rebuild on the housing". I did not want to change the appearance of my housing so just rebuilt the pack and made only slight internal changes to the housing to make it fit. Adding balance wires was a way to improve the charge and longevity of the pack while preserving the original circuitry. If you have access to a spot welder you could, conceivably, build a closer copy of the original pack and avoid the mods to the housing I had to make, but some experimentation will be necessary and you'll probably waste some cells in the process. Or you could add balance wires to an existing pack and attempt to "revive" it with a better charger, though there's no guarantee that would be worth the effort. I did not try that because I wanted mo…

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    I'm not sure what you mean by "full rebuild on the housing". I did not want to change the appearance of my housing so just rebuilt the pack and made only slight internal changes to the housing to make it fit. Adding balance wires was a way to improve the charge and longevity of the pack while preserving the original circuitry. If you have access to a spot welder you could, conceivably, build a closer copy of the original pack and avoid the mods to the housing I had to make, but some experimentation will be necessary and you'll probably waste some cells in the process. Or you could add balance wires to an existing pack and attempt to "revive" it with a better charger, though there's no guarantee that would be worth the effort. I did not try that because I wanted more power than my old pack could deliver and replacing the cells with higher capacity ones was the only way to achieve that. Replacing all the cells was also safer than replacing just the bad ones which would have required a very dangerous disassembly process and resulted in a pack with unmatched cells in it. Also, because BionX packed their electronics inside their battery packs, replacing the whole package was an easy but expensive proposition that ultimately didn't work out well for them. Finding one in fresh condition at this point might be easier for you in Canada than it was for me in Korea but it would still be expensive.

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  • Many people, particularly those who had or have careers in technology, enjoy restoring old tube sets from the 1920s to 1960s, often called the golden age of vacuum tubes. The technology is fascinating, the parts are easy to handle and understand, and when a working set rises out of the ashes of time it is a joy to behold! My guess is that this is particularly popular these days because it reminds people of the fun they had in tuning in radio stations and playing the vinyl records of their youth. Any radio in good physical condition can be restored, you've only to look online for details on how it is done. Young people who grew up with boomboxes and Bluetooth really don't appreciate this unless they know someone who does radio restoration for a hobby. Try restoring an antique radio ra…

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    Many people, particularly those who had or have careers in technology, enjoy restoring old tube sets from the 1920s to 1960s, often called the golden age of vacuum tubes. The technology is fascinating, the parts are easy to handle and understand, and when a working set rises out of the ashes of time it is a joy to behold! My guess is that this is particularly popular these days because it reminds people of the fun they had in tuning in radio stations and playing the vinyl records of their youth. Any radio in good physical condition can be restored, you've only to look online for details on how it is done. Young people who grew up with boomboxes and Bluetooth really don't appreciate this unless they know someone who does radio restoration for a hobby. Try restoring an antique radio rather than converting it into something modern and mass produced. I guarantee you, the experience will be much more satisfying!

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  • Hello Pete,Unfortunately, I'm rather restricted myself these days. I live in Tokyo, Japan and actually rebuilt my Bionx pack in Seoul, South Korea when I lived there about three years ago. As I recall, buying quality lithium-ion cells was quite difficult and expensive from overseas. Getting them shipped from America was impossible due to shipping regulations, I couldn't get Japanese vendors to send them to me in bulk (even though Panasonic theoretically makes them in Japan) and those from China are always suspicious so I ended up buying them at high cost from Sweden. It might be easier for you to buy them in Canada but for me it was quite difficult. Also, my Bionx motor developed a flaw while I was in Seoul (the torque assist circuit would engage randomly making the bike quite danger…

