author

Jack A Lopez

92
Inbox View Profile
10Instructables596,241Views4,385CommentsSecret desert proving ground, located somewhere in the Former United States, Southwest region.
I've built some weird stuff over the years, but most of that stuff has remained unseen by the world outside of me and a few friends. But then one day, one of these friends, he says to me, "Hey Jack, you should take some pictures of that weird stuff you're building all the time, and uh, I don't know, like, put those pictures on the internet or something..."

Achievements

1K+ Comments Earned a gold medal
10K+ Views Earned a bronze medal
  • Did this light-emitting gizmo NOT come with a power cord?In the event, it did not come with a power cord, I am guessing the cord you want is the same style, with connector of the same shape, as those that plug into a the power supply for a desktop computer.Actually, this shape has a name, but few people would recognize it by its true name, which is "IEC 60320 C13 and C14" That is why I am calling it, "same cord as for desktop computer." The instructions you attached, refer to this cord as "power cord." The socket it plugs into, the instructions call, "male IEC connector in the rear of the unit." That is from the text for Step 3.Some people call this kind of cord, "IEC connector" or "IEC cord," but that so vague it is kind of mean…

    see more »

    Did this light-emitting gizmo NOT come with a power cord?In the event, it did not come with a power cord, I am guessing the cord you want is the same style, with connector of the same shape, as those that plug into a the power supply for a desktop computer.Actually, this shape has a name, but few people would recognize it by its true name, which is "IEC 60320 C13 and C14" That is why I am calling it, "same cord as for desktop computer." The instructions you attached, refer to this cord as "power cord." The socket it plugs into, the instructions call, "male IEC connector in the rear of the unit." That is from the text for Step 3.Some people call this kind of cord, "IEC connector" or "IEC cord," but that so vague it is kind of meaningless.In truth, "IEC 60320" is a family of connectors, with several different shapes, but all with the same purpose of connecting mains power to household appliances. Individual members of this family have names starting with the letter "C" like, for example, C13 and C14.There is a gallery of all these funny shapes, on this Wikipedia page,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEC_60320#Appliance_couplersin the section titled, "Appliance couplers."Anyway, my advice is to look closely at the shape of the socket on the side of your light-emitting gizmo, and see if that shape is the same as the socket on the back of a power supply for a desktop computer.Or if you have a spare cord for a desktop computer, try plugging that into your gizmo.

    View Topic »
  • I thank you for correcting me, Rogerzilla. I did not know that, but I should not be surprised. This term "mole grips" is confusing though, because I did not think moles, the burrowing rodents, have a particularly strong grip. They're good at digging, but good at gripping? Maybe it is because the shape is kind of pointy, like a mole's head.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mole_(animal)"Alligator clips," same thing as "crocodile clips," https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodile_clipmake sense. The shape is similar to an aligator's head, and both, the artifact and the animal, have strong gripping jaws.I suppose those pliers could be called "Kung Fu grips." Maybe. I don't know if you've heard of that one. It was from a brand of toys, that might NOT hav…

    see more »

    I thank you for correcting me, Rogerzilla. I did not know that, but I should not be surprised. This term "mole grips" is confusing though, because I did not think moles, the burrowing rodents, have a particularly strong grip. They're good at digging, but good at gripping? Maybe it is because the shape is kind of pointy, like a mole's head.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mole_(animal)"Alligator clips," same thing as "crocodile clips," https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodile_clipmake sense. The shape is similar to an aligator's head, and both, the artifact and the animal, have strong gripping jaws.I suppose those pliers could be called "Kung Fu grips." Maybe. I don't know if you've heard of that one. It was from a brand of toys, that might NOT have been popular worldwide.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G.I._Joe#Adventure_T...

    View Topic »
  • Perhaps you could just put some shelves on either side of it? Or put some shelves, surrounding the chimney? There is already one flat spot there, being used for a shelf presently.By the way, it looks like this chimney has some sort of slogan attached to it, but I cannot quite read what it says, "J'aime les [something something]..." Decoding it is challenging for me, because the text does not have many pixels in it, and also because I do not speak French.

    View Topic »
  • It might be more constructive, to link to a tutorial that shows this to be true, like this one from the venerable Nurdrage:https://www.instructables.com/Make-Sulfuric-acid-m...There is a Youtube video,for that one too, and the link is still working at the time of this writing.By the way, did you notice the post dates for these comments? I guess maybe you think it is never to late to tell someone he is wrong.;-)

    View Topic »
  • I admit the screw extractors (2 of Spades) are different from the kind I have seen before, and I do not know what the part in the middle does.If it truly is a screw extractor, or a tap, there has to be some way to attach a handle (also called "tap wrench"), for to put a torque (twisting force) on it. Moreover, I expect the handle to be longer than the shiny part in the middle is presently. My intuition is telling me that part is too short, as is, to be an effective handle.There are pages out there, that show how to use a screw extractor.https://www.thespruce.com/remove-a-broken-screw-wi...https://www.wikihow.com/Use-a-Screw-ExtractorIt involves drilling a hole in the top of the broken screw. Then twisting the screw extractor into that hole. It is made to twist in, in a counte…

    see more »

    I admit the screw extractors (2 of Spades) are different from the kind I have seen before, and I do not know what the part in the middle does.If it truly is a screw extractor, or a tap, there has to be some way to attach a handle (also called "tap wrench"), for to put a torque (twisting force) on it. Moreover, I expect the handle to be longer than the shiny part in the middle is presently. My intuition is telling me that part is too short, as is, to be an effective handle.There are pages out there, that show how to use a screw extractor.https://www.thespruce.com/remove-a-broken-screw-wi...https://www.wikihow.com/Use-a-Screw-ExtractorIt involves drilling a hole in the top of the broken screw. Then twisting the screw extractor into that hole. It is made to twist in, in a counterclockwise rotation. When it catches, it will put a counterclockwise torque on the screw, and hopefully start the screw turning counterclockwise, to back the screw out of whatever it was stuck in.That is the promise. Of course it is totally possible to break the extractor, e.g. by putting too much torque on it, and then be left with two broken things: the stuck screw, and a broken extractor.The author from the first page linked, is using a T-shaped handle made for twisting taps. The author on the second page, uses an adjustable wrench. Actually, this "handle for turning a tap" might be properly called a, "tap wrench." There is an English Wikipedia page with that name,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tap_wrenchand that page has a picture of a few other styles of this.

    View Topic »
  • The name, "La Société genevoise d'instruments de physique"is French, and translates to "The Geneva Society of Physics Instruments"Or, at least that is what Google-Translate,https://translate.google.comsays about that phrase. I also found your object (the one pictured with the Ace of Spades), or a similar one, on this page,https://collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk/objec..."Microscope with spindle location for use with Societe Genevoise Jig Borer MP4 Inv.No. 1961-129"Also I found this page,https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/general-arch...Also there is a Wikipedia page for "Jig borer" which explains what that is.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jig_borerAnd if you still do not grok what role your "microscope with spindle location" plays,…

    see more »

    The name, "La Société genevoise d'instruments de physique"is French, and translates to "The Geneva Society of Physics Instruments"Or, at least that is what Google-Translate,https://translate.google.comsays about that phrase. I also found your object (the one pictured with the Ace of Spades), or a similar one, on this page,https://collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk/objec..."Microscope with spindle location for use with Societe Genevoise Jig Borer MP4 Inv.No. 1961-129"Also I found this page,https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/general-arch...Also there is a Wikipedia page for "Jig borer" which explains what that is.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jig_borerAnd if you still do not grok what role your "microscope with spindle location" plays, as part of this "jig borer," uh, well, I am not quite picturing it either.Actually, I am kind of wishing I had a picture of both pieces, the "microscope" and the "jig borer", together. Regarding the 2 of Spades, each one of those looks like a combination screw-extractor and tap. I mean, screw-extractor on one side, plus a tap of some kind, on the other side.Regarding the 3 of Spades, to me that just looks like a pulley.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulley

    View Topic »
  • It is suppose it is easy enough to connect in parallel, the output rails from 2, or 3, or N, computer power supplies together. If it is an ATX style power supply, all the output rails are color coded by voltage. So, for example, connecting 3, 5 volt outputs, in parallel, is just connecting 3 black wires together, and 3 red wires together.The question is, are the separate power supplies going to play nice together? And are they going to share the load in a predictable way? https://duckduckgo.com/?q=power+supplies+in+parallel+for+more+current&ia=webOr you could just try it, and see what happens... which I guess means measuring the current from each supply somehow, because otherwise, how would you know which supply was providing more, or less, or the same, current.

    View Topic »
  • Someone asked a similar question, on this forum, about 9 years ago, https://www.instructables.com/community/What-is-th...and I decided to try this: i.e. connecting a plasma globe, intended for use with USB, to a stack of 4, AA cells. And I took some pictures of this, and posted them to this forum. It turns out the particular plasma globe I tested, drew about 300 mA of current, and you can see that in the pictures.I suppose I should re-attach the same pictures to this post.

    View Topic »
  • The Wikipedia article for "Bulk-handling crane" has some pictures of these big industrial machines that use a crane to lift a grabber, and open and close the jaws of the grabber, using steel cables.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulk-handling_craneWe can imagine a similar contrivance, using ropes instead of steel cables.The important thing to remember about ropes, or cables, is these can only transmit pulling forces. In other words, you cannot push on something, using a rope.I am guessing a machine like this, has at least two ropes: one to lift the weight of the grabber, and another to actuate the grabber, to make its jaws open or close.I know you probably want some existing instructable, that explains how to do this in detail.Asking the Let's Make: search, to show me, "pick…

    see more »

    The Wikipedia article for "Bulk-handling crane" has some pictures of these big industrial machines that use a crane to lift a grabber, and open and close the jaws of the grabber, using steel cables.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulk-handling_craneWe can imagine a similar contrivance, using ropes instead of steel cables.The important thing to remember about ropes, or cables, is these can only transmit pulling forces. In other words, you cannot push on something, using a rope.I am guessing a machine like this, has at least two ropes: one to lift the weight of the grabber, and another to actuate the grabber, to make its jaws open or close.I know you probably want some existing instructable, that explains how to do this in detail.Asking the Let's Make: search, to show me, "pick up claw"https://www.instructables.com/howto/pick+up+claw/returns a surprising number of 'ibles that appear to have something to with a mechanical claw, used for grasping things. (Aside from the one about someone's Wolverine costume, which has something to do with "claw" I guess.)If none of these are exactly what you're looking for, well, you might have to look elsewhere, or do some experimentation, for to figure out how to build this yourself.By the way, the Staff here at Instructables have been making noises about ending this forum. https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-the-Forums/and if that happens before your question gets answered, please consider posting the same question to diy-forums.nethttps://diy-forums.net/forum/because some of the regular question answerers, including myself, are moving the party over to that place.

    View Topic »
  • Before adressing your question of plastics and glues, I want to mention some prior art. (When I do get to recommending plastics and glues, I am going to suggest plastics that can be heat-sealed, and eschew using glue. )There is a prior art, that uses "dry" plant seeds, like rice, beans, etc, in a fabric bag, that is sewn shut.I put the word "dry" in quotes, because, I assume there is actually some water, in the plant seeds, and the water is the material that is absorbing microwaves, and changing that energy into heat.There might also be some water (vapor) exchange with the atmosphere surrounding the fabric bag; e.g. possibly water lost on heating? e.g. water reabsorbed on cooling? In fact this style of "microwave heat pad" is so well-known, particularly he…

    see more »

    Before adressing your question of plastics and glues, I want to mention some prior art. (When I do get to recommending plastics and glues, I am going to suggest plastics that can be heat-sealed, and eschew using glue. )There is a prior art, that uses "dry" plant seeds, like rice, beans, etc, in a fabric bag, that is sewn shut.I put the word "dry" in quotes, because, I assume there is actually some water, in the plant seeds, and the water is the material that is absorbing microwaves, and changing that energy into heat.There might also be some water (vapor) exchange with the atmosphere surrounding the fabric bag; e.g. possibly water lost on heating? e.g. water reabsorbed on cooling? In fact this style of "microwave heat pad" is so well-known, particularly here at Instructables.com, that if I ask the Let's Make: to show me"microwave heat pad"https://www.instructables.com/howto/microwave+heat...The 'ibles following this basic form; i.e. a fabric bag filled with plant seeds, are the vast majority, and maybe the only form to be found here (I have not examined all of them.), at the time of this writing.That is a little disappointing, that there are so many 'ibles doing the same thing the same thing the same way, because I know there are other solid materials, besides plant seeds, capable of being heated by microwave energy. For the thing you are contemplating building, instead of glue to seal it, I think I would just try to find a plastic that can be joined by heat sealing. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_sealerLike, for example, if you have seen a vacuum packing gizmo, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_packingthose often have a sealer, consisting of a line-shaped heating element, that makes a line-shaped seal, on one side of a plastic bag.By the way, those bags are typically made of HDPE (high density polyethylene), which is a plastic widely used for storing food, and chemicals, because it mostly inert; i.e. does not react with anything, at ordinary temperatures.The only real weakness of HDPE has, is it loses mechanical strength at temperatures as low as 100 C, i.e. normal boiling point of water.Polypropylene, PP, is a plastic similar to HDPE, but somewhat stronger, with a somewhat higher melting point. Somewhere around here, I think I have a volcano shaped, microwave toy, that is made of polypropylene. So the manufacturer who made that toy, intended it to function with water boiling inside of it. Reply if you want more info about that.Note this toy has holes in its top, to allow the water vapor to escape... so it will not explode.Which reminds me: If your microwave absorbing material contains water,...and some of that water is escaping as vapor...and you have it inside a sealed plastic container,well, you know, there may be some danger of the plastic container inflating, and exploding.So, uh, yeah, you probably want to wear your safety glasses, and other PPE.By the way, does anyone here remember Jory Caron, and his "Is it a good idea to microwave this?" Youtube channel?https://duckduckgo.com/?q=is+it+a+good+idea+to+mic...Oh, man! Those guys were hilarious!

    By the way, I forgot to mention: The Staff here at Instructables have been making noises about ending this forum, starting (some time in?) October,https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-the-Forums/and if that happens before your question gets answered, please consider posting the same question to diy-forums.nethttps://diy-forums.net/forum/because some of the regular question answerers, including myself, are moving the party over to that place.

    View Topic »
  • I dunno. I do not have any plans or vids I can personally recommend.I suppose we could try the Let's Make: search, and see what it has to say about "Tiny House?"https://www.instructables.com/howto/tiny+house/Perhaps we could ask Youtube's search function about, "build tiny house?"https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=build...I knew someone in middle school whose last name was, "House."Although I do not think I have ever met a man (or woman, or boy or girl) named, "Tiny House." However, just from the sound of that name, I think there is some potential there for that to be an ironic nickname.https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/Ironic...;-)

    View Topic »
  • Jack A Lopez commented on Buzzmenow's forum topic Lasko Fan Handle

    I have a method for adding a handle to the top of a metal box.The method consists of drilling two holes. Then attaching a piece of nylon strap, using bolts, nuts, washers and lock washers, to fix hold the strap in place.The result is functional, but not particularly pretty. Well, regarding prettiness, I suppose can attach an example picture of what the result looks like.The strap is folded a few times, in the place where the bolt goes through it. Also the hole through the folded strap is made by melting a hole through it, by first heating (e.g. using propane torch) a bolt of the same size, and then pushing the hot bolt through the folded strap.

