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On this page you can find links to some of our most frequently asked questions. What is this site? Instructables is a place that lets you explore, document, and share your creations. How do I post an Instructable? We offer a free and easy online class to coach you through posting your first Instructable or you can just wing it and start a new one today. How do I get help improving my Instructable?Ask the community for help in The Clinic. How does my Instructable get featured? The best way to get your projects featured is by following the Featuring Guidelines. Where can I learn more about contests? Our Contest FAQ has all of the information that you need to know about contests. What contests are launching soon? Check out our list of upcoming contests. Are you on social media? Yes! Follow us on Pinterest, Instagram and Twitter. How do I contact Instructables directly? The best way to contact us is through our Contact Page.

Topic by randofo   |  last reply


555 monostable timer

I've no idea what I'm talking about here but can only explain what im looking for which is help. I'm basically looking for a relay or multifunction relay not really sure but here's the plan. When my smart plug is turned on (at certain programmed times through the smart plug app) to provide power to a 12v 6amp pump (I have 240v ac to 12v DC transformer pluged into smart plug I'm in uk) I would like for this pump to turn itself back off after 10 or 15 seconds. I cannot for the life of me find an analogue or digital timer that can do seconds. The smart plug can work down to minutes and not seconds. So basically smart plug on = pump run for 15 seconds cuts itself off and then the smart plug turns off once the minute is up and when plug is on again at next programmed interval it does same thing. Any help would be great as I've no idea what I can buy or try to make thanks When trying to research I hear about 555 monostable circuit but I don't know how to wire something up or what to buy to make this work.

Topic by croyf85   |  last reply


List of Upcoming Contests (updated 6/4/19)

Hello everyone! Below is a partial list of the 2019 contest calendar. Keep in mind that this list is subject to change and contests will continue to be added throughout the year. The contests below are already in planning, and I've left off ones that we're still trying to decide on. The months indicate when the contests will be launching. All contests will launch near the beginning of each month. Keep in mind that the list below is not set in stone. All contests and dates are subject to change!JulyPlanter Challenge Design and create a planter or potPaint Challenge Painting tutorials, tips and tricks, using paint to refresh old itemsBBQ Challenge Share your best grilling recipes ands favorite sidesSew Tough Challenge Sewing projects, but extra rugged and practicalGame ContestOpen to all games and gaming inspired projects: cosplay, props, tabletop games, arcade machines, controller mods, etc.DIY Summer Camp ContestPitch a tent, learn archery, build a boat, get campyStone, Concrete & Cement ContestGet stuck between a rock and a hard place and make cool stuffAugustFlying ChallengeIf your project flies, we want to see itSpicy ChallengeFeeling hot, hot, hot... when it comes to these recipesClassroom Organization ChallengeShow us your favorite solutions to tame the craft and work supply madnessMake it Move ContestAny project that moves is eligibleMetal ContestUse metal in your project - head banging optionalIndoor Lighting ContestWe love lampTeacher ContestTeach us your ways, oh educators!SeptemberMotor Vehicle ContestCars, trucks, vans, motorcycles... you get the ideaMaps ChallengeMake cartography great againKitchen Skills ChallengeShare your kitchen knowledgeCNC ContestBuild a project using a CNCMultidiscipline ContestOpen to projects that combine two or more disciplines, like woodworking AND sewingSkateboarding ContestBuild a board, share tricks, wax every ledgeHalloween ContestCostumes, props, decorations, food and moreOctoberAfter School ChallengeAfter school projects and activities Book Character Costume ChallengeLet your imagination run wild and bring your favorite book characters to lifeCandy ChallengeSugar and spice and everything niceArt Skills ChallengeDrawing, painting, sculpting, animation and moreMade with Math ContestCombine math with makingRobots ContestMake yourself a robotic friendNovemberMeal Prep ChallengeGet a gold star in being an adult and teach us how to meal prepFashion ContestIt's called fashion sweetie, look it upInvention ContestSolve everyday problems by creating something newAssistive Tech ContestUse technology to make life easierHome Decor ContestRefresh and restyle the DIY wayReuse ContestWork with what you've got instead of buying newDecemberPCB Badge ChallengeCreate custom PCB badges using EagleCrazy 4 Coding ChallengeShare fun coding projectsCookies ChallengeC is for cookie, and cookie is for meFiber Arts ChallengeThe challenge for all textile arts: weaving, crochet, embroidery, sewing, etc.Instrument ContestMake some noiseMad Science Fair ContestOpen to all science fair projects and experimentsShelving ContestGet creative with shelvingMake it Glow ContestAdd LEDs to all the things! *All contests and dates are subject to change. Please leave suggestions for prizes here. You can also leave suggestions about contests here. Have a contest question? Check the Contest FAQ!