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    Hello Pete,Unfortunately, I'm rather restricted myself these days. I live in Tokyo, Japan and actually rebuilt my Bionx pack in Seoul, South Korea when I lived there about three years ago. As I recall, buying quality lithium-ion cells was quite difficult and expensive from overseas. Getting them shipped from America was impossible due to shipping regulations, I couldn't get Japanese vendors to send them to me in bulk (even though Panasonic theoretically makes them in Japan) and those from China are always suspicious so I ended up buying them at high cost from Sweden. It might be easier for you to buy them in Canada but for me it was quite difficult. Also, my Bionx motor developed a flaw while I was in Seoul (the torque assist circuit would engage randomly making the bike quite dangerous to ride) so I had Bionx send me a replacement, but that didn't last long either. They kindly sent me another one but that one was speed restricted and locked. By then I was moving back to Tokyo and had no time to follow up with them. I've since learned that they have gone into receivership and don't know if they've managed to stay in business. My battery pack still works and I keep it cycled with my balance charger so my plan now is to disassemble the original motor and repair its defective torque-assist circuit. Hopefully I'll get to that after I move into a new house later this year. As for your battery, it sounds like you're suffering from the same charge problem I had. The Bionx charger cannot balance charge the pack so inevitably some cells will weaken to the point where the monitoring circuitry will refuse to allow the whole pack to charge. That's a pity because the packs cannot be easily disassembled due to the spot-welding done at the factory. A balance charger could possibly bounce the pack back to life, or at least tell you which cell cluster is bad, but you'll still have to disassemble the pack to attach the balance wires and remove any bad cells. I don't recommend this due to the danger of creating shorts. Your best bet, really, is to rebuild the pack following my instructable, but you'll need to get really good with a soldering iron first, or build a DIY spot-welder, several of which are on Instructables and elsewhere on the net. I'd do it for you if I had the time, but it is a labor-intensive project and my location would probably prevent me from sending you the finished product anyway. Canada has a large DIY community so I'm sure you can find someone local to you who can do this work for you.Good luck!Brucekmpres

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  • A most impressive build! I applaud your ability to stay focused on the more monotonous aspects and follow the project through to completion -- the end result was worth the time spent! One caution, though. I have a box full of seldom used cheap servos that have failed in one way or another, most becoming slow, inaccurate or sloppy. The weakest part seems to be the potentiometer. With 114 inexpensive servos in one device, the chances of them failing one by one as time goes on are pretty good. I hope you bought spares!

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  • Fantastic! I have aviation history in my family and have an archive of aviation photos from WW1 and the 1920s. I wrote a 500 page book on the subject (but because I don't know if it is fair to advertise in these comments so I will only respond privately to requests for information). But pursuant to those photos was a question asked by the curator of the Deutches Museum in Munich on the exact color scheme of the only Dornier Libelle II left in the world which they possess. The plane once belonged to my grandfather and we have numerous photos of him on or in it, but no one, including the museum, knows what the original color scheme was. Dornier did a beautiful job of restoring the plane but painted it grey because that was the color in the photos they used for reference. Can this AI p…

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    Fantastic! I have aviation history in my family and have an archive of aviation photos from WW1 and the 1920s. I wrote a 500 page book on the subject (but because I don't know if it is fair to advertise in these comments so I will only respond privately to requests for information). But pursuant to those photos was a question asked by the curator of the Deutches Museum in Munich on the exact color scheme of the only Dornier Libelle II left in the world which they possess. The plane once belonged to my grandfather and we have numerous photos of him on or in it, but no one, including the museum, knows what the original color scheme was. Dornier did a beautiful job of restoring the plane but painted it grey because that was the color in the photos they used for reference. Can this AI program bring back the original colors of this long lost airplane for us?

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  • Wow, that is one tight little package! Looks and sounds great! It's hard to believe you got six tubes and a transformer in a space not much bigger than a pedal. Did you breadboard the circuit before designing the layout or did you design it stage by stage from known good past designs?

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  • Very interesting project, and well written, too! Your skills with SMT construction techniques and MCU programming are obviously top notch, things I've been trying to catch up on in my retirement but with limited success. I guess I'm a bit old-school and prefer to keep my circuits as simple as possible. So you think suspending an LED and photo-diode from the venturi plate into the dustbin won't work reliably? I salute your inventiveness in solving that problem, but it seems to me that most dust collectors don't work continuously. The LED/photo-diode circuit could be turned on just before blower motor power-up and trip a relay to the blower motor if dust is detected. The problem of churning dust causing the circuit to activate prematurely is therefore minimized and the need for mechani…

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    Very interesting project, and well written, too! Your skills with SMT construction techniques and MCU programming are obviously top notch, things I've been trying to catch up on in my retirement but with limited success. I guess I'm a bit old-school and prefer to keep my circuits as simple as possible. So you think suspending an LED and photo-diode from the venturi plate into the dustbin won't work reliably? I salute your inventiveness in solving that problem, but it seems to me that most dust collectors don't work continuously. The LED/photo-diode circuit could be turned on just before blower motor power-up and trip a relay to the blower motor if dust is detected. The problem of churning dust causing the circuit to activate prematurely is therefore minimized and the need for mechanical parts, motors, gears, etc is eliminated. Could your circuit be adapted for that?