    View Topic »
  • There is an ancient proverb, "Everything goes somewhere."Electrical energy flows, from the grid, to the meter for your apartment. From there it goes to the breaker-switch box for your apartment, and from there it goes to the various circuits (one circuit per breaker) that supply electricity to... whatever is connected to those circuits. You know, the electric lights, the fridge, things plugged into outlets, stuff like that.The process of discovering exactly where the electrical energy is going, is called an "energy audit."https://www.appropedia.org/How_to_do_an_electrical...This is an accounting game. You make a list of every device in your apartment, that is drawing energy from the mains. Then estimate how much energy each device is using (e.g. in units of kilowatt*…

    see more »

    There is an ancient proverb, "Everything goes somewhere."Electrical energy flows, from the grid, to the meter for your apartment. From there it goes to the breaker-switch box for your apartment, and from there it goes to the various circuits (one circuit per breaker) that supply electricity to... whatever is connected to those circuits. You know, the electric lights, the fridge, things plugged into outlets, stuff like that.The process of discovering exactly where the electrical energy is going, is called an "energy audit."https://www.appropedia.org/How_to_do_an_electrical...This is an accounting game. You make a list of every device in your apartment, that is drawing energy from the mains. Then estimate how much energy each device is using (e.g. in units of kilowatt*hours per day) Then add all those numbers together, and see if that sum matches what the meter is saying, and what the power bill is saying.Regarding, "was wondering if a cracked outlet plate would have any affect on bill," I do not think so. If you want to know why, I can explain why, and even explain how to test that hypothesis. But I don't think a cracked outlet plate is responsible for your too-high power bill.A more likely culprit is a refrigerator that runs all the time.Regarding, "I got one of those electric saving devices..." I have no idea to which device you are referring. I suppose a switch, in particular a switch turned to its "off" position, is a kind of electricity saving device. By the way, the Staff here at Instructables have been making noises about ending this forum.https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-t...and if that happens before your question gets answered, please consider posting the same question to diy-forums.nethttps://diy-forums.net/forum/because some of the regular question answerers, including myself, are moving the party over to that place.

    View Topic »
  • I never drink this brand of beverage, yet I think the recycling bins in my town could, potentially, supply me with a near-infinite number of these particular, 1-gallon plastic containers, that formerly held Arizona(r) brand Iced Tea. I mean, for the cost of me pulling one out, whenever I see one.Moreover, I would not feel guilty about stealing them, because my local recycler specifically wants PET (resin code 1) and HDPE (resin code 2) plastic bottles. Bottles made from PP (resin code 5), including 1-gallon sized, Arizona Iced Tea bottles, they just throw away.By the way, they do not take the caps off, which are typically made from PP (resin code 5). The buyer, to whom they sell their bundled plastic bottles, to will tolerate caps, but they do not want whole bottles (or tubs or any whol…

    see more »

    I never drink this brand of beverage, yet I think the recycling bins in my town could, potentially, supply me with a near-infinite number of these particular, 1-gallon plastic containers, that formerly held Arizona(r) brand Iced Tea. I mean, for the cost of me pulling one out, whenever I see one.Moreover, I would not feel guilty about stealing them, because my local recycler specifically wants PET (resin code 1) and HDPE (resin code 2) plastic bottles. Bottles made from PP (resin code 5), including 1-gallon sized, Arizona Iced Tea bottles, they just throw away.By the way, they do not take the caps off, which are typically made from PP (resin code 5). The buyer, to whom they sell their bundled plastic bottles, to will tolerate caps, but they do not want whole bottles (or tubs or any whole containers) made of polypropylene (PP).It is perhaps surprising how picky those recycling guys are.But the question in my my mind is: What are these Arizona Iced Tea bottles particularly useful for anyway? What can I make from them?Moreover, how much value is added by removing the label?Apparently that label is stuck on real good, like... what is good metaphor? How do they say? Like white on rice;-)

    View Topic »
  • I think I understand what you are saying now.You have a length of pipe, with a ball rolling around inside.I drew a picture of the way I am imagining this, just to check if I am imagining it the same way, and I will attach this picture.I am imagining a pipe that pivots on one end, and I drew a sort of a black ring shape, where that pivot is. The ball rolls around inside the pipe, and gravity always pulls the ball down. The pipe surrounding it is pulled up by a buoyant force, when the water level is high.One of the things missing from my drawing, is the wires connected to the switch inside the pipe, and these wires trailing away, outside the pipe, on the side with the pivot.Also when this thing pivots, the wires have to flex, and it will take a little bit of work to do that, and I guess th…

    see more »

    I think I understand what you are saying now.You have a length of pipe, with a ball rolling around inside.I drew a picture of the way I am imagining this, just to check if I am imagining it the same way, and I will attach this picture.I am imagining a pipe that pivots on one end, and I drew a sort of a black ring shape, where that pivot is. The ball rolls around inside the pipe, and gravity always pulls the ball down. The pipe surrounding it is pulled up by a buoyant force, when the water level is high.One of the things missing from my drawing, is the wires connected to the switch inside the pipe, and these wires trailing away, outside the pipe, on the side with the pivot.Also when this thing pivots, the wires have to flex, and it will take a little bit of work to do that, and I guess the wires have to be flexible enough to repeat that flexing as many times as the enclosure floats up and down over its lifetime.I am not sure about the best way to waterproof the switch inside the pipe, and the wires that go through the pipe on one side. Maybe RTV silicone seal?I am guessing that silicone seal, or glue, whatever, will work for "mounting the switch inside the pipe," to hold it in place, since you specifically asked about that.Regarding the "size of the pipe," the inside diameter has to be a little bit larger than the ball, so the ball can roll back and forth. And the pipe has to be long enough, to give it enough volume to make the whole thing buoyant.You could calculate the density of this enclosure, as the sum of all the mass inside it (ball, switch, air, pvc, glue, etc.), divided by its total volume, which is roughly cylinder shaped. I mean when you do that math, and the answer comes out to some number less than about 1.0 grams/ cubic centimeter, well that means it is buoyant; i.e. the whole thing masses less than the mass of the same volume of water, and it should float.Of course you will probably want to test it out in the bathtub, or a 5 gallon bucket, to discover if it moves the way you expect it to when it is submerged in water.I am trying to think what else to suggest. I was going mention the word, "goes," as in "He, she, or it goes. Pipe goes up. Pipe goes down."http://learnenglishwithsong.com/conjugated-verb/to...That word, "goes", totally does not need an apostrophe in it. There is no such word as "go's." I know that is not relevant to your pump switch problem, but I wanted to mention it.

    You say you have "the idea in [your] head" of what it looks like.For that reason, I am going to humbly ask you to draw for us, a picture of what you imagine it looks like.I mean, I see the picture of all the parts, and I guess it was thoughtful of you to provide us with that... but I am just not seeing how all the parts go together.The role of the metal ball is especially confusing, because I would not expect the metal ball to float, in water.This is a switch for a pump that pumps liquid water, amirite?Usually you want to put electrical switches in a place that is both high, and dry. If your current idea imagines a switch that is underwater... I dunno. I am not sure that is a good idea.If the floating thing is in a place that low and wet, I think that necessitates a long, vert…

    see more »

    You say you have "the idea in [your] head" of what it looks like.For that reason, I am going to humbly ask you to draw for us, a picture of what you imagine it looks like.I mean, I see the picture of all the parts, and I guess it was thoughtful of you to provide us with that... but I am just not seeing how all the parts go together.The role of the metal ball is especially confusing, because I would not expect the metal ball to float, in water.This is a switch for a pump that pumps liquid water, amirite?Usually you want to put electrical switches in a place that is both high, and dry. If your current idea imagines a switch that is underwater... I dunno. I am not sure that is a good idea.If the floating thing is in a place that low and wet, I think that necessitates a long, vertical, something, like a stick or a push rod, or something, so the floating thing in the low, wet place, can reach the switch in the high, dry place.Or maybe some other mechanism, like a way to watch, erm observe, the float from far away, just to detect its position. Then use that detector to activate the switch.Regarding the question of making it easy or hard to take apart,...should I glue everything or have a screw off cap to access the electronics inside for repair?Make it easy to take apart and inspect later, because no matter how robust the mechanism is, it is likely something will fail eventually... meaning someone will have to take it apart to try to repair it. So it is considerate to that person, if you make the device easy to take apart.Final note: The Staff here is making noises about closing this forum,https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-t... and if that happens before your question gets answered, please consider posting the same question to diy-forums.nethttps://diy-forums.net/forum/because some of the regular question answerers, including myself, are moving the party over to that place.

    View Topic »
  • I think the problem with directing a flame through a tube, is the tube has to made of a material that can withstand the heat of the flame. Also, if the tube has significant length, I think it will have to thermally insulating as well, so the tube will not sink too much heat away from the flame.I think plasma cutters direct a flame through a tube, but the tube is made of ceramic, and it not very long.By the way, if you are starting with a hot, burning mass of coal or charcoal, there are ways to sort of shift the burning reaction happening there, so it produces flammable gases (like carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2)), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syngasinstead of hot exhaust gases (like carbon dioxide (CO2) and water steam (H2O)).One way to do this, is to alternately blow water vapor …

    see more »

    I think the problem with directing a flame through a tube, is the tube has to made of a material that can withstand the heat of the flame. Also, if the tube has significant length, I think it will have to thermally insulating as well, so the tube will not sink too much heat away from the flame.I think plasma cutters direct a flame through a tube, but the tube is made of ceramic, and it not very long.By the way, if you are starting with a hot, burning mass of coal or charcoal, there are ways to sort of shift the burning reaction happening there, so it produces flammable gases (like carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2)), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syngasinstead of hot exhaust gases (like carbon dioxide (CO2) and water steam (H2O)).One way to do this, is to alternately blow water vapor or air, one of those then the other, into the combustion chamber. Whereas before you were probably just blowing air... I guess.The reason it has to be alternating steam and air, is because the reaction with water is endothermic, and it pulls heat out of the mass of burning coal. The shift back to blowing air into the burning coal, is to put heat back; i.e. drive the temperature up again.Anyway, the time periods of alternately blowing steam or air, can be several seconds long, depending on the size of the mass of burning coal, essentially depending on how much thermal energy is stored there.So, I imagine, you could get several seconds of synthesis gas, and several seconds of welding time, from a torch that uses that gas.Obviously my idea is rather inchoate (i.e "half formed") as well. There are a lot of details that need to be worked out.By the way, DO NOT try to make water gas or synthesis gas indoors. The reason why is because there are significant amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) in this gas, enough that you risk poisoning yourself if this gas is made indoors.Also by the way, I can point to video of someone piping steam into a mass of hot carbon. It was that guy Cody, last name Slab, of Cody's Lab. He was actually doing this to make something other than syngas, but in this video, he lights this syngas on fire, just to prove it's there. That part happens at around 8m+30s. So you can just skip forward to that, if you want to.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNKeps6pIao

    View Topic »
  • Oh Wow! A Jason Marr contest! How 'bout that? Way to go, Jason!https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jason_MarrNo. Wait. I think I read that incorrectly. It's a Mason Jar contest. Well, that's good too. Sorry, Jason. Maybe next time.;-P

    View Topic »
  • Ideally the magnetic core of a transformer would be made out of a material that is a poor conductor of electricity.The reason why, is because electric currents induced in places other than the transformer's windings, cause power to be lost, as heat. The use of laminations, thin layers of steel separated by thin layers of insulating material, prevent electric current from flowing, in certain directions. The Wikipedia article for "Magnetic core," in the section titled, "Lamination," has an illustration which shows us the usual, "textbook answer" to your question.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_core#Lamina... For a core made of a solid lump of steel, there are big, wide, low-resistance paths, for the eddy currents to flow in.In contrast, for the laminate…

    see more »

    Ideally the magnetic core of a transformer would be made out of a material that is a poor conductor of electricity.The reason why, is because electric currents induced in places other than the transformer's windings, cause power to be lost, as heat. The use of laminations, thin layers of steel separated by thin layers of insulating material, prevent electric current from flowing, in certain directions. The Wikipedia article for "Magnetic core," in the section titled, "Lamination," has an illustration which shows us the usual, "textbook answer" to your question.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_core#Lamina... For a core made of a solid lump of steel, there are big, wide, low-resistance paths, for the eddy currents to flow in.In contrast, for the laminated steel, the paths for induced current are tall and thin, high-resistance paths.And it turns out the long, thin, constrained paths in a laminated core, make the power losses smaller, compared to a transformer core made of big solid bars made of the same kind of steel.You know, there are some kinds of transformer cores that are poor conductors of electricity, and isotropic, that is poorly conducting in every direction. Ferrite cores are that way.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrite_coreIt makes me wonder why ferrite is not used universally, for all kinds of transformer cores. I am guessing laminated steel has other advantages. Like maybe it is cheaper to make, and maybe steel is less likely to crack, compared to those somewhat brittle, ceramic-like ferrites. It seems like, in practice, laminated steel is used in transformers (and motors, and other electric machines) that run at low frequencies, like mains power frequencies, like 50 or 60 hertz (Hz) or lower frequencies, including DC ( 0 Hz).Also in practice, ferrite cores are used for transformers that run at high frequencies, in the thousands (KHz) or millions (MHz) of cycles per second.

    View Topic »
  • I do not really follow what it is you are trying to accomplish.The reason for that probably has to do with some underlying assumptions, which, to you, seem too obvious to bother mentioning.I mean, I understand your plan involves a single "oil filled heater"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_heaterand maybe it also involves the "HomeKit" framework?https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HomeKitBut if the HomeKit framework is an essential part of your plan, I do not understand why it is desirable, or necessary, to use that framework.I watched the tutorial you linked to, by Youtube user "CuriousNerd" and that tutorial is basically instructions saying: buy this hardware, wire it this way, and upload CuriousNerd's software to it. The video does NOT mention how this software…

    see more »

    I do not really follow what it is you are trying to accomplish.The reason for that probably has to do with some underlying assumptions, which, to you, seem too obvious to bother mentioning.I mean, I understand your plan involves a single "oil filled heater"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_heaterand maybe it also involves the "HomeKit" framework?https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HomeKitBut if the HomeKit framework is an essential part of your plan, I do not understand why it is desirable, or necessary, to use that framework.I watched the tutorial you linked to, by Youtube user "CuriousNerd" and that tutorial is basically instructions saying: buy this hardware, wire it this way, and upload CuriousNerd's software to it. The video does NOT mention how this software works. Nor does this video demonstrate the operation of the software, proving that it works.Maybe CuriousNerd omitted those details because he thinks they are too obvious to bother mentioning.It is not always easy to know what details, other people will think are obvious.By the way, I am not sure what you mean by, "I would like to be able to regulate the temperature (the strength on the heater)"Does "on the heater" mean you want to regulate the temperature of the outer surface of the heater itself? I mean, I guess you want to regulate the temperature of the heater, rather than the temperature of the air, in the room surrounding the heater?If that is the case, I guess you should put your temperature sensor, the one being used to feed back to the controller, "on the heater," rather than "on the wall," or "in the air," or some other location somewhere else in the room.Final note: you might have picked a bad time to post your first topic to the Instructables Community forum, for the reason the Staff is planning to close this forum, in a few days, "Starting in October..." according to this topic:https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-t...and this is the part where I mention, a new forum called, diy-forums.nethttps://diy-forums.net/forum/A few of the the regular question answerers, are going to be moving there, and that forum might be a good place to ask your questions, if you cannot ask them here.

    View Topic »
  • Regarding, "We are there to help!," I was, at first, thinking this was the slogan used by the Ghostbusters, in the brief, fictional, in-context commercial, in the original movie (1984). But no. A proclamation of here-to-help, there-to-help, could be the slogan of any small business. The Ghostbusters' slogan was actually, "We're ready to believe you!"Perhaps the same slogan could work for a question answering-forum, because a lot of these seem to come from a perspective of confusion, or bewilderment. Does misunderstood, misbehaving technology seem supernatural? I kind of think it does. Sometimes.Is diy-forums.net currently staffed by approximately three, male, oddball scientists? I dunno. I am not sure why this analogy occurred to me. Probably because of the calen…

    see more »

    Regarding, "We are there to help!," I was, at first, thinking this was the slogan used by the Ghostbusters, in the brief, fictional, in-context commercial, in the original movie (1984). But no. A proclamation of here-to-help, there-to-help, could be the slogan of any small business. The Ghostbusters' slogan was actually, "We're ready to believe you!"Perhaps the same slogan could work for a question answering-forum, because a lot of these seem to come from a perspective of confusion, or bewilderment. Does misunderstood, misbehaving technology seem supernatural? I kind of think it does. Sometimes.Is diy-forums.net currently staffed by approximately three, male, oddball scientists? I dunno. I am not sure why this analogy occurred to me. Probably because of the calendar. Halloween is coming up pretty soon, and that probably has something to do with it.