Topic by randofo   |  last reply


Moon light timer

I would like to build a led light that switches on and off with the moon. On when the moon rises and off when the moon sets. Would also like no leds on at new moon and an additional led comes on until full moon is reached. The process then reverses an an led goes off until new moon with no leds on. I would also love the light output to be 4150k the colour of moon light and about 1 lumen at 1metre distance.

Topic by Ausie Steam 


Website-BUG: Login-Cookie-Handling over multiple PCs with feed

I had this problem in the past sporadically but never saw a pattern till recently:I come to instructables.com, i am already logged in and click on "feed" at the top.After a while an error pops up telling me a Rerouting-error happened. (Umleitungsfehler in German).I noticed, this always happens after the following action-pattern:- I visit instructables.com and log in on computer A and i DONT log out there but only close the browse.- I visit instructables.com on computer B. I am seemingly already signed in from the last visit here on Computer B at instructables.com. - If i now click feed (On Computer B), the error happens.- If i logout and log back in on Computer B, the error is gone on this computer B, even over Firefox-restartsAs far as i undestand, as soon as i log in on computer A, a new login-cookie is created on Computer A and the cookie on Computer B will no longer be valid next time.Now, if i come to instructables with computer B, the cookie somehow still is interpreted valid and logs me in (I appear to be logged in with my avatar visible at the top right). However, if i want to go to my feed, it seems Instructables checks again the cookie and figures out that i have a no longer valid login-cookie on this Computer B due to my login on Computer A and refuses to redirect me to my feed. This gets sorted with Re-Log on Computer B, creating a NEW login-cookie on Computer B and all is well again on Computer B. Now i can play the same game on Computer A with re-log. :)I hope, this error-report helps you guys in pinpointing and fixing an issue with a Login-bug as it seemsAnd Why to hell do i have to define in which channel this belongs and you dont have a channel "website of Instructables"?!? I hope this is not lost in "Circuits" - "Software" which was the closest i could find to a website-problem... Geez...

Topic by Orngrimm   |  last reply


Recent Feed Page

We have heard your feedback loud and clear, and we will be bringing back an easy way to see all recently published instructables. This requires some dev time because we changed things under the hood and need to do a little work to re-create this page. We hope to have it back shortly.We appreciate your patience as we continue refining the site after this release.Update:The recent feed has been released and can be found at this link:https://www.instructables.com/feed/recent/You can also find a link to it on your feed page.

Topic by randofo   |  last reply


Heavy duty UHF CB radio antennas and why cheap can be much better....

