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  • steven4872 commented on made2hack's instructable DIY Aquarium LED Light2 years ago
    DIY Aquarium LED Light

    "but the main question is ... is LED light suitable for aquarium?"Not all light bulbs are the same some are brighter and some are dim. IF the bulb doesn't produce enough light a plant may die. When you compare bulbs you need to look at the brightness of the bulb listed in lumens. AWatt is not a measure of light output. A watt is a measure of electrical power consumption. The other issue you need to watch out for is the spectrum output of the light. Some LEDs use one red, one green, and one blue LED to produce white light. While some plants Do OK with just red and blue many others don't. Other LEDs emit only blue light but then use a phosphor to convert the blue to many different colors of light just like the T8 tube does. Most plants tend to do better under full spec...

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    "but the main question is ... is LED light suitable for aquarium?"Not all light bulbs are the same some are brighter and some are dim. IF the bulb doesn't produce enough light a plant may die. When you compare bulbs you need to look at the brightness of the bulb listed in lumens. AWatt is not a measure of light output. A watt is a measure of electrical power consumption. The other issue you need to watch out for is the spectrum output of the light. Some LEDs use one red, one green, and one blue LED to produce white light. While some plants Do OK with just red and blue many others don't. Other LEDs emit only blue light but then use a phosphor to convert the blue to many different colors of light just like the T8 tube does. Most plants tend to do better under full spectrum white light. When looking for bulbs look for a CRI rating (color rendering index) Lights with a CRI of 100produce the full spectrum of light. Some cheap bulbs have a CRI rating of 70 or less. Plants do best with higher CRI lights (CRI of 80 or more). I used phosphor LED strip with a CRI 90+ ( which is about as high as LEDs go. It puts out 3000 Lumens of light. I them put a dimmer on it so that I could adjust the output from 0 to 100%. My aquarium plants are doing very well. Without CO2 I can use the light at up to about 60% brightness. Above that PH starts to climb indicating I should use CO2 when setting the light to more than 60%. So in my experience LED work very well in aquarium. However poor lighting seldom causes plants to die in aquariums. Other than CO2, water, and light plants need about 15 different elements to grow. For example plants need nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, sulfur plus 10 more for growth (such as copper). If you are short just one at best you will get slow growth. At worst the plant dies. In most cases a nutrient efficiency causes a plant to die. If you replace a old T8 bulb with a new brighter LED the plants might grow fast enough to completely deplete the tank of nutrients which nay kill some plants and cause others to grow slowly. For a complete list of nutrients a plant needs see:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_nutrition

    Some plants do OK with just red and blue light. But others such as my orchids don't (they wouldn't grow until I replaced the red and blue light with white. Some plants need yellow and green light to properly grow. Nasa is focusing on red and blue to minimize power consumption. Plants can convert red and blue light into food very efficiently. Lower power consumption means a smaller lighter power supply can be used which can lower launch costs. It frequently cost about $1000 to put 1Kg (about 2 lbs) into orbit

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  • steven4872 commented on sswimmer111's instructable How to Clean Your Small Fish Tank2 years ago
    How to Clean Your Small Fish Tank

    Algae does help keep the water clean and it often is unsightly. One Nerite Snail can keep the glass of a 5 gallon tank clean and can clean decorations. Nerite snails will not reproduce in aquariums so will not have a snail population explosion. Removing plants is often not a good idea. Many live plants don't like having there roots disturbed. As to the beneficial bacteria in the water. Most of them are actually in the substrate and filter and any aquarium decorations. Overall your cleaning methods is in my opinion excessive. The first thing I do is test the water for excessive levels of Ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, water hardness, alkalinity, and ph using Tetra test strips. That only takes a minute. For my 5 gallon once a week I use a syphon hose to remove 50% of the water. I...

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    Algae does help keep the water clean and it often is unsightly. One Nerite Snail can keep the glass of a 5 gallon tank clean and can clean decorations. Nerite snails will not reproduce in aquariums so will not have a snail population explosion. Removing plants is often not a good idea. Many live plants don't like having there roots disturbed. As to the beneficial bacteria in the water. Most of them are actually in the substrate and filter and any aquarium decorations. Overall your cleaning methods is in my opinion excessive. The first thing I do is test the water for excessive levels of Ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, water hardness, alkalinity, and ph using Tetra test strips. That only takes a minute. For my 5 gallon once a week I use a syphon hose to remove 50% of the water. I also push the syphon into the substrate in a few places to remove excess organic material. I then refill the tank with dechlorinated water. I don't remove my fish or move the tank. My 3 Nerite snails do a wonderful job keeping the algae growth on the glass under control. MY replacement water is at room temperature before I start so adding it to the 50% in the tank doesn't create a temperature shock for the fish.

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  • steven4872 commented on Fishbum Frank's instructable Water Photograghy2 years ago
    Water Photograghy

    Water photography is my favorite type. With todays digital camera neutral density filters are generally not needed today. With film you could only adjust the shutter speed and aperture to get the correct exposure. The iso speed of the film is fixed. If you could not get the exposure right you had to use a neutral density filter. With todays digital cameras you can adjust the shutter, aperture, AND iso. So if I cannot get the desired spouse with iso 200, I reduce it to 100. If that still doesn't work I will go down to 50 ( the lowest setting on my camera. 90 percent of the time that is enough. As for tripods look for brands where the tripod head is sold separately from the legs. That way you can get the head and camera mount that works best for you. Many like ball heads but I r...