    View Topic »
  • I should probably also mention the usual techniques for diagnosing a bad alternator.A working alternator will re-charge the car's battery, so a sort of easy test for this, is to first get the car started (somehow). Then put a voltmeter across the battery's terminals, and watch, and wait.The action of a battery being re-charged, is then revealed in a voltage that increases slowly, as charge (the time integral of current) moves into the battery, and as energy is stored in the battery. The battery voltage is an indirect indicator of this magical process.You might wonder, if it might be more direct to just measure that charging current. It would be, but that makes the test more complicated, because it requires inserting an ammeter in series with the battery, or sensing the current in some ot…

    see more »

    I should probably also mention the usual techniques for diagnosing a bad alternator.A working alternator will re-charge the car's battery, so a sort of easy test for this, is to first get the car started (somehow). Then put a voltmeter across the battery's terminals, and watch, and wait.The action of a battery being re-charged, is then revealed in a voltage that increases slowly, as charge (the time integral of current) moves into the battery, and as energy is stored in the battery. The battery voltage is an indirect indicator of this magical process.You might wonder, if it might be more direct to just measure that charging current. It would be, but that makes the test more complicated, because it requires inserting an ammeter in series with the battery, or sensing the current in some other way, like using one of these "clamp on" ammeters, where the current-carrying wire, goes through a sort of loop shaped sensor, which is actually a magnetic transformer core, made to open and close. Note this would have to be a "clamp on" ammeter capable of measuring DC. Many of this kind only measure AC current.So yeah. Measuring charging current would be nice, but hardly anyone does that, because the tools for measuring it are tricky, more expensive, or at least they used to be.The best way, but maybe most complicated way, to test a car's alternator, for to get a comprehensive analysis (Truly, is it good or is it bad?) is to completely remove the alternator from the car (unbolting both its mechanical and electrical connections). Then insert the alternator into a machine made to test alternators.Often, auto parts stores will have this alternator-testing machine. I think I told this story before, about 4 years ago, in this topic:https://www.instructables.com/community/best-way-t...In that topic, I posted two, sort of anecdotal, pictures of alternator testing machines, one at a major auto parts chain, another one that was kind of home-made looking.

    The words, "ultimate," and "final," both have an "a" in the last syllable. This might seem paradoxical, since "a" is the first letter in the alphabet.The adverb forms are spelled in the usual way, just by adding "-ly" to get "ultimately," and "finally."As you might have guessed, many apparently "final" things are not. I am hoping this is the case with your car.Regarding your car's electrical problems, my guess is, somehow, you wired a short, or a large load (which is the same as a small resistance), across the battery's terminals, from +12 volts (the high side) to ground (the low side).The way to test this guess, is to measure the current (measured in amperes) from the battery, when everything, every electri…

    see more »

    The words, "ultimate," and "final," both have an "a" in the last syllable. This might seem paradoxical, since "a" is the first letter in the alphabet.The adverb forms are spelled in the usual way, just by adding "-ly" to get "ultimately," and "finally."As you might have guessed, many apparently "final" things are not. I am hoping this is the case with your car.Regarding your car's electrical problems, my guess is, somehow, you wired a short, or a large load (which is the same as a small resistance), across the battery's terminals, from +12 volts (the high side) to ground (the low side).The way to test this guess, is to measure the current (measured in amperes) from the battery, when everything, every electrical load, is apparently turned off.To measure current, you put an ammeter (or multimeter configured as an ammeter) in series with the battery. The easiest way to do this, is to disconnect the positive battery terminal connector, and put the ammeter in between those points that open up; i.e. between the positive terminal of the battery and that connector that sort of trails away into the insides of the car.Note, ideally this test requires a good, charged, battery, and that might not be state your battery is in now. Anyway, the amount of current drawn by loads inside the car, when everything is apparently turned off, should not be more than about 50 mA = 50/1000 A, or 1/20th of an ampere, roughly. The exact amount of quiescent current draw, varies from one car to the next. Ideally it would be zero, but in reality, the people who design cars (and car accessories, like car stereos and stuff) are not so considerate.In the event, there is a big current draw, when everything is apparently turned off, the next challenge is to find what thing is causing that current draw. The place to check first, is probably that newly installed stereo, and wiring related to that.Also, in the event you want more question-answer help with this, I suggest posting the same question as a topic at,https://diy-forums.net/The reason why is twofold. One is because I am trying to help that forum out, and two is because Instructables management is going to be shutting this forum down, as soon as October.The "sticky" at the top of the page, titled "Retiring the Forums" should have told you. In that topic, I think Randy (user randofo) mentioned some other suggestions for places to go, e.g. Reddit, for peoples to go to, for to get questions answered.https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-t...

    View Topic »
  • I response to your question, "is is there anyone who has already made these?," I believe the pictures you have posted, are prima facie evidence that someone has, in fact, already made these.Perhaps you are asking, more specifically, if someone in the Maker community has made, a free, open design, version of the same thing that anyone can copy?As far as I know, the answer to this more specific question is, "No... Not yet."As other answerers have pointed out, copying this design should not be too hard, since all the pieces are essentially 2D objects.If you have a 3D CAD type editor, that is great, but you could sort puzzle out the essential 2D shapes, using a program for making 2D vector drawings, like for example, "LibreOffice Draw." https://en.wikipedia.org/…

    see more »

    I response to your question, "is is there anyone who has already made these?," I believe the pictures you have posted, are prima facie evidence that someone has, in fact, already made these.Perhaps you are asking, more specifically, if someone in the Maker community has made, a free, open design, version of the same thing that anyone can copy?As far as I know, the answer to this more specific question is, "No... Not yet."As other answerers have pointed out, copying this design should not be too hard, since all the pieces are essentially 2D objects.If you have a 3D CAD type editor, that is great, but you could sort puzzle out the essential 2D shapes, using a program for making 2D vector drawings, like for example, "LibreOffice Draw." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_vector...Well, I mean that is a tool to make 2D vector drawings. For the actual work of copying the shapes, which are essentially a collection of lines, erm polygons, and circles, you could use a drawing program that comes with a "tape measure tool" for measuring the distance (in pixels) between arbitrary points in the drawing.Or for a more, uh, hands on approach, you could print a paper copy, as big as you can, of one of these pictures that has all the pieces laid out flat... and then measure the distance between points, on the paper copy, using your old-school drawing tools, like a ruler and a compass.Also I suggest building a small, paper or cardboard, model of the same thing. By small, I mean maybe 1/10 scale. I think that is small enough to print all the shapes on a single (8.5 by 11 inch) piece of paper, which you could glue to the back of a piece of cardboard the same size, and cut out the pieces using a knife or scissors.

    I forgot to mention: I found some bigger, bette, pictures of the same artifact. I stole them from some of scAmazon's pages actually. I will attach some of those pictures to this post, and put the links to the others in a text quote,https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.…

    see more »

    I forgot to mention: I found some bigger, bette, pictures of the same artifact. I stole them from some of scAmazon's pages actually. I will attach some of those pictures to this post, and put the links to the others in a text quote,https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/5...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/7...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/7...https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/6...and link to the web pages where I found those also,https://www.amazon.co.uk/Tinsinss-Contemporary-Dec...https://www.desertcart.us/products/164230158-woode...

    View Topic »
  • I found a page at fao.orghttp://www.fao.org/3/x6899e/X6899E04.htmThis is chapter 3, of "FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 142" titled, "The production of fish meal and oil." It was published originally in 1986. The link to the front page and ToC for this book is http://www.fao.org/3/x6899e/X6899E00.HTMI don't know if you've seen fao.org before, but this is typical of what you will find there. Pages and pages of technical papers on the subject of agriculture and industrial food processing.Anyway, I found a blurb on that page, in section "3.1.6 Oil polishing" regarding centrifuges,Quote:"Centrifuges operating at about 5 000 rpm, yielding a centrifugal force of 5 000 x g (natural gravity), are generally used in the fishmeal industry."I suspect the author …

    see more »

    I found a page at fao.orghttp://www.fao.org/3/x6899e/X6899E04.htmThis is chapter 3, of "FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 142" titled, "The production of fish meal and oil." It was published originally in 1986. The link to the front page and ToC for this book is http://www.fao.org/3/x6899e/X6899E00.HTMI don't know if you've seen fao.org before, but this is typical of what you will find there. Pages and pages of technical papers on the subject of agriculture and industrial food processing.Anyway, I found a blurb on that page, in section "3.1.6 Oil polishing" regarding centrifuges,Quote:"Centrifuges operating at about 5 000 rpm, yielding a centrifugal force of 5 000 x g (natural gravity), are generally used in the fishmeal industry."I suspect the author is using the word "generally" to mean "typically," because it would be weird if everyone's centrifuges were moving at that exact same angular speed and acceleration.By the way, when I did the math... converting rpm to radians/second, and using a value of g=9.8 m/s^2, and the formula a=(omega^2)*r, a centrifuge with that angular speed (5000 rpm) and that acceleration (5000 times little g), has a radius of about 18 centimeters, in case you were wondering about that.I was wondering about that, because I was wondering how big these centrifuges are. The same paragraph said, "generally constructed with small radii."But again that author is overusing the word "generally," because, it is vague to say some thing is "small" without explaining how small it is. Anyway, that is the reference I found, regarding typical centrifuges for recovering fish oil from stickwater.How does the centrifuge in your picture compare? I dunno. I am not a centrifuge aficionado. It is not like I can recognize one, or know how fast it spins, at how many gs (i.e. what acceleration), just by looking at its picture.Although, one important difference between the 'fuge in the picture you posted, and the ones the pros use, is, I expect the ones used by professional fish processors are made for continuous operation, and the one in your picture is made for batch operation, about 4 liters at a time.If you know the person who owns that centrifuge (or even if you don't... I mean you would introduce yourself first...) you could ask that person, "May I please borrow your centrifuge, for to discover if it can separate some fish oil from a sample of stickwater? 'What is stickwater?' you ask? Well, it is this foul-smelling mixture of water and fish parts..."What reasonable person would say, "No." I mean, what's the harm in a little stickwater-fish-oil test drive?;-)By the way, I had to look that word up. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stickwa...https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/stickwater

    View Topic »
  • If you have a multistage pump, which essentially is a chain of pumps, with the output from one connected to the input of the next... a kind of equilibrium is going to have to be established, in terms of mass flow, for all the pumps in the chain.What I mean by that, is I expect every pump in the chain has the same mass flow rate (e.g. in units of grams/second, or kilograms/hour, or similar).The reason why, is because otherwise mass would be building up (constantly increasing), in the pipes connecting the pumps. I mean, that is what you would get if a first pump were moving mass faster than the second pump which follows it. In the case where the second pump is moving mass faster, I guess that would result in a vacuum in the pipe connecting the two pumps, as the second pump moved mass out …

    see more »

    If you have a multistage pump, which essentially is a chain of pumps, with the output from one connected to the input of the next... a kind of equilibrium is going to have to be established, in terms of mass flow, for all the pumps in the chain.What I mean by that, is I expect every pump in the chain has the same mass flow rate (e.g. in units of grams/second, or kilograms/hour, or similar).The reason why, is because otherwise mass would be building up (constantly increasing), in the pipes connecting the pumps. I mean, that is what you would get if a first pump were moving mass faster than the second pump which follows it. In the case where the second pump is moving mass faster, I guess that would result in a vacuum in the pipe connecting the two pumps, as the second pump moved mass out faster than the first pump could move it in.So that is what I mean by equilibrium, essentially conditions that avoid mass (as gas) piling up in one place, or being drawn down to vacuum.Also it might be the case, that all the pumps in this multistage chain, are moving at the same frequency (i.e. the same number of cycles per second). Part of the reason why I am guessing this is the case, is because I am guessing that might be the most simple way to link them together mechanically. The pump in your picture looks like maybe three separate pumps? All being driven by the same big wheel. Are there gears inside, that allow the different pumps to turn at different speeds? I dunno. But I am guessing the most simple mechanical arrangement, is just to have all the pumps connected the same way, and thus all pumps turning at the same speed.You can see where I am going with this, right?If all the pumps are turning at same frequency AND all at the same mass flow rate... then the pistons in the higher pressure pumps have to be smaller. Why? Because high pressure gas is more dense than low pressure gas. The same mass, at higher pressure, fits into a smaller volume. Thus the cylinders (and the volume displaced per cycle) have to be smaller, for the pumps running at higher pressure... to move mass at the same rate.Another reason to use pumps with smaller cylinders for the higher pressurestages, might have to do with force and torque, and the amount of mechanical work needed per cycle to move gas through the pump.That is there might be some reason to keep the amount of work done, per cycle, roughly constant, for each pump, so all the pumps can be driven by the same wheel, without the need for gears, or some kind of mechanical advantage, that would be needed if the different pumps needed vastly different amounts of torque to make them turn.Also, in the beginning I was assuming different gearing (and thus different speeds) for each pump, would be undesirable; i.e. it would be more simple if there were some way to just drive all the pumps, at the same speed.

    View Topic »
  • It looks like a black lump, wired in parallel (or possibly in series?) with the mains power wires.Maybe it is a ferrite bead, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrite_beadwith black heat-shrink tubing,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat-shrink_tubingshrunk over it?It is hard to see exactly what it is, since it is bundled up in that black shrinky tubing.

    View Topic »
  • I do not know how communication with tiny satellites is implemented, but I know it has been done by others.If you are communicating with a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite directly, by line of sight, there are only brief windows in time, some number of minutes, out of every orbit, which has a period of a few hours, when the satellite and any particular ground station, can "see" each other, without the Earth being in the way.An amusing graphic, showing low, medium, and geocentric orbits:https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b...A brief overview of communications for CubeSats, section "Telecommunications". Read the paragraph under "Antennas" too. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CubeSat#Telecommunic...Also I suggest reading more about these various CubeS…

    see more »

    I do not know how communication with tiny satellites is implemented, but I know it has been done by others.If you are communicating with a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite directly, by line of sight, there are only brief windows in time, some number of minutes, out of every orbit, which has a period of a few hours, when the satellite and any particular ground station, can "see" each other, without the Earth being in the way.An amusing graphic, showing low, medium, and geocentric orbits:https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b...A brief overview of communications for CubeSats, section "Telecommunications". Read the paragraph under "Antennas" too. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CubeSat#Telecommunic...Also I suggest reading more about these various CubeSat missions,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_CubeSatsand maybe this will reveal some clues about how communication with them is usually done. The details you are looking for include: Which band used (e.g. UHF, S, X, etc.) How much power radiated? By the satellite transmitter or the ground transmitter? How much gain for each antenna? I am guessing a high gain antenna is hard to implement on the satellite, and hard to aim in the right direction. But at the ground station, a high gain antenna, and a tracking actuator to aim it at the satellite, might be necessary. I mean basically a big dish-shaped antenna, at the ground station, pointed right at the satellite, and tracking it, when it moves overhead.

    View Topic »
  • It looks good to me. I recommend leaving it the way it is. Or maybe see how it responds to a few years of sunlight and rain, and maybe people walking on it occasionally.I mean, I am guessing this is an outdoor sidewalk, and it is intended to be walked on.At the risk of repeating myself, I think this sidewalk is ready to be opened to foot traffic, with no further improvements needed.