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  • You know well how to replace battery packs for devices whose packs were never meant to be replaced. I hate filling up land-fills with perfectly usable appliances so I do this kind of thing all the time. The basic secret is to remove all oxidation first, apply lots of liquid flux, use a good quality clean iron and get on and off the cells as quickly as possible. My other instructable on How to Rebuild a BionX E-Bike Battery Pack describes this method in detail for 18650 Li-Ion cells. You are correct in saying that NiMH and nicad cells are, to a degree, interchangeable, but do pay attention to the charge and discharge currents as the cells have different internal resistances. For example, the same trickle chargers will work on AA sized cells (50 ma charge current) but larger NiMH cells…

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    You know well how to replace battery packs for devices whose packs were never meant to be replaced. I hate filling up land-fills with perfectly usable appliances so I do this kind of thing all the time. The basic secret is to remove all oxidation first, apply lots of liquid flux, use a good quality clean iron and get on and off the cells as quickly as possible. My other instructable on How to Rebuild a BionX E-Bike Battery Pack describes this method in detail for 18650 Li-Ion cells. You are correct in saying that NiMH and nicad cells are, to a degree, interchangeable, but do pay attention to the charge and discharge currents as the cells have different internal resistances. For example, the same trickle chargers will work on AA sized cells (50 ma charge current) but larger NiMH cells should be charged with a peak detection circuit to keep from overcharging them. Fortunately, there aren't too many nicad cells left in the world so this is kind of a moot point these days. Li-Ion cells, however, use an entirely different technology and must be charged with chargers designed specifically for them or literally a fire could result. For a while markets were flooded with poorly designed chargers from China and lots of fires resulted, but changes to import laws seem to have reduced those occurrences to a minimum recently.I just bought a new shaver to replace my old Remington, a Chinese brand I never heard of before called a "Phisco", so I'll be looking out for the metal slivers you mentioned. I suspect, though, that frequent cleaning of the blades will simply brush them away with the whiskers. After they seat themselves into their screens and "self-hone" the blades should remain sharp and free of metal debris for the life of the shaver as long as I remember to not mix them up. Time will tell. If you ever do make some titanium screens then do let me know. Speaking of replacing irreplaceable parts, titanium literally feels like skin to the touch which is why it is used to replace body parts. It will take some serious CNC machining, though, so you're a better man than me for making the attempt. I look forward to seeing the results!

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  • Yes, I didn't mention nicads because they haven't been used in many years. The six year old Remington shaver I took apart a few weeks ago had corroded 1600 mahr NiMH cells that had dropped to about half their normal capacity so I replaced them with newer but less capacity 1000 mahr NiMH cells. Same shaves per charge resulted so I consider it a good repair for an old shaver.While I don't doubt that unhoned metal slivers do exist, I have never seen them in my shavers possibly because I never mix up the blades and screens. What causes skin irritation for me is the chrome plating used in making the screens. Chrome is a known skin irritant but it is cheap to manufacture. Titanium is most compatible with skin but it is seldom seen in shavers because it is expensive to manufacture. The onl…

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    Yes, I didn't mention nicads because they haven't been used in many years. The six year old Remington shaver I took apart a few weeks ago had corroded 1600 mahr NiMH cells that had dropped to about half their normal capacity so I replaced them with newer but less capacity 1000 mahr NiMH cells. Same shaves per charge resulted so I consider it a good repair for an old shaver.While I don't doubt that unhoned metal slivers do exist, I have never seen them in my shavers possibly because I never mix up the blades and screens. What causes skin irritation for me is the chrome plating used in making the screens. Chrome is a known skin irritant but it is cheap to manufacture. Titanium is most compatible with skin but it is seldom seen in shavers because it is expensive to manufacture. The only vibrator shaver I liked out of the three that I've owned had a titanium foil but the company went out of business some 20 years ago. I now slap on a pre-shave lotion prior to each shave and follow the shave with a quick wipe with a wet washcloth and that has pretty well eliminated the skin irritation I used to get from chrome shaver heads.I'm glad you liked my desulfator circuit. It turned out to be a surprisingly popular instructable, especially in third world countries I was gratified to learn. Your Solar Charged Electric Club Car sounds very interesting. You should write an instructable for it, too, if you haven't already.