If you not a fan of normal road cars then you might get some 4WD and go off road every now and then.There are even those doing trips to remote locations that take a few weeks.An essential piece of equippment these days is a UHF radio.In a convoy you might get away with a handheld one if the cars are not too far apart and the terrain suitable.Most peole however opt for a permanent installation in the dash or roof console.After that decision comes the hardest and often costly part: What antenna to use....If you trust certain online reviews and manufacturer claims then one thing becomes quickly obvious.If you need a sturdy and powerful antenna then you have to pay top dollar.Some come with heavy spring bases claiming to protect the heavy fibreglass rod if you hit a bush or trees branch.There is always a compromise between weight and stability.And trust me, on the right corrugations you prefer not to look at your antenna....So how are these expensive antennas made?As I don't have any own pictures and don't want to steal them from the net: Please search for the terms used if you don't know them already.To answer this let me go to the other types of antennas you can get for your UHF radio.There is the famous rubber ducky - a stubby antenna best suited for short range on difficult terrian.Then we have the fibreglass whip antennas that have more or less coils integrated or even consist of one single coil with different spacings in sections.Good for normal road use, not so much off road as they won't tolerate too much vibration, they often snap off the base screw.Most people now just ignore the short whip antennas of 15 to 30cm length as they usually only come with a gain of around 4.5-6db.I will explain later why that might be a misconception.The last ones are those steel whips with one or two "loading" coils.These coils electrically shorten the antenna.They also provide a matching to the 50 Ohm required for most transmitters and antenna cables.Usually they are designed to be 5/8 Lambda antennas.A good antenna for just receiving, like when using a scanner is not critical in length.Transmitting however means you need a proper Standing Wave Reflection or SWR ratio.For this the antenna needs to be tuned.To be of any good use your antenna needs to match the transmitting frequency.This works best if the antenna length is at 1/2, 1/4 or 5/8 of the corresponging frequencies wavelength.Also called Lambda if you look for antennas.In the good old 27-MHz days we were used to quite long antennas in our backyard, for the car we then opted for 1/4 of this - usually around 2m in length.For UHF however 1/4 wavelength already means you are down to about 16cm...Going for 1/2 is a good thing here as it is still quite short at about 34cm.Real difference when it comes to these Lambda factors is the radion angle produced.You can imagine a 1/4 to look like a huge donut with no hole, about 25° for the radiation angle.At 1/2 this will be flattened out to around 20°.A 5/8 Lambda ntenna can get as low as 16°.Imagine it like a flashligh that has adjustable focus.The light source is of fixed output as your transmitter.The lens does the job of the antenna.If you make the beam more narrow then the light intensity of a certain areas at a certain distance will increase.Means for the radio you get a longer distance your signal can travel with enough energy.This however comes at a price!Imagine you are at the bottom of quite stepp mountain and your mate is up on the top about 2km above you.A high gain antenna with a narrow radion pattern might not even reach up there, while a short stubbie with just 3db still has a chance due to the more spherical radiation.Also explain why low gain and with that short antennas work best in hilly terrain...Back to the thick ones...As you can see you can basically hide any type of whip antenna into a fibreglass rod.But most of the are as said "ground independent", means unlike your normal whip they don't need the spring or foot to be of low resistance to your car's body.How does that work?Well, exactly like these ground independent whip antennas with a spring base or metal pole base work.You know the earliest antenna was a dipol - look it up on Wiki ;)For our CB radios that means you have a metal rod or spring that is about 1/4 or in some cases 1/4 of the wavelenght long.This is connected to the shielding of the coax cable and provides the required ground for the mounted antenna.The big difference is that only too often a dirt cheap dipol is hiding in your expensive fibreglass rod ;)The complete antenna might bring over 2kg on a scale, but the actual thing allowing you to receive and transmit is a few grams of coax cable...HOLD ON A MINUTE!! Some will say now...My whip is 70cm long and my expensive heavy duty one with 9db is 2m long - how does that work with your wavelength theory??Well, it is not my theory, just a fact ;)Imagine a 1/4 Lambda dipol, then it would be all up around 35cm long.And funny enough, that is about the length of a $180 heavy duty stubby if you just tak the rod itself.Go 1/2 of Lambda and you get an overall length of the dipol of around 65cm - add the metal rod making the crew that holds the fibreglass rod and you have the common 70-75cm heavy duty antenna...Anything above this length usually is either just a long rod with noting above the 75cm mark or simple has the 75cm long dipol made from the coax cable at the top with the antenna cable going down the otherwise empty rod.Ok, I got it, either 1/2 of the wavelength or 1/4, so about 35 or 16cm long.Ground independent we add either 1/4 for the spring base and rod or 1/2 for the longer ones.And how again does it work with the gain of an antenna?If you trust Wiki then it comes down to the radiation pattern.These heavy duty antennas usually come with around 6 or 9db, the short ones with 3-4.5db.These values might give you an indication about the theoretically possible distance you can transmit but nothing about the terrain it is suited for.Common rules of thumb created by those selling antennas and radios is that you a high gain antenna on flat terrain and a low gain antenna in a hilly area.Around 4.5-6db seems to be the golden ratio here as these anteannas are equally bad for both extremes in terms of terrain options.What you really would need to know is the actual radiation patterns in a three dimensional plane.A straight whip or dipol as a more or less donut shapead radiation pattern.However, location affects this!Mounted in the middle of the roof it is closest to perfect, while at the corner of your bumper bar you will distord the donut and also block parts out with the body of your car.This is why for this type of mounting elevated antennas are prefered.Makes no sense to have a 16cm long stubbie mounted so the top is still lower than your bonnet...Any antenna with a loading coil (or several) or top load will have a distinctively different