    View Topic »
  • I am guessing you are looking at the larvae of some kind of flying insect (e.g mosquito).I recall when a similar question was asked of this forum, years ago, here,https://www.instructables.com/community/What-are-t...The "how" they got there can be explained by mosquitoes that leave their eggs in standing water.The "why" is because standing water has algae and other organic matter, that the mosquito larvae can feed on, for to grow up to become adult mosquitoes.By the way, it takes several days for these larvae to grow from one stage to the next; e.g. from tiny, almost invisible eggs, to larvae big enough to see.So Jessyratfink is giving us some good advice, with her suggestion to change the water daily, because that way, the mosquito larvae (and the algae and other livi…

    see more »

    I am guessing you are looking at the larvae of some kind of flying insect (e.g mosquito).I recall when a similar question was asked of this forum, years ago, here,https://www.instructables.com/community/What-are-t...The "how" they got there can be explained by mosquitoes that leave their eggs in standing water.The "why" is because standing water has algae and other organic matter, that the mosquito larvae can feed on, for to grow up to become adult mosquitoes.By the way, it takes several days for these larvae to grow from one stage to the next; e.g. from tiny, almost invisible eggs, to larvae big enough to see.So Jessyratfink is giving us some good advice, with her suggestion to change the water daily, because that way, the mosquito larvae (and the algae and other living things) won't have enough time to get started.You can learn more about the life cycle of the mosquito from the Wikipedia article for "Mosquito" in the section titled, "Life cycle."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito#Life_cycle

    View Topic »
  • Just today, I found this,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balance_spring#Effec...Quote:The modulus of elasticity of materials is dependent on temperature. For most materials, this temperature coefficient is large enough that variations in temperature significantly affect the timekeeping of a balance wheel and balance spring. The earliest makers of watches with balance springs, such as Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens, observed this effect without finding a solution to it.There are few more paragraphs after that, mentioning names of people who invented methods to compensate for this temperature dependence.I would guess that a state-of-the-art, wind-up clock, would have some kind of temperature compensating mojo... unless it is cheaper to build the clock without that.Also I found some graph…

    see more »

    Just today, I found this,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balance_spring#Effec...Quote:The modulus of elasticity of materials is dependent on temperature. For most materials, this temperature coefficient is large enough that variations in temperature significantly affect the timekeeping of a balance wheel and balance spring. The earliest makers of watches with balance springs, such as Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens, observed this effect without finding a solution to it.There are few more paragraphs after that, mentioning names of people who invented methods to compensate for this temperature dependence.I would guess that a state-of-the-art, wind-up clock, would have some kind of temperature compensating mojo... unless it is cheaper to build the clock without that.Also I found some graphs for temperature dependence of Young's modulus of elasticity, at EngineeringToolbox, here:https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/young-modulus-d...I am guessing that if you find the fractional change, in one of those numbers, and then take the square root of that, it will give you the fractional change in the natural frequency of the spring+mass resonator.The reason for the square root:All those formulas for the natural frequency of a harmonic oscillatorhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonic_oscillator#...have f proportional to the square root of the "stiffness" constant; e.g. "k" in the case of a linear spring. Also I am guessing "k" for a linear spring, or "mu" for a torsional spring, will be proportional to the elastic modulus of the material it is made of.

    View Topic »
  • Ah! I see it now!There is a secret menu hidden underneath the tiny picture of the user's profile image, in the upper right corner user's main page.That is, the tiny profile image located near the upper right corner of,/member/[username]/I never would have thought to look there.It turns out the draft button in that menu currently points to:/member/[username]/instructables/drafts/I have attached some screenshots, because, I dunno, maybe it will be reasuring to you, to see what you were expecting to see. Or for others who do not know about this secret menu button.I thank you for your help, Sam.It is good see all those old draft 'ibles are right where I left them.

    View Topic »
  • It kind of helps us, the volunteers who answer questions, if you can link to a page you read, instead of merely describing it."the alcohol dispenser I saw on your site" [that uses a] "proximity sensor"I am guessing it is this one:https://www.instructables.com/DIY-Automatic-Alcohol-Dispenser-No-Arduino-Needed/If you leave a comment, in the comment section for that instructable, then it will be visible to the author of that instructable. I mean, he or she will be notified someone left a comment.It is unlikely the author of any given 'ible will read a comment left here, on the community forum pages, for the reason that not that many people read the community forum. Or that is what the management says. They say *nobody* reads this forum, and that is why they will be shu…

    see more »

    It kind of helps us, the volunteers who answer questions, if you can link to a page you read, instead of merely describing it."the alcohol dispenser I saw on your site" [that uses a] "proximity sensor"I am guessing it is this one:https://www.instructables.com/DIY-Automatic-Alcohol-Dispenser-No-Arduino-Needed/If you leave a comment, in the comment section for that instructable, then it will be visible to the author of that instructable. I mean, he or she will be notified someone left a comment.It is unlikely the author of any given 'ible will read a comment left here, on the community forum pages, for the reason that not that many people read the community forum. Or that is what the management says. They say *nobody* reads this forum, and that is why they will be shutting it down soon.https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-the-Forums/Regarding pumps, specifically a pump that moves a constant volume of liquid; e.g. 2 floz, like to fill up a bottle that size, my best guess is that a peristaltic pump would work well for that, because the motion of a peristaltic pump is directly proportional to the volume it moves. That is, one cycle, or rotation, moves some small constant volume. To move some larger volume, you just count out a number of cycles.I think there might be some 'ibles about peristaltic pumps here:https://www.instructables.com/howto/peristaltic+pump/Also your idea of simply measuring time. Turn the pump on for some number of seconds. That might work for some pumps and liquids that are predictable and well-behaved. But I would not expect it to work all the time.The other way to fill a bottle to some constant volume, might be to use feedback from a sensor (like maybe a tiny float sensor that can fit down into the neck of the bottle) to tell your filling machine when the bottle is full.

    View Topic »
  • Pretty much the only way to check the accuracy of a clock, is to compare it to another clock.But you probably already knew that. Moreover you can compare your clocks to internet time servers...hence the assumption that your old wind-up clock is in error, and you are speculating at what could be the cause.Friction caused by thermal expansion? This is a good guess, I guess. Maybe some spray lubricant, like WD-40 (or similar? I do not know what brands are sold in your neighborhood.)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penetrating_oilmaybe that could help with the friction.If you read through the Wikipedia article for "Clock"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clockthis reveals every clock has some kind of physical oscillator inside it... or outside of it, in the case of clocks that observe s…

    see more »

    Pretty much the only way to check the accuracy of a clock, is to compare it to another clock.But you probably already knew that. Moreover you can compare your clocks to internet time servers...hence the assumption that your old wind-up clock is in error, and you are speculating at what could be the cause.Friction caused by thermal expansion? This is a good guess, I guess. Maybe some spray lubricant, like WD-40 (or similar? I do not know what brands are sold in your neighborhood.)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penetrating_oilmaybe that could help with the friction.If you read through the Wikipedia article for "Clock"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clockthis reveals every clock has some kind of physical oscillator inside it... or outside of it, in the case of clocks that observe some remote, faraway signal, and derive their timing from that.The old wind-up, mechanical clocks, excepting pendulum clocks, have an oscillator based on a mass and a spring. Note the oscillator spring is different from the mainspring. The mainspring is for storing energy. It is the spring that gets wound up, and acts as a source of torque, to push on, provide motion to all the moving parts. In contrast the oscillator spring, is just this tiny little thing, that just bounces back and forth, to and fro, with a regular periodic motion... all the time while the clock is running. The mechanism that energizes the mass+spring oscillator, is called an "escapement," and it is kind of subtle. It is sort of like, we want the movements of the clock to follow the motion of the oscillator, but without touching it too much... but it is necessary to touch it occasionally, to sort of kick it (re-energize it) now and then, just to keep the oscillator moving. It helps if the kicks are timed, in phase with the oscillators natural frequency.Anyway, there are good reasons why mass+spring, or pendulum, mechanical clocks have gone out of fashion, to be replaced by electronic oscillators based on quartz crystals. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartz_clockhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartz_crisisEssentially the quartz timing is cheaper, and more accurate.The need for electricity might be a weakness, but not really. I mean, a lot of these quartz-timed clocks are made to run (for like a year or two of runtime?) from a single AA cell, and there might be a way substitute some kind of solar-powered supply in place of that. I mention this, since I seem to recall you said you were living out in the sticks somewhere, somewhere too remote to be connected to mains power.Although, at present, I do not have an instructable, or other tutorial, to point to, that explains how to do that.https://www.instructables.com/howto/solar+powered+...(I don't know if any of those 'ibles are worth the time reading them. I have not read them yet.)I am just saying, there are reasons why wind-up clocks went out of style. Part of it had to do with how unreliable they are.Regarding the scheduled end of this forum: Well, you know they're shutting it down, https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-t...and you know the place,https://diy-forums.net/forum/where a lot of the refugees of this forum are moving to. So maybe we will see you there sometime.:)

    View Topic »
  • I think some of the people responding to this topic, were sort of wondering about the character of your battery, and maybe some of us were worried about overloading it, at a current draw of 10 or 20 amperes.But there is no need to worry, if this battery is the kind of workhorse you say it is. I think NirL mentioned ampere*hours (A*h). That is the unit for the spec describing how much current*time product, or charge, this battery stores. Multiply this capacity (in A*h) by the nominal voltage (60 volts) to get an estimate in watt*hours (W*h), that is: stored energy. To convert watt*hours to SI units(joules, kilojoules, megajoules, etc) just substitute 1 h = 3600 s. For example, 1 W*h = 3600 W*s = 3600 J (joule) = 3.6 kJ

    View Topic »
  • It is really a question of how much power, in watts, your device (a USB mini washing maching?) wants.This question kind of made my eyebrows rise, because usually a "washing machine" is a high powered appliance, wanting hundreds of watts, or maybe even a kilowatt or so, depending on how hard it is working, at any given instant in time.But, no. The device you are describing, whatever it is, is in a different category, since it has the words "mini" and "USB" in its name.The power from a USB port is 5 volts DC, at current from zero to a maximum of about 2 amperes. That is: a maximum of about 10 watts.Anyway, presumably your mini washing machine wants 5 volts DC, at some amount of current.The phone charger can supply 5 volts DC, but only at current less than so…

    see more »

    It is really a question of how much power, in watts, your device (a USB mini washing maching?) wants.This question kind of made my eyebrows rise, because usually a "washing machine" is a high powered appliance, wanting hundreds of watts, or maybe even a kilowatt or so, depending on how hard it is working, at any given instant in time.But, no. The device you are describing, whatever it is, is in a different category, since it has the words "mini" and "USB" in its name.The power from a USB port is 5 volts DC, at current from zero to a maximum of about 2 amperes. That is: a maximum of about 10 watts.Anyway, presumably your mini washing machine wants 5 volts DC, at some amount of current.The phone charger can supply 5 volts DC, but only at current less than some limit, and it might be a rather low limit, like around 0.5 A (amperes). If the washing machine gizmo wants more current than the phone charger can supply, then, well, they will NOT be very happy together; i.e. the phone charger will be overloaded, and the washing machine gizmo will be underpowered, and/or, not working.

    View Topic »
  • So how much current is that? I am guessing about 4.5 A, if those are 55 W bulbs. (Since 4.5*12 = 54)By how much does the battery voltage change, when that load is connected?I mean, previously I was wondering about this battery's internal resistance, and the amount the voltage drops, when this load is connected, would give us a good estimate for that.

    View Topic »
  • Necessity is the mother of invention.https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/necessity_is_the_mo...Moreover it is naive to think there is a neat dichotomy between DIY (do it yourself) and SEDIFY (somebody else does it for you), like you suggest with your question, And Why use Instructables over buying the same?The question is naive because there are times when the desired artifact, is simply not available for sale in stores, either local or online.Tell me: Do you know where I can *buy* a comically oversized model of a clicky retractable pen, with a working mechanism, suitable for explaining to children (of all ages) how clicky retractable pens work?https://www.instructables.com/Giant-Clicker-Pen...If the answer to that question is, "No." And if I want one, then what alternative do I ha…

    see more »

    Necessity is the mother of invention.https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/necessity_is_the_mo...Moreover it is naive to think there is a neat dichotomy between DIY (do it yourself) and SEDIFY (somebody else does it for you), like you suggest with your question, And Why use Instructables over buying the same?The question is naive because there are times when the desired artifact, is simply not available for sale in stores, either local or online.Tell me: Do you know where I can *buy* a comically oversized model of a clicky retractable pen, with a working mechanism, suitable for explaining to children (of all ages) how clicky retractable pens work?https://www.instructables.com/Giant-Clicker-Pen...If the answer to that question is, "No." And if I want one, then what alternative do I have, except to build one myself?Regarding your main question about my feelings: What do I feel as a person who reads instructions? Or what do I feel as a person who writes instructions for others?The main emotion I feel for both is: frustrationIn particular I feel frustration at the lack of detail, when reading someone else's instructions. It seems like there missing details, things that do not make sense. Also some of the people who write tutorials (They call 'em, "instructables," or just "'ibles" for short, around these parts.) are sloppy writers. Also I think some people, a small minority, are faking it. Faking making success... (if you'll forgive the rhyme) as terrible as that sounds. I think some people are just in it more for the fame, just showing off, rather than trying to teach or share. I honestly wish those people would move their activities somewhere else, to a platform more suited to narcissism, like Instagram or Twitter.Regarding the frustration I feel in writing instructions, I feel frustrated in trying to capture all the details I think are necessary, for to explain, how to build a thing. Actually, I kind of feel frustrated by detail, just in the act of building a thing. Real projects require so much more detail than ones imagined, or even scribbled out on paper. The real world, you know, it just takes time and effort, to make things happen.I am going to end this screed with a parable. There was a man, a fictional character, named MacGuyver. Maybe you have heard of him. He built so much, with so little, for so long... that eventually, he was capable of building anything... from nothing! Things always seemed to be so easy for MacGuyver.;-P

    View Topic »
  • Jack A Lopez commented on billfix05's forum topic Help

    Well, those are certainly some cryptic looking structures. I have seen them too now, using Bing Maps. They are on the northeast and southeast sides of Bear Island, located in Grays Lake, which is not exactly a lake. I think it is more like a drained lake, or a marsh. This is part of Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge. It is in the state of Idaho, not far from Pocatello and Idaho Falls. What exactly do you need help with? Please use your words.

    View Topic »
  • The speaker you have there has some nominal impedance Z, measured in ohms.Moreover, the audio signal, that makes it "speak", has some average voltage, Vrms, measured in volts.Divide the square of Vrms by Z, and this is the approximate power, as sound, dissipated by the speaker.P = (Vrms)^2/ZThe game with putting a resistor R, or variable resistor you call "pot"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentiometer is to increase the total impedance from Z to Z+R, and reduce the voltage seen across the speaker.Treating the speaker plus resistor, as a voltage divider, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_dividerreduces the voltage seen at the speaker by a factor of (Z/(Z+R)), and power by the square of that factor.Anyway, that is kind of a crude mathematical model for imagining ho…

    see more »

    The speaker you have there has some nominal impedance Z, measured in ohms.Moreover, the audio signal, that makes it "speak", has some average voltage, Vrms, measured in volts.Divide the square of Vrms by Z, and this is the approximate power, as sound, dissipated by the speaker.P = (Vrms)^2/ZThe game with putting a resistor R, or variable resistor you call "pot"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentiometer is to increase the total impedance from Z to Z+R, and reduce the voltage seen across the speaker.Treating the speaker plus resistor, as a voltage divider, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_dividerreduces the voltage seen at the speaker by a factor of (Z/(Z+R)), and power by the square of that factor.Anyway, that is kind of a crude mathematical model for imagining how this trick could work.I am guessing the R you want will be somewhere in the range of roughly 1 to 10 times larger than Z.Sometimes the value of Z is printed on the speaker itself. Some typical values for these coil-of-wire-pushing-a-paper-cone type speakers are 8 ohm? 16 ohm? Usually not too much larger than that.That suggests, the size of the resistor R you put in series should be about 10 ohm to 100 ohm, perhaps?Also, the resistor you place in series will dissipate some power, as heat. I am not sure how much. It might be as high as 1 watt? That is a guess. I mean we could calculate this, or estimate it, if we knew how much total power was being thrown at the speaker in its original configuration. Or if we had an estimate for Vrms, the magnitude of the voltage signal that drives the speaker.Actually, the cheapest way to discover the best size resistor, might be to start with a handful of 1 watt resistors, not potentiometers, with values spanning the range you think might work; e.g a 10 ohm, a 20 ohm, a 50 ohm, a 100 ohm, a 200 ohm, and just sort of try each one of those, with a test signal playing from the speaker, and listen to discover which seems to be attenuating the sound to approximately the power level you want.