    There seems to be some confusion on how best to maintain the blades and screens in rotary shavers. The following has worked well for me for the five rotary shavers I have owned, all lasting more than eight years each. Perhaps it could work well for you, too. 1. Only use the shaver dry, never in the shower, and never use water to wash out the whiskers. The reason is that the whiskers tend to cake up in the nooks and crannies making a kind of cement that is hard to remove later, and that can damage the moving parts. You also don't want to drop the thing in the shower as that will break it.2. Remove the shaver from the charger after each full charge and leave it off until the razor reaches its minimum charge level. Only then should you give it a new charge. This deep cycles the batter…

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    There seems to be some confusion on how best to maintain the blades and screens in rotary shavers. The following has worked well for me for the five rotary shavers I have owned, all lasting more than eight years each. Perhaps it could work well for you, too. 1. Only use the shaver dry, never in the shower, and never use water to wash out the whiskers. The reason is that the whiskers tend to cake up in the nooks and crannies making a kind of cement that is hard to remove later, and that can damage the moving parts. You also don't want to drop the thing in the shower as that will break it.2. Remove the shaver from the charger after each full charge and leave it off until the razor reaches its minimum charge level. Only then should you give it a new charge. This deep cycles the batteries and gives you the most life out of them which is generally about 200-300 charges depending on chemistry. Obviously, the more time that elapses between charges the longer the batteries, and your razor will last.3. After each shave open and lightly tap the head assembly over the sink to knock out the loose whiskers. Lightly brush the parts but it is not necessary to remove them until the time comes to recharge the batteries.4. THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT STEP: When disassembling the shaver head, always keep track of which blade came out of which screen and return them in that order. Don't mix them up! The reason is because the blades and screens wear into each other and develop a track that will not fit the other blades/screens if you mix them up. The result will be a poorly working shaver until the blades have had time to wear into the screens again and more of the metal will have worn away in this process. If you keep doing this you'll be replacing heads and screens more often than necessary. Using this method I have never had to replace a blade or screen ever in the 45+ years I've been using rotary shavers. 5. Thoroughly clean the blades when the battery charge goes down to its minimum level. The batteries have nothing to do with the cleaning of the blades except that the time interval seems to work best for both if these steps are done simultaneously. Gently hold the blades in your fingers and brush them with the brush that came with the kit or use a clean epoxy brush. They're cheap and the bristles can be cut short to make them stiffer if necessary. Brush the screens and holder assembly as well. You can use hot water to rinse out the head after you've finished brushing the parts but avoid getting water in the head cavity. Before inserting the blades, put a small drop of mineral oil (baby oil if you prefer) in each screen to lubricate the blades. After closing the head assembly, run the shaver for a few seconds to mate the blades to the motor shafts and spread the oil around, then wipe off the excess oil on the outside of the screens with a tissue. Using the above five steps your shaver should not require any parts to keep it running throughout its entire life. I have also had three "vibrators" and one "lawn mower" type and none have lasted as long as my rotaries. The batteries will lose about half of their charge capacity after 8 years at which point I'll either replace them or buy a new razor. Replacing the batteries can be difficult and requires some special tools so I don't recommend this procedure. However, if you cycle the batteries properly and keep the blades and screens cleaned and oiled as described above your shaver should give you many years of trouble-free service.

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  • Awesome build! I really like the knotty pine(?) as the knots are attractive and give the wood character it wouldn't otherwise have. I wonder if a set of wheels under the movable section wouldn't make it easier to pull out, especially over a rug. Also, I recently built a fairly complex table using a biscuit joiner to make the top and two drop leaves and found it a lot easier and more accurate than using dowels. My dowels never seem to line up properly no matter how hard I try but the biscuits are self-centering and make seamless joints.

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  • So this is some kind of two-part polyurethane is it? The stuff available in the country where I live is simply called urethane, is one-part, has no odor and looks like skim milk though it is a tad thicker. It works well, though. I just finished a new lab table with four coats of the stuff. Each coat dried in ten minutes and left a beautiful shine with minimal sanding between coats. I love it - will throw out all my old cans of varnish and will use this from now on. Is that the same stuff as yours or is yours something more like epoxy?