pattern.We speak of so called "lobes".If you see it in 2D then for example a 1/2 lambda straight whip will look a bit like the infinity symbol.A 1/4 Lambda of the same style looks more like two ping pong bats joined without the handles.Those with loading coils or linear arrays made from coax cable however can produce multiple, prefered lobes.Usually they are in the 4-6db range and claim to be "universal" or as "allrounder".Here you get a quite narrow main lobe of 12-16° with one or more but much shorter lobes going upwards at about 10-30° depending on the configuration.At short range, like in hilly terrain both lobes overlap while you get a dead area at greater distances.You can sometimes notice that when you are on a low level talking to someone up high.There are cases when with a bit more difference in angle to each other (in terms of height and distance) the signal jumps up a few numbers.You just went from the dead zone into the lobe ;)With just a db value for the anteanna but no details about the actual design, heavy duty antennas can fool you badly.In mayn cases a 1/2 Lambda straight whip on the roof will outperform a costly, heavy duty antenna mounted to your bullbar.This is the reason why the expensive ones are the biggest cheat - they just elevate a quite small antenna above your roof line.And since it is heavy it needs a big spring and you hope it will not break if you hit something on a narrow track.All while the thin stainless stell whip with the cheap magnetic base just flexes under all obstacles with no damage at all.Plus, if you really get into the thick jungle you can just take the magnet off until you are through LOLWhy is a SWR and power meter still an important tool to invest into?Those remembering or still using 27-MHz radios only know too well why you need a proper SWR and power meter.With the lenght of the antenna at these low frequencies and affecting factors new the antenna proper tuning is a must.The bandwidth of the channels also means you have to tune the lowest and highest channel so the are basically even, anything else and the old guys would scream "UNACCEPTABLE!" ;)Especially it you want to get the last out of your system without going illegal.For some reason we accepted the claims that an SWR reading of around 1:2 is fine and acceptable.Most of the radios lower the power output to protect the transmitter if the SWR goes to far out.Allows for simple mass production of antennas with fixed cable lengths that are usually well overpriced.The most expensive bit is the cable itself here...I had no time to build an analog SWR and pwoer meter that works properly on 27 and 470MHz, so I ordered cheap SW30 from China.With that I first checked my little collection of antennas then those of some of my friends.This includes everything from short rubber duckies over loaded and straight whips to heavy duty models.One thing that was obvious right away: most are far away from an SWR readin anyone with a 27MHz groundplane antenna on a long mast would accept.And only one heavy duty antenna had a SWR readin of below 1:1.6 for channel 1 AND channel 40!That one was relatively cheap noname brand.With that sorted I decided to tune at least my steel whip antennas.To my utter disappointment they were all just a tiny bit too short - a thing that would have caused a proper 27MHz antenna manufacturer to to keep a large stockpile of his antennas...I had one though that was longer than needed.And before you ask: Yes, I tested them on both my elevated bullbar mount AND a direct mount on the roof rack.Did not change much for the bad ones so I ignored the mounting position for the tuning.I checked the power once for both channels on my prefered antenna and got 4.4W.Mind you that one has a SWR reading of 1:2.2 and will no longer be used as I can't be bothered to make it longer.For some reason I thought I check the SWR and power everytime I cut a bit off the antenna instead of just watching the SWR reading.At original length I had a SWR of 1:1.9 on ch40 and 1:1.75 on ch1 with 4.6W.I kept trimming down by about 2mm increments until I got an even readin of 1:1.07 on both channels.And with every trim the power went up a little bit.I have a friend that is or better, was just at the brink of being unable to reach from my driveway when he is parked in front of his house.A radio check after the tuning revealed that instead of coming with a lot of static noise and sometimes cut out I got a solid reading of 2 on his end with a much more acceptable level of noise.However, I still struggles as badly to hear him...Funny thing is that test was with just a plain and straight whip of 1/2 Lambda, in my case the tuning resulted in a length of 38cm from the base of antenna screw to the tip.My fancy 9db high gain antenna that is just over 70cm long did not even reach him while I could hear him slightly better than on my tuned one.Changing the mounting to the roof rack gave me a clear reception and a signal strength of 4 at my friends end with no noise.Elevation and nothing around the antenna does matter...After all this, would I still bother to buy a ready to go antenna for 470MHz?Only if I had to.Getting some RG58 cable or re-using it from on old antenna is cheap enough.A standard screw mount with a grub screw to hold a steel whip sets you back less than 10 bucks, from China even cheaper.And most will find a soldered on connector on the other end of an old antenna to be salvaged if required.If you don't have any sring steel wire of about 40cm length then think out of the box ;)The packing of pillows and such often come with a sring steel wire to make the plasitc floil keep its shape, some old suitaces have thicker wire doing the same.And if you ask nicely you might get a bristle or two for free from a street sweeping machine at your councils depot ;)After all we only need a maximum of 40cm to have enough left to trim and tune down.What is left to do?Of course some distance tests to check how well such a simple antenna really really works in comparison to commercial models.I only have one 9db antenna and will check it first to see if on flat terrain there is much difference in distance for transmitting.Unless this difference is well above one kilometer I will not bother with a high gain antenna like this anymore and instead opt for a longer mast and 1/2 Lambda.Another thing on the to do list to try a ground plane antenna with topload to squeeze the radion lobe down to under 15°.The resulting antenna would be quite short here and using an elevated mast is a must have to get over roof level with at leat a few wavelengths of distance to the roof.I guesstimate that an optimised antenna of this style should result in a distance increase of about 10-15km of flat terrain while being utterly useless in a hilly areas.Plus, such a design is not really suited for a vehicle going fast on a freeway, so it will go on my house instead.