    View Topic »
  • It turns out I did not actually read the description text in that YT video. Thanks for pointing that out to me.I have some general advice for pushing or pulling on curtains. I claim this tends to work best if you can apply force (pushing or pulling) at the top, at the hooks the curtains are hanging on. If pulling on the curtains themselves, it helps to pull at a place near the top of the curtains, rather than the bottom of the curtains.For this reason there is a stick-like, or wand-like, contrivance. It can be permanently attached to the curtains, or it can be a separate tool. I will attach some pictures of each stick. The first stick is some aftermarket product intended to clip to, hang onto, existing curtains. I think I stole the picture from one of scAmazon's pages. Actually, I thi…

    see more »

    It turns out I did not actually read the description text in that YT video. Thanks for pointing that out to me.I have some general advice for pushing or pulling on curtains. I claim this tends to work best if you can apply force (pushing or pulling) at the top, at the hooks the curtains are hanging on. If pulling on the curtains themselves, it helps to pull at a place near the top of the curtains, rather than the bottom of the curtains.For this reason there is a stick-like, or wand-like, contrivance. It can be permanently attached to the curtains, or it can be a separate tool. I will attach some pictures of each stick. The first stick is some aftermarket product intended to clip to, hang onto, existing curtains. I think I stole the picture from one of scAmazon's pages. Actually, I think I found both these pictures by way of an image search for, "curtain pusher rod," or "curtain pusher wand," or similar words.The second stick is a general-purpose, home-made stick, from an instructable here,https://www.instructables.com/Handy-Pushpull-Ho...Of course, if the curtain mechanism, its moving parts (e.g. those orange and purple parts in the video we have watched) are in a place the user can reach, then he or she can grab one of those, and move it; i.e. slide it left or right, to make the curtains open or close.I mean, if the user can just reach out and grab the curtains at the top, then no long pusher stick is needed.

    View Topic »
  • I do not think the pulley you call "bottom pulley" was placed where it was placed just to be a tensioner, to sort of hang there and pull down on the belt.I think it was placed there because it is assumed the curtain rod is at a height too high for the user to reach. In other words, the bottom pulley is located in a place accessible to the hands of the user. He or she turns this bottom pulley, or grabs the belts leading up from the bottom pulley, to move the belt that moves the curtains.Also note, the curtain pullers, one purple and one orange, need belts travelling in opposite directions, because these pullers move in opposite directions. As shown in this video, the purple puller moves to the left, and the orange puller moves to the right, as the curtains open. The purple pul…

    see more »

    I do not think the pulley you call "bottom pulley" was placed where it was placed just to be a tensioner, to sort of hang there and pull down on the belt.I think it was placed there because it is assumed the curtain rod is at a height too high for the user to reach. In other words, the bottom pulley is located in a place accessible to the hands of the user. He or she turns this bottom pulley, or grabs the belts leading up from the bottom pulley, to move the belt that moves the curtains.Also note, the curtain pullers, one purple and one orange, need belts travelling in opposite directions, because these pullers move in opposite directions. As shown in this video, the purple puller moves to the left, and the orange puller moves to the right, as the curtains open. The purple puller is attached to the back side of the belt. The orange puller is attached to the front side of the belt.Here I am using the words, "front side" and "back side," to distinguish between those parts of the belt, close to, or far from, where the camera is standing. The front side and back side of the belt, move in opposite directions.I suppose you could use just two pulleys, one on the left, one on the right, sides of the curtain rod, and again attach the curtain pullers to those two sides of that belt, which move in opposite directions.That would be simpler, in that it would have 2 pulleys instead of 4.However, like I was saying before, I think this arangement with 4 pulleys was built intentionally, to put a pulley in a low place, where the user can reach it.

    View Topic »
  • I think for links into Amazon's pages, you can omit all the arguments after the last slash "/"Like so,Low Voltage Induction Heating Power Supply Modulehttps://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B086V6CYM6/Latching Metal Push Button Switchhttps://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07XN6NCR2/Momentary Metal Push Button Switchhttps://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07YKVMRR5/And this makes things easier to read, and to cut-and-pasteSo which part is not working? The induction heater or the momentary switch?You know, the momentary switch is two metal contacts, that can be pushed together. You can test this with an ohmmeter (or multimeter in resistance measuring mode). In fact testing this switch is a good idea, because it comes with 6 wires trailing away from it, specifically {2 blue wires, 2 yellow wire…

    see more »

    I think for links into Amazon's pages, you can omit all the arguments after the last slash "/"Like so,Low Voltage Induction Heating Power Supply Modulehttps://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B086V6CYM6/Latching Metal Push Button Switchhttps://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07XN6NCR2/Momentary Metal Push Button Switchhttps://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07YKVMRR5/And this makes things easier to read, and to cut-and-pasteSo which part is not working? The induction heater or the momentary switch?You know, the momentary switch is two metal contacts, that can be pushed together. You can test this with an ohmmeter (or multimeter in resistance measuring mode). In fact testing this switch is a good idea, because it comes with 6 wires trailing away from it, specifically {2 blue wires, 2 yellow wires, 1 red and 1 black} I am guessing there is a normally open (NO) switch between the the two blue wires, and a normally closed (NC) switch between the two yellow wires. Does that mean one blue wire and one yellow wire are actually connected to each other? And the switch inside is actually a SPDT (single pole double throw)?I am also guessing the red and black wires have a LED, likely in series with a resistor, between them. These guesses are based on one of the pictures included in the product page for this switch. One of those pictures included some words, intended to explain the details of which wire goes where. A diagram would have been appropriate, but the author of those pictures decided to go with prose instead.Anyway, I am guessing you want to use the two blue wires, and wire those in series with the other switch, and in series with the load (the induction heater), and in series with the 12 volt power supply.Regarding the induction heater itself, it relies on a LC tank, an inductor L (in this case, the work coil) and capacitor C wired in parallel, and it is important for the wires connecting L and C, to have very low resistance, because large currents must bounce back and forth, between L and C.For this reason, soldering the work coil to the board is probably preferable to using those little screw terminals.I found this Youtube video, from "Fred in the Shed." And he shows us how this is done, with a dinky little induction heater module, that looks a lot like the one you linked to. Here:By the way, there are circumstances which can stop this oscillator from running (or prevent it from starting to run) and the usual symptom when that happens, is one transistor stuck on, and the other stuck off, and that will be indicated by one transistor far too hot, and the other too cold by comparison, and no heating action to pieces of steel inserted into the work coil.If you want to learn more about this circuit, I suggest reading this old thread at 4hv.org, titled "Royer induction heater"https://4hv.org/e107_plugins/forum/forum_viewtopic...Or looking at the results of an image search for "circuit diagram for zvs induction heater"https://duckduckgo.com/?q=circuit+diagram+for+zvs+...

    View Topic »
  • I don't think I have ever seen studded tires, and I might be having some trouble getting my mind around the concept.I mean, I have occasionally driven over metal junk in the road, like nails and screws and stuff, and found those things stuck in the tread of one of my tires.But, if I follow what you are saying, there are people who *intentionally* put metal things into the tread of tires. And then drive around on those tires. And the fill air does not leak out of the tires.https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=studd...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spikereifen.JPGMoreover there exist tools to facilitate this, uh, "studding"; i.e. putting studs in tires.Also apparently the German word for "studded tire" is "Spikenreifen." One of those links I have …

    see more »

    I don't think I have ever seen studded tires, and I might be having some trouble getting my mind around the concept.I mean, I have occasionally driven over metal junk in the road, like nails and screws and stuff, and found those things stuck in the tread of one of my tires.But, if I follow what you are saying, there are people who *intentionally* put metal things into the tread of tires. And then drive around on those tires. And the fill air does not leak out of the tires.https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=studd...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spikereifen.JPGMoreover there exist tools to facilitate this, uh, "studding"; i.e. putting studs in tires.Also apparently the German word for "studded tire" is "Spikenreifen." One of those links I have included, points a picture of the same, "ein Spikenreifen," at Wikipedia.Maybe I just like saying that word, "Spikenreifen." It sounds like it would be a good name for a band. Heaven knows if I am pronouncing it correctly. ;-P

    View Topic »
  • My guess is the difference in power, 1900 W versus 1600 W, is due to a temperature change, due to heating of the photovoltaic panels.That is, I am guessing the panels are cold when you first switch them on, but they warm up, as a consequence of drawing current from them. When the panels are warm, they are less efficient, so you get less power for the same amount of light.I am trying to think if there is a good way to test this hypothesis. Perhaps you could stick a thermometer to one, or more, of the panels to monitor their temperature.Or maybe there is a way to temporarily cool the panels off, like switch them off for a while, or cool them down with a garden hose. I mean they are made for outdoor use, so they should be immune to rain and sprayed water.Although, it might be safer to coo…

    see more »

    My guess is the difference in power, 1900 W versus 1600 W, is due to a temperature change, due to heating of the photovoltaic panels.That is, I am guessing the panels are cold when you first switch them on, but they warm up, as a consequence of drawing current from them. When the panels are warm, they are less efficient, so you get less power for the same amount of light.I am trying to think if there is a good way to test this hypothesis. Perhaps you could stick a thermometer to one, or more, of the panels to monitor their temperature.Or maybe there is a way to temporarily cool the panels off, like switch them off for a while, or cool them down with a garden hose. I mean they are made for outdoor use, so they should be immune to rain and sprayed water.Although, it might be safer to cool the panels slowly, rather than quickly, because that is usually good advice for any material thing that undergoes temperature changes. Usually those changes are less stressful, if those changes happen slowly.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_stressBy the way, regarding the premise of heating water with photovoltaic electricity, I have heard, read, rumor there are devices,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_thermal_collectorthat can heat water directly from sunlight, and these are more efficient, and less expensive, than using photovoltaic panels, to make electricity, to heat water.

    View Topic »
  • As you have already discovered, the easiest way to power some lights in the shed, is to just run some wires from the breaker panel at the house. I am guessing the shed has its own circuit, and circuit breaker.Regarding the someone who told you this is illegal, I guess that is a question of law, and complying with it, or not. Perhaps you are thinking solar power is cheaper, both in terms of kW*hours purchased, and money spent on bribes to bureaucrats. If bribes will even work... Some people refuse to be bribed, thinking the rules, and compliance with those rules, and safety and stuff, are more important, sacred even.I am guessing that circuit board, in the pictured, taken-apart LE12P75, has a few different functions, including a charge controller, for to allow the PV (photovoltaic) pane…

    see more »

    As you have already discovered, the easiest way to power some lights in the shed, is to just run some wires from the breaker panel at the house. I am guessing the shed has its own circuit, and circuit breaker.Regarding the someone who told you this is illegal, I guess that is a question of law, and complying with it, or not. Perhaps you are thinking solar power is cheaper, both in terms of kW*hours purchased, and money spent on bribes to bureaucrats. If bribes will even work... Some people refuse to be bribed, thinking the rules, and compliance with those rules, and safety and stuff, are more important, sacred even.I am guessing that circuit board, in the pictured, taken-apart LE12P75, has a few different functions, including a charge controller, for to allow the PV (photovoltaic) panel to charge the battery, and also including a driver for the fluorescent lamp.I am guessing the driver for the fluorescent lamp, IS a kind of inverter; i.e. a device that changes DC power to AC power. However the driver for the fluorescent lamp (FL), it might only work well with the FL it is married to, and not work well with other AC loads, like mains powered LED lamps, or adapters for charging a phone or other battery powered gizmo.If your multimeter can measure AC voltage, you might try measuring the voltage across the fluorescent lamp (FL) while it is on, while being careful (of course) not to touch those same wires with your hands. That exercise just proves the FL has some kind of AC voltage across it, but maybe does not prove how well other AC loads would work in place of the lamp.By the way, the people who made this LE12P75 solar street light, Lubi Electronics (according to the name plate)http://www.lubielectronics.com/contact.aspxThey might have a circuit diagram, or other documents, for this artifact, and those documents might be helpful to you, since you are wondering if this dog can be made to do new tricks.If they do not have any published circuit diagram for you, that might mean you have to discover it yourself, through careful examination of the one you possess, looking at it closely to map out which wire goes where, for every little wire and component on the thing.I am going to attach some pictures, which are actually your pictures, but rotated to right-side-up to make them easier to read.

    View Topic »
  • Jack A Lopez commented on Sarah20201's forum topic Building BCI

    It is amusing to me that success is so important to you. I mean, you tell us so, explicitly."I want the project to end up successfully."Also you want success to happen quickly, i.e."I don't want the project to take years. I wand to end it as soon as possible."Also you want someone else to show you the way."What steps should I take...[?]"Alright then. Often the easiest shortcut to success, is to just copy the efforts of someone else whom you have observed to be successful.So, are there any existing 'ibles, close enough to what you want to do, that you could copy? Here is Let's make search for, "brain computer interface"https://www.instructables.com/howto/brain+computer+interface/I also tried "brain control"https://www.instructables.com/h…

    see more »

    It is amusing to me that success is so important to you. I mean, you tell us so, explicitly."I want the project to end up successfully."Also you want success to happen quickly, i.e."I don't want the project to take years. I wand to end it as soon as possible."Also you want someone else to show you the way."What steps should I take...[?]"Alright then. Often the easiest shortcut to success, is to just copy the efforts of someone else whom you have observed to be successful.So, are there any existing 'ibles, close enough to what you want to do, that you could copy? Here is Let's make search for, "brain computer interface"https://www.instructables.com/howto/brain+computer+interface/I also tried "brain control"https://www.instructables.com/howto/brain+control/and that one might be giving more, and better, 'ibles.

    View Topic »
  • I am guessing those four wires trail away to a USB plug on one end.Also those are the usual colors for a US Bus, namely red for +5 VDC, black for 0 V = ground, green for D+, and white for D-. Compare to the table on this page,https://pinouts.ru/Slots/USB_pinout.shtmlAlso, if you have a voltmeter, and you are careful... you could measure the voltage between the red and black wire, while the mouse is plugged in, for to check there really is a difference of 5 volts DC, between those wires. Or you could sort of wire up your voltage measuring device first, and then plug it in. That way you would not need three hands to hold everything in place. ;-)

    View Topic »
  • Yeah. Those magical artifacts, e.g. Rings of Power,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rings_of_Powermight seem like fun at first, but truly, they are nothing but trouble, if you ever have to dispose of one.;-P

    View Topic »
  • Coiled Newspaper Flower Pots

    I finally found a copy of the label, for a bottle of Paper Mod Podge (r) Gloss, and I will share this with the rest of the class, by attaching it to this post. This is the 8 floz size bottle, with UPC 0-28995-11201-0. I had to do terrible things to get a copy of this document. ;-) However, reading the text of the label confirms what I suspected; i.e. the text on the bottle does NOT contain a list of ingredients.Although I found the smell and color, of the 'Podge itself, to be very similar to the smell and color of white glue.

    View Instructable »
  • It does look old. Any ideas what metal it is made of? It kind of looks like pewter, or some other alloy. Maybe a silver alloy? Honestly, I do not know. I am guessing you already tried sticking a magnet to it, so as rule out iron and nickel.

    View Topic »
  • Hi! I filled out this form you linked to, and I am glad I could help in some small way.By the way, I had to look up this phrase, "modular design" via the usual source I use for looking things up,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modular_designjust to make sure it was what I thought it was. I dunno. "Modular design" is not a phrase I use every day, and the link might help out other readers, who are kind of scratching their heads about this one.

    View Topic »
  • Wow! This is nice!I am going to link to the instructable you wrote for this, here,https://www.instructables.com/Homemade-Electrom...even though it is mostly just a stub, and a link to your Youtube video for the same, which you linked to in the text of this topic. It may help people to find it.