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  • I enjoyed your logical analysis of the problem and the thought processes you used to solve it. I have avoided IoT devices until now due to the unreliable nature of internet connections. I shall have to revisit that assessment now that your instructable has given us a means of keeping our local networks alive when the web is down. Very well done instructable! Oh, and for the record, not all Americans think third world countries are "#$%&-hole Countries". Many of us are trying to preserve American ideals despite the ravings of some poorly chosen souls in Washington.

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  • kmpres commented on AroundHome's instructable Workbench Leg Vise

    Nice build! I wish my shop was as new and fully equipped as yours. I was half expecting the lower leg of your vise to have a second acme threaded rod driven by a sprocket and bicycle chain connecting it to the upper rod that would more closely match the mechanical movements of the vise jaws. You'd have to make the chain fairly tight to avoid backlash but the robustness of your design suggests it could be done fairly easily. The chain would have to be covered to keep the sawdust out, though. Do you think that's possible?

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  • kmpres commented on rgco's instructable Arduino Waveform Generator

    Very interesting and well written instructable, and I appreciate the well laid out and easy to follow code to run the device. I'm looking for just such a device but hope to get it to give at least 500 KHz of undistorted sine wave so I can use it to generate IF frequencies for radio repair work. I wonder if there'd be any benefit to using two Arduinos instead of one, one for frequency generation and the other for interrupt handling? Could the output frequency be increased using such a scheme?

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  • The LED should light when it is forward biased, but it uses the forward voltage drop of the silicon diode as its source. If you're using a Schottky diode, or one that has a lower voltage drop than your LED requires, there might not be enough voltage to power the LED. I also used an old yellow LED from my junk bin and since it worked right off I left it as is and never checked the Vfd. You may have to experiment with different LEDs and check the drop using a scope to get one that works.

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  • Very nice project! Been looking for something like this. Is the 10 MHz limit caused solely by the AD9833 module? Is there a way to get up to 30 MHz of clean sine wave from the device or perhaps another? I need to cover all frequencies between audio and 30 MHz for a Ham Radio project. Thanks.

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  • It's actually holding up quite well. I monitor the battery and cycle them from time to time. My charging setup is great. The 10-cell balance charger is much better than the original non-balanced charger. Also, a good set of cells helps a lot. I don't think salvaged cells from, for example, old laptop batteries, would have worked as well.

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  • Nicely done! I did this many years ago using a much shorter spindle on my Shopsmith. As I recall, there was some noticeable side-flex in the spindle near the chuck, but because the spindle was only a few inches long it didn't seriously affect my projects. You could, however, reduce this flex, particularly with long spindles, by mounting a bearing at the far end of the spindle and anchoring the outer race in the hole in the middle of the drill table. This, of course, requires that the chuck's center be exactly lined up with the center of the hole to be certain the spindle runs true.

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  • Very well done video. You're obviously a student of media or have an armload of video software and are not afraid to use it. That puts old folks like me at a disadvantage but that's OK. I'm happy to see it and am looking forward to seeing more from you. About the video, your opening photo showed a leg pedestal so I though your first "mistake" would be about the built-in stress points inherent in that particular design. The timbers are quite robust so it is probably not an issue for everyday use, however the side stresses pressing down on the table's front and rear edges would be concentrated angularly at the center mortise and tenon location on the vertical posts. This could lead to cracks developing at those locations in time, depending on the loads placed on the table. …

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    Very well done video. You're obviously a student of media or have an armload of video software and are not afraid to use it. That puts old folks like me at a disadvantage but that's OK. I'm happy to see it and am looking forward to seeing more from you. About the video, your opening photo showed a leg pedestal so I though your first "mistake" would be about the built-in stress points inherent in that particular design. The timbers are quite robust so it is probably not an issue for everyday use, however the side stresses pressing down on the table's front and rear edges would be concentrated angularly at the center mortise and tenon location on the vertical posts. This could lead to cracks developing at those locations in time, depending on the loads placed on the table. I suggest a back-to-back "capital letter K" design for future tables that would distribute the loads more evenly across the timbers and avoid stress cracks.

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  • kmpres followed Tesalex
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  • Fascinatingly impractical, but you can't argue with success. The Japanese Sky-Tomo link supplied in the 'ible' has over 3.8 million views! A few of those and I could retire early!