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    Water photography is my favorite type. With todays digital camera neutral density filters are generally not needed today. With film you could only adjust the shutter speed and aperture to get the correct exposure. The iso speed of the film is fixed. If you could not get the exposure right you had to use a neutral density filter. With todays digital cameras you can adjust the shutter, aperture, AND iso. So if I cannot get the desired spouse with iso 200, I reduce it to 100. If that still doesn't work I will go down to 50 ( the lowest setting on my camera. 90 percent of the time that is enough. As for tripods look for brands where the tripod head is sold separately from the legs. That way you can get the head and camera mount that works best for you. Many like ball heads but I refer the Bogen 410 mini gear head. In my opinion it is better than a ball head. For the tripod leg I have two to choose from a 5foot light weight one and Taller heavier one that is strong enough to support a small telescope or very large long focal length large aperture lens. The legs and head use a standard 1/4 inch bolt and I can use legs and heads from different manufactures if I want. Also to avoid shaking the camera when you press the shutter, use a remote or cable shutter release or use the cameras built in timer.

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  • DIY: LED Workbench Light From LED Strips

    Note Flexfireled.com also sells 12 high CRI LED light strips that are about 2x brighter than what I see on fuji website. CRI is an indirect measure of light spectrum coverage. High CRI LEDs cover most of the visible spectrum of light. A CRI of 100 covers the full spectrum. Most consumer LEDs are at about 70 to 80CRI. US Energy Star labeled LEDs must have a minimum CRI of 80.https://www.flexfireleds.com/categories/LED-Flexib...Unfortunately these high CRI lets cost significantly more than your typical LED strips.LED flicker is mainly caused by by powering the LED with AC power. A well regulated 12 DC power supply will also produce flicker free light. Another source of flicker is from the dimmers often used in such projects. A good flicker free dimmer can be hard to find.

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  • steven4872 commented on lafelabs's instructable Op Amps Without Circuit Boards2 years ago
    Op Amps Without Circuit Boards

    Another approach to building a circuit is to use a breadboard:https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/how-to-use-a-...With breadboards you don't have to damage the chip or cut the pins. Everything just plugs in without solder. And if needed you can reconfigure the circuit in a few minutes. Also when you are done all parts can be reused in your next project.

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  • steven4872 commented on ThinkTinker's instructable LEDsGrow2 years ago
    LEDsGrow

    As mentioned above I LED a lamp out of 24"X7" glass shelf with 30Watts of LED light strips. it is only warm to the touch. NO heat sinks or metal or fans are needed to cool it. The key is that the strips don't produce all the heat in one spot. Roughly 70% of the glass is covered by led light strips. This means each square inch of glass is getting about 0.17 watts of heat which can easily be transferred to the air without special metal heat sinks or fans.

    One note is that while many plants do well under red and blue light, some don't. I made a red and blue LED lamp for my orchids but at 30 watts it didn't help my orchids that much during the dark months of winter. I replaced that with 30Watts of mostly white and got much better growth. The spectrum you posted shows that chlorophyll absorbs light best a red and blue wavelengths. But studies half shown that the small amount of yellow and green light the plants do absorb is used chemically for growth. Additionally i read about a green house that was made with panels that filtered out the green and yellow light and only allowed red and blue to reach the plants. Scientist monitored the pant growth and found some varieties of lettus didn't do will while most other food plants did.From w...

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    One note is that while many plants do well under red and blue light, some don't. I made a red and blue LED lamp for my orchids but at 30 watts it didn't help my orchids that much during the dark months of winter. I replaced that with 30Watts of mostly white and got much better growth. The spectrum you posted shows that chlorophyll absorbs light best a red and blue wavelengths. But studies half shown that the small amount of yellow and green light the plants do absorb is used chemically for growth. Additionally i read about a green house that was made with panels that filtered out the green and yellow light and only allowed red and blue to reach the plants. Scientist monitored the pant growth and found some varieties of lettus didn't do will while most other food plants did.From what I have read and my own experience a mix of white and red and blue is probably best and some plants may need a lot more white.

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  • Build Basic Frame for Mini Pilot Plant or CNC

    This extruded aluminum is most frequently call T-slot instead of "modular aluminum structural system". The link below is a basic catalog of the different struts and mounting hardware that is available.http://www.mcmaster.com/#t-slotted-framing/=12be59f

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  • How Not to Build a Reflection Pool With Galium

    Don't us a torch to melt the metal. Gallium is relatively inert at room temperature but oxidizes rapidly at higher temperatures. Teh flame of the torch can easily be at 1000F. Where the flame touches the gallium you will get corrosion. Melt the metal slowly with an electric heaters. Don't use a metal or glass dish. Gallium is a powerful solvent of metals and will wet glass easily. If metal or glass mix with it a slag may form very quickly. Try a PTFE, teflon, or polyethylene containers instead

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