    View Topic »
  • Coroplast, also known as corrugated polypropylene, also known as fluted polypropylene sheet, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coroplastcan be found on disposable signs, staked into the ground, or fastened to utility poles. This material is "cheep" in that you can get it for the trouble of removing one, or a few, or several, of these signs from public spaces in your neighborhood... or drive to someone else's neighborhood, and liberate some of their "vertical litter."https://duckduckgo.com/?q=coroplast+%22vertical+li...You have to be a little bit careful about the signs with the names of people running for public office, not because those signs are not an eyesore, but because sometimes people are very defensive.... uh... emotionally involved, in the campaigns of the politi…

    see more »

    Coroplast, also known as corrugated polypropylene, also known as fluted polypropylene sheet, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coroplastcan be found on disposable signs, staked into the ground, or fastened to utility poles. This material is "cheep" in that you can get it for the trouble of removing one, or a few, or several, of these signs from public spaces in your neighborhood... or drive to someone else's neighborhood, and liberate some of their "vertical litter."https://duckduckgo.com/?q=coroplast+%22vertical+li...You have to be a little bit careful about the signs with the names of people running for public office, not because those signs are not an eyesore, but because sometimes people are very defensive.... uh... emotionally involved, in the campaigns of the politicians they are supporting.Also people running for public office are often connected to organized crime, but maybe it is redundant to say that. After all, the government itself is the most dangerous criminal gang out there. My point is, criminal gangs are often touchy about property they consider to be their "turf." I am sure that includes "their" signs, in neighborhoods they consider to be "theirs" as well.

    View Topic »
  • I guess you have tried to contact people by way of PM (private message), and as far as I know, that is the best way to do it.Although, if I follow what you are writing, you have tried this, and these efforts have so far been largely unsuccessful. Actually I am having some trouble decoding your prose,"but no one even seems to reply and just say, 'No, I’m too busy...'If no one replied, then no one would be saying anything, If no one said he or she was too busy, then that would mean that everyone was willing... but that can't be what you mean.I am guessing what you are saying is that some people do not reply at all, and the remainder who do reply, reply with a polite negative, saying essentially, "No. I do not have time to build things for you."The part about a Lego set and a …

    see more »

    I guess you have tried to contact people by way of PM (private message), and as far as I know, that is the best way to do it.Although, if I follow what you are writing, you have tried this, and these efforts have so far been largely unsuccessful. Actually I am having some trouble decoding your prose,"but no one even seems to reply and just say, 'No, I’m too busy...'If no one replied, then no one would be saying anything, If no one said he or she was too busy, then that would mean that everyone was willing... but that can't be what you mean.I am guessing what you are saying is that some people do not reply at all, and the remainder who do reply, reply with a polite negative, saying essentially, "No. I do not have time to build things for you."The part about a Lego set and a NASA rover, is confusing too. I am guessing this is just more reasons people give you, for not wanting to build things for others.I have heard the idiom, "money talks."https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/money_talksBut I am not really sure how it works in practice. Although I can guess. For any serious person contemplating a task, a one-time job offer, the big questions are: How much work is going to be involved? Can I trust the person making the offer, to follow through with his or her part of the deal?Regarding the question of where to find a group of makers who are willing to sell the things they make, I know there is a site called Etsy.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EtsyAlthough I am not sure what fraction of the Etsy sellers are building robots and rovers, or whatever "nerdy" tech artifacts you are interested in buying. https://www.etsy.com/search?q=electronicRegarding the question, is it "illegal or no allowed on here TO sell...?" here at Instructables.I do not think there are any rules against making offers, or accepting offers, to buy or sell, artifacts or services. It is just that, it is maybe going to be challenging to find people interested in building some specific thing for you, even if it just a copy of an artifact that person built before.Like I was saying before, I think people's main obstacles to accepting a deal are (1) Trust and (2) Concerns about the amount of work involved.There are probably other concerns too, especially for technical artifacts, like for example: Is the buyer expecting a user's manual, or a service plan?Whatever it is, it will have to be a kind of, turn-the-key type artifact. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TurnkeyThe reason why is because if the buyer lacks the skill to build this artifact, then he or she also lacks the skill needed to repair the artifact if it breaks, or likely even the skill to use the artifact gently or properly, without breaking it right away.As an analogy, have you ever met a child with the ability to break toys quickly? Probably, right? Is it the fault of the toys, being too flimsy, too easy to break? Or is it the fault of the child, for lacking finesse?Well, I think that might be the way people who build and repair things, view those people who do not, essentially as destructive children. Obviously, that is not going help with trust... if that is indeed one of the obstacles to a deal, like I am guessing it is.But how do you inspire trust, in people you have just met, and not in person? That is the tricky part.

    View Topic »
  • Yeah. That sounds like a plan. The shaft of a drill bit is tough, compared to the twisty cutting end, which is harder and more brittle... as you have already discovered, and mentioned in another comment.

    Nice! I love it when broken things get fixed, including repairs in the category of, "quick and dirty."

    View Topic »
  • Yeah. I will do what I can to help. Regarding ideas for a logo, or heroic image for the front page... maybe if we had this cartoonish orange robot, that looks like it was built from junk! ;-) Ha! Or maybe it would be better to make a clean break from orange robots, and come up with something completely different than that.

    View Topic »
  • Jack A Lopez commented on randofo's forum topic Retiring the Forums

    Yeah. Wow! I am interested in that, and I will do what I can to help.

    View Topic »
  • Esta página http://www.desertdomes.com/domecalc.htmltiene fórmulas para construir domos geodésicos (cúpulas geodésicas?).Nota: Estoy usando Google-Traducir para ayudar a escribir en español.

    View Topic »
  • Oh Wow! Thanks for the links to the PDFs.I guess I see what you are saying now, in that you want light with a specific intensity, and timing.That might require two PWM signals, a fast (serveral kilohertz) PWM signal, with feedback, for controlling the intensity of the light, and a slow PWM (around 80 Hz) for achieving this on-off signal that has this funny neurological effect.And I guess you need a light sensor and an oscilloscope, just to confirm this kind of lamp is producing the signal you want.I mean, those graphs of illuminance as a function of time, in Figure 1 of that paper by Le Floch et. al., those graphs look like they were produced by an oscilloscope.

    View Topic »
  • Jack A Lopez commented on randofo's forum topic Retiring the Forums

    You're welcome.

    View Topic »
  • I think it could be wired for use with a remote control in any case.The type of circuitry determines how complicated the hack will be. Some things are going to have to match. Like for example, if your remote receiver IC (integrated circuit) wants a 5 volt supply, but the toy only has a 3 volt supply (in the form of 2x AA batteries), then maybe you need two voltage supplies. Or supposing the detector circuit in the toy watches for a low-to-high voltage change, but the signal produced by the remote receiver IC, upon receiving a signal, is a high-to-low voltage change, then maybe you need to invert the output from the receiver.It is these sort of things. Basically you have to give each little component what it wants, and what it is expecting, so the whole, every component will run proper…

    see more »

    I think it could be wired for use with a remote control in any case.The type of circuitry determines how complicated the hack will be. Some things are going to have to match. Like for example, if your remote receiver IC (integrated circuit) wants a 5 volt supply, but the toy only has a 3 volt supply (in the form of 2x AA batteries), then maybe you need two voltage supplies. Or supposing the detector circuit in the toy watches for a low-to-high voltage change, but the signal produced by the remote receiver IC, upon receiving a signal, is a high-to-low voltage change, then maybe you need to invert the output from the receiver.It is these sort of things. Basically you have to give each little component what it wants, and what it is expecting, so the whole, every component will run properly.

    View Topic »
  • Is there supposed to be a link attached to this topic?"Questions, Ideas, and all the things... are welcome to here!"But where is "here?"If "here" means this topic, https://www.instructables.com/community/Model-Rail...then it might not be a good place to build on, because the Instructables Community forum is being shut down, in a few months, per this notice:https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-t... that is also sticky-linked at the top of this forum's front page,https://www.instructables.com/community/Also the moose out front should have told you.;-)

    View Topic »
  • I guess the study you mention, the one you have not bothered to cite, or link to here, lacks the detail needed to build the light source(s?) it uses.Also I should mention, PWM (pulse width modulation) is sort of a means to an end. It is a way to effect a kind of proportional control, for a device that can be turned on and off quickly.If you want actual control, like a regulator that keeps some physical quantity (e.g. speed, current, illuminance, etc.) constant, then the way to do that is to measure the quantity to be controlled, and use feedback to keep it constant.The thing that is confusing to me, is for your proposed lamp with two settings, you have specified the two settings in two different ways. 1. A constant illumination setting, in which it should be constantly 200 illuminance (…

    see more »

    I guess the study you mention, the one you have not bothered to cite, or link to here, lacks the detail needed to build the light source(s?) it uses.Also I should mention, PWM (pulse width modulation) is sort of a means to an end. It is a way to effect a kind of proportional control, for a device that can be turned on and off quickly.If you want actual control, like a regulator that keeps some physical quantity (e.g. speed, current, illuminance, etc.) constant, then the way to do that is to measure the quantity to be controlled, and use feedback to keep it constant.The thing that is confusing to me, is for your proposed lamp with two settings, you have specified the two settings in two different ways. 1. A constant illumination setting, in which it should be constantly 200 illuminance (lx) 2. A pulse regime setting, in which there is a 80 Hz pulsed regime, with a duty cycle deltaT/T = 0.2, no visual flickering.I am guessing the actual goal here to have a lamp with with two different levels of illuminance, at the page, specifically:1. 200 lux2. 40 lux = (0.2)*(200 lux)(Is "illuminance" a real word? I guess it is. My browser's spell checker keeps underlining it for some reason though. )https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LuxOr have I got it wrong? And there is some meaningful reason why you have specified the timing explicitly? (as frequency 80 Hz and duty cycle 0.2)By the way, the usual technique for controlling the brightness of a LED light source, is by controlling the current (in amperes or milliamperes) flowing through the LED. In other words, there is an electronic circuit that does this; i.e. one part of it measures the current, and another feeds back from this, giving more voltage, or duty cycle, if the measured current is too low, and giving less if too high.I swear these little gizmos (called constant current regulators) are out there in the wild, doing their thing, but at the same time, invisible to the user of the light emitting appliance. I mean, he or she maybe knows the LED lamp has a "driver circuit," but typically he or she does not know the "why" or "how" of what that driver circuit is doing.For an experiment that requires a particular, specified, level of illuminance (measured in lux) at some point in space, e.g. at the surface of a table with piece of paper with writing on it, it might worthwhile to actually put a light sensor at that surface, and feed back from that.Or that might be a bad idea, because then the sensor would be in a place where the participant in your experiment, could mess with it, even unintentionally. That is to say, the light regulation would mess up, whenever anything, or anyone, cast a shadow over the sensor. Maybe if the feedback sensor was in a place hard to reach?Or maybe just use the usual trick of feeding back from a current (amperes or milliamperes) signal; i.e. build a constant current regulator.

    View Topic »
  • A typical sensor, produces a voltage that changes in response to some external stimulus; i.e. the physical thing being "sensed."Generalizing further, a typical detector observes (or "watches," or "listens to," or "feels," or ... pick your sense metaphor) that voltage, and does something, when the voltage changes in a certain way.Really it is just a matter of discovering how the motion sensor, in your talking parrot toy, works. Then substituting another sensor, or electronic circuit, that behaves the same way.So, Step 1 is to open up your talking parrot toy, and see if you can discover how the sensor works.I don't want to spoil the surprise, but cheap motion sensors are often just light sensors; i.e. a circuit that produces voltage in response to l…

    see more »

    A typical sensor, produces a voltage that changes in response to some external stimulus; i.e. the physical thing being "sensed."Generalizing further, a typical detector observes (or "watches," or "listens to," or "feels," or ... pick your sense metaphor) that voltage, and does something, when the voltage changes in a certain way.Really it is just a matter of discovering how the motion sensor, in your talking parrot toy, works. Then substituting another sensor, or electronic circuit, that behaves the same way.So, Step 1 is to open up your talking parrot toy, and see if you can discover how the sensor works.I don't want to spoil the surprise, but cheap motion sensors are often just light sensors; i.e. a circuit that produces voltage in response to light intensity. Also the detector for this sensor, responds to a change in voltage level, which corresponds to a change in light level... usually due to a person blocking ambient light from reaching the sensor, essentially getting close enough to the toy to cast a shadow over the sensor.One way to test this, is to simply sweep a flashlight beam over the sensor. If that triggers the toy, then is likely the kind of sensor you are dealing with.Often the circuit for this, is just a voltage divider, made from a fixed resistor in series with a photoresistor or phototransistor.I mean, you can discover what it is exactly, if you can find the courage to take apart your toy, and map out a diagram of which wire goes where.

    View Topic »
  • It is enough for you to tell me Oculus Rift is owned by Facefook, erm... Facebook, because, for me, that is a deal-breaker right there.

    View Topic »
  • Well, that sounds like progress! Onward and upward!Usually that phrase is a metaphor, but I suppose in the case of a heavy canoe traveling up a hill, those words could be literal as well.By the way, did you know Instructables is going to be shutting down the community forum, per this announcement:https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-the-Forums/(I probably do not need to remind people, since it is stickied on the forum's front page.)Anyway, it might affect the way you let people know what you're doing with your canoe puller. I suppose it would be better to write an instructable for this, since just announcing it in the forum won't work, if the forum is gone. I suppose a lot of the 'ibles here are just stubs, with a link to a Youtube video, anyway. That is, if Youtube (or a …

    see more »

    Well, that sounds like progress! Onward and upward!Usually that phrase is a metaphor, but I suppose in the case of a heavy canoe traveling up a hill, those words could be literal as well.By the way, did you know Instructables is going to be shutting down the community forum, per this announcement:https://www.instructables.com/community/Retiring-the-Forums/(I probably do not need to remind people, since it is stickied on the forum's front page.)Anyway, it might affect the way you let people know what you're doing with your canoe puller. I suppose it would be better to write an instructable for this, since just announcing it in the forum won't work, if the forum is gone. I suppose a lot of the 'ibles here are just stubs, with a link to a Youtube video, anyway. That is, if Youtube (or a similar site) is how you share videos anyway. I think Instructables kind-of-sort-of offers the function of attaching video, but it does not work very well, because the video will not just play in the browser. Rather it has to be downloaded first, like other kinds of attached files.Of course attaching pictures to an instructable works well. That might be one of the few functions that have always worked well.

    View Topic »
  • Jack A Lopez commented on randofo's forum topic Retiring the Forums

    I think I have heard this song before."It's closing time... You don't have to go home, but you can't stay here."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closing_Time_(Semisonic_song)It is not surprising the Instuctables Staff has plans to shut it down, after years and years of little failures and annoyances.In a sense, the forums proved to be a mistake, and now the Staff is looking forward to erasing that mistake, and scrubbing every trace of it from the Instructables website.I am beginning to think maybe the time I have spent on this forum, about 4300 comments, over the past 12 years... approximately 1 comment a day, on average, has been a mistake as well.Maybe.I am reminded of the motto of Eek! The Cat,"It never hurts to help."Except that was the recurring joke of every episod…

    see more »

    I think I have heard this song before."It's closing time... You don't have to go home, but you can't stay here."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closing_Time_(Semisonic_song)It is not surprising the Instuctables Staff has plans to shut it down, after years and years of little failures and annoyances.In a sense, the forums proved to be a mistake, and now the Staff is looking forward to erasing that mistake, and scrubbing every trace of it from the Instructables website.I am beginning to think maybe the time I have spent on this forum, about 4300 comments, over the past 12 years... approximately 1 comment a day, on average, has been a mistake as well.Maybe.I am reminded of the motto of Eek! The Cat,"It never hurts to help."Except that was the recurring joke of every episode, because Eek's attemps to help, always, always led to him suffering. But, you know, it was funny, slapstick, cartoon pain, because it was show for kids... I think. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eek!_The_CatIn any case, if I am going to continue trying to help people, I guess I am going to have to find some other place, or some other way to do it.Maybe I will see you losers on Reddit. Or maybe I won't.

    View Topic »
  • Hello Asmaa,I wrote a sincere comment, in the comments section of the 'ible you linked to. Also I noticed some small problems with English grammar, in the text of this instructable. I suppose that is understandable, for someone who speaks English as a second language.If you like, I could point these mistakes out to you via PM (personal message). To send a PM to another user here, you click on that user's name. Then that takes you to his or her member page. Then at the top of that page, there is a button labeled, "Message" with a envelope, or mail, icon on it.Regarding your advice in Step 2, of that 'ible, about dividing a large task into smaller, daily assignments, I think I could handle about one Step of your 'ible, per day, and thus point out every little thing, in about …

    see more »

    Hello Asmaa,I wrote a sincere comment, in the comments section of the 'ible you linked to. Also I noticed some small problems with English grammar, in the text of this instructable. I suppose that is understandable, for someone who speaks English as a second language.If you like, I could point these mistakes out to you via PM (personal message). To send a PM to another user here, you click on that user's name. Then that takes you to his or her member page. Then at the top of that page, there is a button labeled, "Message" with a envelope, or mail, icon on it.Regarding your advice in Step 2, of that 'ible, about dividing a large task into smaller, daily assignments, I think I could handle about one Step of your 'ible, per day, and thus point out every little thing, in about six (6) days, about a week.