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  • kmpres commented on makjosher's instructable Secret Book Light Switch

    Nice one! An alternative to screws might be to use short pop rivets. This would eliminate the need to cut the screws short with a cutoff wheel which can be dangerous for young players. Also, good idea on using solder and heat shrink tubing on the switch. Don't be tempted to use tape as it will unravel in time.

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  • Very impressive! Love the portability aspect. Been waiting for a 3D printer that has reliable hi-res output in hard materials and doesn't take up a lot of space. I've been looking for a nut-driver set like the one you displayed in Step 1. Can you tell me where you got it? Also, I've been using for years an old Monokote heat gun for shrinking heat-shrink tubing. Model airplaners know what these are - they're available at any hobby store or online for around $20. Hotter than a hair blower but not nearly as hot as as a desoldering station so it is much safer to use on electronic wiring. Forget using soldering irons or butane lighters on heat-shrink tubing. They're much too dangerous and sloppy in my opinion.

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  • Excellent! Great that you can decode satellite and even ISS transmissions. I've wanted to get my feet wet in SDR for some time and this looks like the time. I will have to be careful with my choice of SDR device as apparently the one in this instructable does not support the US, Canada and Japan, the three countries I travel to most often. But thanks for the idea, I'm sure that many others will work fine in my locations.

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      • Hacking TV Tuner to Read Earth Photos From Satellites
      • Magic and Unusual Things in Stop Motion Animation
      • Wreck Race - Do It Yourself!
  • Great idea, and neatly done, but the idea isn't new. In Japan, the majority of all toilets, both western and Japanese styles, have a curved spout coming out the top of the tank where the water simply pours into a shallow basin before draining into the tank. The intention is to provide a place to rinse one's hands without having to use a separate sink with its own water line thereby saving space in tiny Japanese water closets. By the way, I wouldn't rinse your mouth with this water. Though the water is perfectly safe, impurities from your mouth will eventually cause water spots outside and collect around the valve parts inside the tank requiring you to wipe down those parts down from time to time.

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  • kmpres commented on mscharch's instructable Laminated 2X4 Work Tables

    Great design, thanks. While I understand the criticisms regarding the K braces, the robustness of the overall structure more than makes up for them. If it were tested I suspect the table would take a half ton or more of weight on the front edge before the rear legs would crack or the glued tenons would give way - more than enough for normal purposes. The tenons can be screwed, pinned or wedged for more strength but I don't think even that is necessary. And yes, it is a work table, because that is what you do on it, regardless of your line of work.

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  • I'm afraid I don't have a clue. You'd have to test it with a fast scope to be certain it is working properly.

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  • Very nicely written and congrats on your first instructable! I never heard of wicking beds until now but that's not surprising considering my black-thumbed total ignorance of gardening generally. I do, however, have some experience with plastic. Just be aware that your plastic tubs may not last more than a year or two before they'll shatter into tiny pieces. The sun's UV radiation tends to break down the chemical structure of inexpensive plastic items turning them eventually into brittle flakes.

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  • kmpres commented on rog8811's instructable Dog Anti Bark Screen......

    They're funny that way, aren't they. Toy poodles have no concept of their own size. Mine can't look at themselves in a mirror but they sure know what other dogs look like and are ready to defend their territory no matter how big, loud or nasty the invading dog is. If I ever took them to a farm or a zoo I'd probably have a lot of explaining to do.

    My other dog, also a poodle (miniature), liked to bark at other dogs and horses on our TV and nearly jumped through it on a few occasions (horses are just big dogs according to him). The only thing that stopped him was old age. The female, however, is only three...

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  • I salute your ingenuity, but you should know that rubber garden hoses, glue gun heaters and most plastics are not rated food-safe, particularly when heated. Used soldering irons also have lead on their tips. Can you change your design to use food-safe parts instead?

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  • Just use isopropyl alcohol instead of vodka for eyeglass cleaner. It's cheaper and you can keep it with your bathroom chemicals without making the spouse and kids suspicious. Use the 70% kind you get from the supermarket or pharmacy. Fill your spray bottle half full, then top it off with tap water. That leaves you with about a 35% solution which you can use every day on your glasses for years without damaging them. By the way, the soap and fragrance in commercial eyeglass cleaners are just "feel good" ingredients for the consumer. They do nothing to clean your lenses - it's the alcohol that does all the work.

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  • Amazon, Barnes and Noble and BookDepository in Australia have it. I hope you like it! They also have the Mission SRX books, which are excellent.

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