    View Topic »
  • Exercise Your Mind ( Steps & Tips )

    Well, I am impressed by this. A lot of people daydream about self-improvement, but that is the extent of their efforts. Only a much smaller subset, of those who daydream, take action, and actually succeed in achieving these goals.This looks like some good advice too, especially in regard to sleeping and eating habits.By the way, I noticed this instructable, because you mentioned it in the forum, here,https://www.instructables.com/community/Give-me-a-feedback/

    View Instructable »
  • There is probably a better way to make hot and cold water from sunlight, than by using Peltier modules and photovoltaic (solar) panels.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_air_conditioni...That article mentioned the "ISAAC Solar Icemaker" and I think that one is worth looking at, erm, searching for...https://duckduckgo.com/?q=isaac+solar+ice+maker&ia...Regarding question 1, it is difficult to get a single Peltier module to pump heat across a temperature difference (deltaT) of more than about 50 C.There are graphs published for Peltier modules, showing heat flow (in watts) as a function of deltaT, and also voltage across the module (in volts) as a function of deltaT, and there is a set of these curves for different amounts of current (in amperes) through the module.I mean real…

    see more »

    There is probably a better way to make hot and cold water from sunlight, than by using Peltier modules and photovoltaic (solar) panels.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_air_conditioni...That article mentioned the "ISAAC Solar Icemaker" and I think that one is worth looking at, erm, searching for...https://duckduckgo.com/?q=isaac+solar+ice+maker&ia...Regarding question 1, it is difficult to get a single Peltier module to pump heat across a temperature difference (deltaT) of more than about 50 C.There are graphs published for Peltier modules, showing heat flow (in watts) as a function of deltaT, and also voltage across the module (in volts) as a function of deltaT, and there is a set of these curves for different amounts of current (in amperes) through the module.I mean really, it is like there are two independent variables: deltaT (in degrees C) and current (in amperes).It will make more sense if you see the graph.This page, https://www.cuidevices.com/product-spotlight/pelti...has one, under the heading, "Design Using Function Diagrams." Also that page gives some explanation about how to use this diagram.Also I noticed, a search for images of "peltier data sheet"https://duckduckgo.com/?q=peltier+data+sheet&iax=i...several results that are pictures of the same diagram.Anyway, it is graphs like these, that are the basis for my assertion that deltaT greater than about 50 C, is challenging. 50 C is roughly the difference between boiling water (100 C) and hot water (50 C).Regarding question 2, it is possible to drive a Peltier module with a solar (photovoltaic) panel, but I do not think it is exactly practical. I mean, you will discover what I mean when you calculate the amounts of electric power (in watts), the product of voltage (in volts) and current (in amperes), and then go shopping for a PV panel big enough to supply that power.Regarding question 3, I am not going to design a system for you. I am going to let you do the math yourself. I can kind of guess at the results though. That is: large amounts of expensive, solar PV, electricity will be needed to produce small amounts of hot water, and even smaller amounts of cold water.

    View Topic »
  • When an analog voltage is converted to digital, converted to an integer number, there is a small error, akin to a "rounding error." The size of this error, the size of the smallest discrete step, is the voltage over the whole range of measurement; e.g. (5.0 V - 0.0 V) divided by the number of steps, which is usually some power of 2 (e.g. 2^3 = 8, 2^10 = 1024, 2^12=4096), since microprocessors use binary numbers.I think the Wikipedia article for "Analog to digital converter" section "Resolution" does a good job of explaining this.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog-to-digital_co...This error, due to resolution, is not a problem if it is small compared to the size of the signal. However, if the signal and the error are close to the same size, then that is a pr…

    see more »

    When an analog voltage is converted to digital, converted to an integer number, there is a small error, akin to a "rounding error." The size of this error, the size of the smallest discrete step, is the voltage over the whole range of measurement; e.g. (5.0 V - 0.0 V) divided by the number of steps, which is usually some power of 2 (e.g. 2^3 = 8, 2^10 = 1024, 2^12=4096), since microprocessors use binary numbers.I think the Wikipedia article for "Analog to digital converter" section "Resolution" does a good job of explaining this.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog-to-digital_co...This error, due to resolution, is not a problem if it is small compared to the size of the signal. However, if the signal and the error are close to the same size, then that is a problem.

    View Topic »
  • Vinyl hose, e.g. typical garden hose, seems like a good material. Also it can be softened, temporarily, by dipping it in boiling water, to make it loose enough to slide over a rigid pipe, even stretching over a pipe with outside diameter slightly larger than the inside diameter of the hose, and it grips tight when it cools.The only problem with vinyl hose is it made from plasticized PVC, which contains phthalate plasticizers,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phthalateand I am not sure how much of a dose, the child riding the bike could receive, like dermally through the child's hands, just through spending a lot of time gripping the handles.There are some kinds of tape, made with rubber (various kinds of elastomer) made for wrapping the handles of various kinds of sporty equipment (e.g. hock…

    see more »

    Vinyl hose, e.g. typical garden hose, seems like a good material. Also it can be softened, temporarily, by dipping it in boiling water, to make it loose enough to slide over a rigid pipe, even stretching over a pipe with outside diameter slightly larger than the inside diameter of the hose, and it grips tight when it cools.The only problem with vinyl hose is it made from plasticized PVC, which contains phthalate plasticizers,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phthalateand I am not sure how much of a dose, the child riding the bike could receive, like dermally through the child's hands, just through spending a lot of time gripping the handles.There are some kinds of tape, made with rubber (various kinds of elastomer) made for wrapping the handles of various kinds of sporty equipment (e.g. hockey sticks, tennis rackets, baseball bats).Unfortunately, I don't know much about rubber tapes, (e.g. which is most durable, least toxic, least expensive) except that they're out there.https://duckduckgo.com/?q=rubber+tape&ia=shoppingPerhaps putting some rubber tape over a handle covered with vinyl hose, could mitigate the phthalate leakage. Or maybe the entire bulk of the handlebar could be made of rubber tape.

    View Topic »
  • I found a data sheet for this battery from powerstream-dot-com.https://www.powerstream.com/p/Lir1620.pdfAnyway, the recommendation for charging this, is, I think, the usual recipe with a supply that can give constant current (CC) or constant voltage (CV), and in particular the limits for this battery are 5 mA, and 4.20 V, respectively. That is my interpretation of the line in that PDF which reads,"3.4 Standard Charging Method Constant current:5mA Constant voltage 4.20V total [charging time] 5h"Also note. That constant current of 5 mA corresponds to a rate of 0.5 C, since the nominal capacity of the battery is 10 mA*h, since (capacity)/2h = (10 mA*h)/(2h) = 5 mAAlso this is consistent with their general advice for charging Li-ion cells, from this page:https://www.powerstream.…

    see more »

    I found a data sheet for this battery from powerstream-dot-com.https://www.powerstream.com/p/Lir1620.pdfAnyway, the recommendation for charging this, is, I think, the usual recipe with a supply that can give constant current (CC) or constant voltage (CV), and in particular the limits for this battery are 5 mA, and 4.20 V, respectively. That is my interpretation of the line in that PDF which reads,"3.4 Standard Charging Method Constant current:5mA Constant voltage 4.20V total [charging time] 5h"Also note. That constant current of 5 mA corresponds to a rate of 0.5 C, since the nominal capacity of the battery is 10 mA*h, since (capacity)/2h = (10 mA*h)/(2h) = 5 mAAlso this is consistent with their general advice for charging Li-ion cells, from this page:https://www.powerstream.com/li.htmCompare that to similar advice, in this article at BatteryUniversity,https://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/chargi...Anyway, this is such a dinky amount of current, it seems like there should be some way to just build a CC+CV power supply, like maybe from some op-amps or something. I have to admit, at present I do not have a circuit diagram to do this, uh... besides the one in this forum topichttps://www.mikrocontroller.net/topic/242657Which is one of these little buck converter modules, from a Chinese eBay seller, that someone took the trouble to discover and draw the circuit diagram for it. That module is a buck converter built around the LM2596, and if you stare at the circuit diagram long enough, you can start to get a sense of how it is doing its feedback magic, for both CC and CV feedback, and the pots that set the limits for those. The third pot on that board, sets the level that defines that "end of charge" condition. That is, in the constant voltage (CV) part of the charging, when current is dropping, the point where current falls below some fraction (e.g. 10% or 3%) of what is was during the initial constant current (CC) part of the charging. It does not actually turn off this cheap little board, rather it turns on a LED (the one labeled "B2"). I guess that is to alert the user to unplug the charger, or possibly, with modification, some external circuit could watch that output (of op-amp "U3.2") and turn the power off, when that output changes.Yet it seems to me there must be something even easier than this, that would be possible for an initial constant current (CC), charging current of only 5.0 mA, followed by constant voltage (CV) at 4.20 V. I mean something that just uses linear devices, like op-amps and voltage regulators, without need for switching (buck or boost) mojo, and the ICs that do that .By the way, could you give us the link you mentioned previously, to an instructable here, "I found an instructable on here for modifying a 1A charger to 35mA (but it requires VERY small soldering)."Because I was kind of curious about that one, but I cannot guess (or find) which one it is.

    View Topic »
  • If it is not too heavy, maybe you could attach it to the wall, and put some long, protruding, bolts through those bolt holes, for to use it as a rack for coats or hats.Although, it might be too small for that. It is hard to tell from your picture how wide this manifold is, or guess the exact spacing between the bolt holes.

    Candelabra? Wait. Is that even a word? Uh, yeah. I guess it is.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candelabra

    View Topic »
  • So it is a complete set of cork borers, and the tool that sharpens them.Or maybe it is almost a complete set. I noticed they are numbered, and it looks like {3,4,5,8} are missing, and {2,6,9,10,11,12,13} are present. Although I am not sure if the largest one is 13, because I do not see the number on it.

    View Topic »
  • Instead of a tablet, I recommend using a Raspberry Pi, simply because the RPi has GPIO pins, and those are are easier to connect to other hardware, like push buttons.Although you might need some other hardware, like I am trying to think what, like maybe a N-to-1 multiplexer, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplexeror something to scan through all the buttons you have, because I think 10-20 buttons is more buttons than the RPi has GPIO pins, so it is something more complicated than one button per GPIO pins.Regarding this desire to make it "as simple as possible," why use a streaming service like Spotify? Would it not be more simple to have a local copy of the song to be played?I am pretty sure that is the way the, what you call, "old-school jukebox" worked. It had a…

    see more »

    Instead of a tablet, I recommend using a Raspberry Pi, simply because the RPi has GPIO pins, and those are are easier to connect to other hardware, like push buttons.Although you might need some other hardware, like I am trying to think what, like maybe a N-to-1 multiplexer, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplexeror something to scan through all the buttons you have, because I think 10-20 buttons is more buttons than the RPi has GPIO pins, so it is something more complicated than one button per GPIO pins.Regarding this desire to make it "as simple as possible," why use a streaming service like Spotify? Would it not be more simple to have a local copy of the song to be played?I am pretty sure that is the way the, what you call, "old-school jukebox" worked. It had a local copy of the song to be played. Only instead of being stored in digital form, the songs were encoded onto these disc shaped pieces of plastic called, "records."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonograph_record

    View Topic »
  • Well, there is sort of a method to plumbing involving hoses.The connections are made by way of a fitting that is inserted into the hose. That is, a rigid fitting whose outside diameter is approximately the same as the inside diameter of the hose. Then a hose clamp, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hose_clampgoes outside the hose, and this clamp is tightened to sort of squish the hose onto the rigid fitting. The reason this works: The rigid fitting is rigid. Its dimensions do not change. The hose is made of kind of elastomeric material, that can be streched or squished. The hose clamp forces the hose material to conform to the shape of the rigid fitting inside it, and when it does the gaps are squished closed, reduced to zero thickness, and that is how it is sealed water tight.Forgive me …

    see more »

    Well, there is sort of a method to plumbing involving hoses.The connections are made by way of a fitting that is inserted into the hose. That is, a rigid fitting whose outside diameter is approximately the same as the inside diameter of the hose. Then a hose clamp, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hose_clampgoes outside the hose, and this clamp is tightened to sort of squish the hose onto the rigid fitting. The reason this works: The rigid fitting is rigid. Its dimensions do not change. The hose is made of kind of elastomeric material, that can be streched or squished. The hose clamp forces the hose material to conform to the shape of the rigid fitting inside it, and when it does the gaps are squished closed, reduced to zero thickness, and that is how it is sealed water tight.Forgive me if any of this seems obvious. If you ever repaired a garden hose, then you probably understand plumbing involving hoses.There is a permanent version of the hose clamp, a metal thing made to be crimped on. I am not sure exactly what this crimped connection is called, but I can see two of these crimped connections, on your white plastic, sink adapter, thingie. I guess I do not know exactly what that part is called either. (You call it "drain part" and "square part" in your description.)Also worth mentioning: The material those black hoses are made of, is made to withstand hot water. In contrast, the material garden hoses are made of (usually plasticized PVC, reinforced with nylon fibers) is NOT made for use with hot water. The reason why, is PVC gets soft and weak at hot water temperatures.So if you need longer hoses, they will probably both need to be made of the kind made for hot water. Although this is more important for the supply water line, since it operates at higher pressure. In contrast, the drain line operates at close to zero pressure, maybe just a few feet of water height pressure. For a very low pressure line, the material is made of, does not have to be super-strong. It can be weak and flimsy, and water will still drain through it without leaking.Note there is some kind of mojo happening with the drain line, because it runs uphill a short distance, to get from the bottom of the dishwasher, to the sink where it drains. I guess there must be a pump that does that, because, you know, water, without assistance, always flows downhill. I am guessing the pressure given by that pump is weak, just enough to lift the water a few feet, or a meter or two, from the bottom of the dishwasher to the end of the drain hose, whatever height it is at. Which is why I was guessing a weaker hose, e.g. garden hose material, would work for the drain.Also I do not think you are going to find a connector to seal to the end, or the inside of the drain on the sink adapter, the what you call "square part," "drain part."That means contemplating disconnecting the hoses somewhere else, including: gently destroying the crimped on metal things, e.g grinding them off with an angle grinder, or cutting the hoses somewhere in the middle of their length, or disconnecting them inside the box containing the dishwasher.I am not sure what the connections to those hoses look like, at at the dishwasher, inside the box containing it.If you are lucky, those connections are just ordinary hose connectors, and they can be unscrewed, to disconnect them.Or if you are unlucky, then maybe it is more of those metal crimp connectors.I think the connector for repairing a hose, in the middle of the hose, is called, "coupler," or maybe, "insert coupler," or "barbed coupler." The modifier, "barbed" is seen a lot for these kind of connectors, because they have maybe two or three, large, barb shaped bumps... to help keep them from slipping out of the hose they get inserted into.

    View Topic »
  • I am pretty sure Sunscream was one of the Transformers, one of the Decepticons actually.No. No, wait. That was Starscream. Also, sun-cream is neither Sun-scream nor Star-scream. Uh, well, you can see how maybe I could get those confused with one another.;-)Mostly I have heard suncream called, "sunscreen" or "sunblock," in the English I hear spoken around me, in real life.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SunscreenAlthough I guess I should not be surprised to read unfamiliar words here, because people from all over the World, speaking many dialects of English (and a few other languages), use this site.

    View Topic »
  • If you have a pump and PV (photovoltaic) panel, that are well matched, there is no need for other hardware. In fact, this very setup, consisting of a fountain pump plus a PV panel that is powerful enough to run that pump in full sun, is a staple of Earth Day Fairs, and similar exhibitions.It is an exhibit that is interactive, because you arange the PV panel so the visitor can walk close enough to unintentionally cast his or her shadow over it. Or the exhibitor, pitch-man or pitch-woman, can do this intentionally, with his or her own shadow.When a shadow falls on the panel, the pump stops. When the shadow goes away the pump starts running again.It is a fun demo. Anyway, I think the reason your setup is presently not-so-fun, is because your PV panel is too weak.The numbers you have quot…

    see more »

    If you have a pump and PV (photovoltaic) panel, that are well matched, there is no need for other hardware. In fact, this very setup, consisting of a fountain pump plus a PV panel that is powerful enough to run that pump in full sun, is a staple of Earth Day Fairs, and similar exhibitions.It is an exhibit that is interactive, because you arange the PV panel so the visitor can walk close enough to unintentionally cast his or her shadow over it. Or the exhibitor, pitch-man or pitch-woman, can do this intentionally, with his or her own shadow.When a shadow falls on the panel, the pump stops. When the shadow goes away the pump starts running again.It is a fun demo. Anyway, I think the reason your setup is presently not-so-fun, is because your PV panel is too weak.The numbers you have quoted for us, say the panel can deliver more power than the pump uses, (since 7 watt > 4.2 watt)... but those numbers are lying. If you go to the trouble of measuring the I-V curve ( the current-voltage characteristic)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current%E2%80%93volt... for this panel , by using a variety of different test loads, like appropriate sized resistors, and actually measuring the voltage and current output from the panel, under the same sunlight input conditions, then you will discover for yourself that the quote of "7W" was wildly optimistic, or hyperbole, or essentially just straight BS.What I am saying is, a PV panel alone, will work, if you can find a powerful enough panel.Also energy storage in a battery is not going to save this system, if its power source, the PV panel, is just too weak to drive the pump, unless you come up with some strategy that has the battery spending a lot more time charging than it does driving the pump. I dunno. Like maybe if the function of the fountain is for people to look at it, then perhaps a PIR sensor (aka passive infrared, people detector) could turn the fountain on, only when people walk by it, and the battery could spend the remainder of its hours recharging via the weak PV panel.

    View Topic »
  • If you are looking for "direct experience in building this thing," then you should wire this thing up, and build something to test the torque it can output.Like I suggested, you can wrap a rope around a wheel, and test how much it can lift. The torque on the shaft turning the wheel is the radius of the wheel r multiplied by the weight M*g pulling on the rope. tau = r*M*gI have attached a crude diagram of this setup.You might also look at the page I pulled the picture from, https://www.clear.rice.edu/elec201/Book/motors.htm...although you will notice that author is writing about small motors, and very small amounts of torque, but the principle is the same.By the way, I meant no disrespect towards less-abled people, or your ancestors. Although, maybe my remark was kind of dispara…

    see more »

    If you are looking for "direct experience in building this thing," then you should wire this thing up, and build something to test the torque it can output.Like I suggested, you can wrap a rope around a wheel, and test how much it can lift. The torque on the shaft turning the wheel is the radius of the wheel r multiplied by the weight M*g pulling on the rope. tau = r*M*gI have attached a crude diagram of this setup.You might also look at the page I pulled the picture from, https://www.clear.rice.edu/elec201/Book/motors.htm...although you will notice that author is writing about small motors, and very small amounts of torque, but the principle is the same.By the way, I meant no disrespect towards less-abled people, or your ancestors. Although, maybe my remark was kind of disparaging towards fat people.Also the radius of a circle is half its diameter. d=2*r. So, wheels with 7 inch diameter, have 3.5 inch radius.

    View Topic »
  • You know, physics problems like this are so much easier in SI units.So about half the work in contemplating something like this, is converting these awful imperial units into SI.Probably the other half the battle is discovering if the specs of your power source are truthful.Anyway, it turns out 225 pounds mass (on Earth) weighs almost exactly 1.00 kilonewton,Since W = (225 pound)*(1.0 kg/2.205 pound)*(9.8 m*s^-2) = 1000 NIf the grade is 6/100, the angle (call it theta) between the road and the horizontal is, theta = atan(6/100), and if you put this one into your calculator, you will see small angle approximation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small-angle_approxim...applies for an angle this small. i.e. sin(theta) ~= tan(theta) = theta ( in radians)So that is going to help make the math …

    see more »

    You know, physics problems like this are so much easier in SI units.So about half the work in contemplating something like this, is converting these awful imperial units into SI.Probably the other half the battle is discovering if the specs of your power source are truthful.Anyway, it turns out 225 pounds mass (on Earth) weighs almost exactly 1.00 kilonewton,Since W = (225 pound)*(1.0 kg/2.205 pound)*(9.8 m*s^-2) = 1000 NIf the grade is 6/100, the angle (call it theta) between the road and the horizontal is, theta = atan(6/100), and if you put this one into your calculator, you will see small angle approximation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small-angle_approxim...applies for an angle this small. i.e. sin(theta) ~= tan(theta) = theta ( in radians)So that is going to help make the math easier. Now the component of the weight directed along the road is,W*(sin(theta)) = (1000 N)*(0.06) = 60 N.There is also some rolling friction too, I guess. This page, at engineeringtoolbox, gives us some hints regarding rolling friction.https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/rolling-frictio...Notice the formula is essentially the same as the one for a small incline. You get a force directed along the road, equal to some small fraction of the weight. Just put (coeff) in place of (sin(theta)).I have no idea how big this coefficient should be, but I am going to guess, coeff = 0.04, W*coeff = (1000 N)*(0.04) = 40 N. That way when I add them both together, I get a nice round number, Froad = 100 N = 60 N + 40 N, for the total force directed along the road; i.e. the force with which the tires push against the road (and the road pushes against the tires).By the way, I am not quite picturing how big are the tires of this machine. I do not actually know what a, "Travel Scooter MOT 134077 transaxle and motor unit with tires," looks like. I tried searching for this using an image search.Is this one of these wheeled contrivances I see fat people riding around on, inside supermarkets?The reason the size of the tires is important is, that number tells us how much torque is needed to turn the wheel, tau = Froad*r, where r is the radius of the wheel.I think the conversion between (pound*inch) and (newton*meter) is:1 pound*foot = 12 pound*inch = 1.35581795 N*m1 pound*inch = (1.35581795)/(12) N*m ~= 0.1130 N*mOr maybe you could just hang the wheels of the scooter over a ledge, and wrap some ropes around them, and see if they could lift 100 N, which is approximately how much 10 kg of mass weighs (on Earth). That is about 22 pounds of mass, if you are used to thinking in imperial units. Or 11 pounds per wheel, if it is two back wheels, and the force is evenly divided between them. I mean, two ropes lifting weights: one wrapped around each wheel.Regarding power, at some given speed, 100 N multiplied by 1.0 m/s (meter per second) is 100 watt.P = F*(dx/dt) = (100 N)*(1.0 m/s) = 100 J/s = 100 W That same speed, in miles per hour is:2.236 mile/hour ~= 1.000 m/sTo move twice that fast, requires twice as much power; i.e 200 W, at 4.472 mile/hour = 2.0 m/s.I dunno. I think the power source you have is a pretty close match to the task you want it to perform, if it can truly do what its numbers say it can do.By the way, I think it will be worthwhile for you to measure the radius of your wheels, and do the math for what that works out to, for torque and angular speed of the wheels pushing against the road.

    View Topic »
  • Hey. I just noticed User Basta's "How to Build a Knife" requires heat treating (in Step 5), because I just got around to reading it today.Maybe I should not have blindly recommended it, since you specifically asked for, "knife without a forge."By the way, for anyone wondering what Basta is writing about regarding "O1" tool steel, note that first character is a capital "O" like the letter at the beginning of, "Ohio," and the "O" stands for "Oil quenched."The Wikipedia article for, "Tool steel"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tool_steel#Oil-harde...Does a better job of explaining this mojo."[The O series] includes an O1 type, an O2 type, an O6 type and an O7 type. All steels in this group are typically hardene…

    see more »

    Hey. I just noticed User Basta's "How to Build a Knife" requires heat treating (in Step 5), because I just got around to reading it today.Maybe I should not have blindly recommended it, since you specifically asked for, "knife without a forge."By the way, for anyone wondering what Basta is writing about regarding "O1" tool steel, note that first character is a capital "O" like the letter at the beginning of, "Ohio," and the "O" stands for "Oil quenched."The Wikipedia article for, "Tool steel"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tool_steel#Oil-harde...Does a better job of explaining this mojo."[The O series] includes an O1 type, an O2 type, an O6 type and an O7 type. All steels in this group are typically hardened at 800 °C, oil quenched, then tempered at < 200 °C."And you know, the interested reader should look into those references, [3][4][5][6][7], Wikipedia is using for that claim.

    View Topic »
  • To me, Arduino seems like overkill, for a one-shot or "monostable multivibrator," which is another name for the same thing.The well known 555 timer IC can be wired as a one-shot. The duration of the output pulse is determined by R*C, which is essentially the time needed to charge a capacitor C, in series with a resistor R.In the Wikipedia article for "555 timer IC," in the section labeled "Monostable," there is a graph that shows how these signals play out, as a function of time.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/555_timer_IC#Monosta...There are also some 'ibles here at Instructables, that attempt to explain this.https://www.instructables.com/howto/monostable+one...There are a things about this circuit that might make it tricky, that I can think of:This 555 circu…

    see more »

    To me, Arduino seems like overkill, for a one-shot or "monostable multivibrator," which is another name for the same thing.The well known 555 timer IC can be wired as a one-shot. The duration of the output pulse is determined by R*C, which is essentially the time needed to charge a capacitor C, in series with a resistor R.In the Wikipedia article for "555 timer IC," in the section labeled "Monostable," there is a graph that shows how these signals play out, as a function of time.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/555_timer_IC#Monosta...There are also some 'ibles here at Instructables, that attempt to explain this.https://www.instructables.com/howto/monostable+one...There are a things about this circuit that might make it tricky, that I can think of:This 555 circuit wants a brief negative pulse for its input, so you have to wire your switch to do this; i.e. low briefly, high the rest of the time. Also the trigger pulse has to be shorter in duration than the output pulse, which should be achievable if your button presses take less time than 1 or 2 seconds.Also the 555 output by itself, cannot source enough current to drive a whole strip of LEDs (However many that is. Or however much current that is in amperes or milliamperes.) So you will likely want a big transistor, of some kind, to do the actual switching of current to the LED strip, or to just the blue and green LEDs. Or maybe this ends up being two transistors, one with its input inverted, if you are switching one group LEDs off, simultaneously with switching another group on.

    View Topic »
  • I tried asking the Duck, "how to shiv improvised knives blades'https://duckduckgo.com/?q=how+to+shiv+improvised+k...Naturally, it pointed me to the Wikipedia article for "Shiv(weapon)"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiv_(weapon)But I think that article is too general, and short on practical advice. Also a link to an actual instructable popped up too. This one:https://www.instructables.com/How-to-Build-a-Kn...Presumably Stone Age people made knives, and you know, they made them out of certain kinds of stone, like flint and obsidian. The word for the technique is "knapping," the gerund form of the verb, "knap." It is possible to make a knife from a flat piece of glass, using the same technique.So, I ask the Duck to show me, "how to knap glass knife&…

    see more »

    I tried asking the Duck, "how to shiv improvised knives blades'https://duckduckgo.com/?q=how+to+shiv+improvised+k...Naturally, it pointed me to the Wikipedia article for "Shiv(weapon)"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiv_(weapon)But I think that article is too general, and short on practical advice. Also a link to an actual instructable popped up too. This one:https://www.instructables.com/How-to-Build-a-Kn...Presumably Stone Age people made knives, and you know, they made them out of certain kinds of stone, like flint and obsidian. The word for the technique is "knapping," the gerund form of the verb, "knap." It is possible to make a knife from a flat piece of glass, using the same technique.So, I ask the Duck to show me, "how to knap glass knife"https://duckduckgo.com/?q=how+to+knap+glass+knife&...And, well I guess have not directly shown you how to "make a bunch of knives," but I think these links are pointing you towards the knowledge you seek.

    View Topic »
  • I am not sure those lithium coin cells are intended to be recharged.The intro paragraph in the Wikipedia article for "Electric battery" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_batteryintroduces two broad categories for batteries:Primary, meaning single use or disposable.Secondary, meaning rechargeable, made to be recharged and discharged, many times.Moreover there is sort of this subtle use of language, in particular for batteries with the word "lithium" in the name.The ones called, "lithium-ion" are rechargeable.The ones called, "lithium" are primary, not rechargeable.It is actually two different kinds of batteries. Anyway, with that being said, it might be worthwhile to try recharging those little lithium coin cells, like for experimental purposes,…

    see more »

    I am not sure those lithium coin cells are intended to be recharged.The intro paragraph in the Wikipedia article for "Electric battery" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_batteryintroduces two broad categories for batteries:Primary, meaning single use or disposable.Secondary, meaning rechargeable, made to be recharged and discharged, many times.Moreover there is sort of this subtle use of language, in particular for batteries with the word "lithium" in the name.The ones called, "lithium-ion" are rechargeable.The ones called, "lithium" are primary, not rechargeable.It is actually two different kinds of batteries. Anyway, with that being said, it might be worthwhile to try recharging those little lithium coin cells, like for experimental purposes, just to see if that can work.A general approach to charging a battery, is to start with some estimate of its capacity, in units of (current)*(time), for example ampere*hours (A*h), or milliampere*hours (mA*h). Then divide that number by perhaps 10 hours, or 100 hours, to get an estimate for how large the charging current should be.Sometimes you will see jargon for charging rates, with a letter "C", like for example, "C/3" or "C/10" or similar. The numerator, C, is the battery's capacity. The denominator is a number of hours, presumably the number of hours it would take to completely recharge the battery, at that rate.So where can we find a list of (current)*(time) capacities for the little lithium coin cells? Perhaps the Wikipedia article, "List of battery sizes" in the section titled, "Button cell - coin, watch"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_battery_size...By the way, have you noticed the numbers in the names for those lithium coin cells, are just the external dimensions of the cell? (E.g. "1220" is 12 mm diameter, and 2.0 mm thick.)Anyway, the table in that section says the typical capacity for a "CR1220" is "35-40 mA*h). So the C/10 charge rate for that battery is going to be about 3.5 to 4.0 mA. Although, that number is much larger than the typical discharge current, of around 0.1 mA. Maybe the C/100 rate, at 0.35 to 0.40 mA, a slow "trickle" since 100 hours = 4 days + 4 hours, is safer, since that is closer to the current at which the battery can discharge.Although if you destroy a few of these little coin cells, it is no big loss because they're cheap, right?Unless there exists some kind of actual lithium-ion cell, with this same shape, and intended to be re-charged, and that is the thing you are asking about.

    View Topic »
  • Jack A Lopez commented on ken crofts's forum topic I need a part.

    Have you seen this 'ible?https://www.instructables.com/Diagnose-and-Repa...It gives some general advice, that applies to this whole class of battery-powered "ride on" toys.I think success in repairing one of these toys, will depend on discovering which wire goes where, and which thing does what.For that reason, if I were trying to fix one of these toys, I would want a circuit diagram. I would either have to find one that applied to this toy, perhaps by way of an image search for, "wiring diagram 12v ride-on"https://duckduckgo.com/?q=wiring+diagram+12v+ride-...Or I would have to draw my own diagram, by following each wire to see where it goes, and what it connects to.Although it helps if you know what you're looking at, like when you know you're looking at a "rela…

    see more »

    Have you seen this 'ible?https://www.instructables.com/Diagnose-and-Repa...It gives some general advice, that applies to this whole class of battery-powered "ride on" toys.I think success in repairing one of these toys, will depend on discovering which wire goes where, and which thing does what.For that reason, if I were trying to fix one of these toys, I would want a circuit diagram. I would either have to find one that applied to this toy, perhaps by way of an image search for, "wiring diagram 12v ride-on"https://duckduckgo.com/?q=wiring+diagram+12v+ride-...Or I would have to draw my own diagram, by following each wire to see where it goes, and what it connects to.Although it helps if you know what you're looking at, like when you know you're looking at a "relay", rather than a "box" with the words "12A-125VAC 10A-250VAC" written on it.

    View Topic »