Topic by Downunder35m 


(home made lightbox) Keeping backlight on - which pins to bridge on monitor psu board

Thought id seek a bit of pro advice from the forums for my first post as im totally drawing blanks on this one!. i am trying to finish my custom lightbox made from an old hanns.g hh281 monitor. at the moment, when powered on, the backlight turns on then off after a few seconds as no pc signal is being received.  i have taken a picture of the connector to the main board as i cannot figure out which 2 pins to bridge to keep the ccfl backlights on :-( i was guessing one of the ground pin and the on/off  would work but didnt want to mess this up on the first go . any input would be a godsend! thanks all!

Topic by Aikon359   |  last reply


whats the best way to open a laptop's ac adapter?

I have a Compaq v2000 laptop with a faulty lead inside the AC adapter's strain relief. I want to cut the cable and resolder it inside the adapter, but I need to get it open... it appears to be heat sealed (no visible screws, but a recessed plastic seam) what is the best way to open it up? btw, I'm quite comfortable working with large capacitors, before you ask. help?

Topic by gschoppe   |  last reply


Is it possible to connect an led in parallel with a lock mechanism?

I am working on a project. I have a keypad panel that unlocks a door and I want to add in the circuit an led indicator(when the lock is released I want the led to turn on. When connecting the lock with the led in parallel the keypad does not work properly. The lock uses 1amp and the led needs less than 350ma. Would a resistor on the led solve the problem? If yes, what resistor should I use? (it's obvious I don't know much about electronics but I wish to learn...). Any ideas or ideas or advice is most welcome! Thanks community!

Topic by DimiLa   |  last reply


Need help simplifying project (Raspberry Pi + Pi Musicbox + NFC Reader)

Hello.I have a desire to build this project - https://github.com/brendandawes/PlasticPlayer.But I'm a total layman in hardware.TL;DR: Media player based on Raspberry Pi and Pi Musicbox (mopidy), with the Espruino + NFC reader used as a track selector (NFC cards store the track id which is then cross-referenced through a database).Upon close examination I think the additional Espruino is redundant (especially in the way author made it, so it talks to Raspberry via wi-fi), and I would like to connect it directly to Raspberry Pi.I've ordered the Raspberry Pi recently, and it hasn't arrived yet, so I can't really tinker with it. So asking the question ahead.Taking into account that Pi Musicbox will used as the base system, what exactly do I need to do, so that it can control NFC reader?How can I create a program to control Raspberry Pi GPIO? Is it possible to make it compatible with common libraries that are available for NFC reader?Thank you.

Topic by beshur 


Hp p 2015 bldc motor pin identification

Please tell me pin out details of RK2 1567 laser printer motor . it's supply voltage.

Topic by devsupercom87   |  last reply


Website-BUG: Mailings of comments has invalid links

If i get a mailing about a new comment, NONE of the links work i get sent:Comment tracker (https://www.instructables.com/member/[username]/comments) bounces back to instructables.comThe reply-function @ https://www.instructables.com/member/[username]/c... bounces back to instructables.com/[key] but the [key] has no functionality there, so it basically bounces back to instructables.com as well.and yes: I AM logged on and the other website bug i wrote about is not to blame:i renewed the cookie on this PC just to be sure.

Topic by Orngrimm   |  last reply


HELP: Measuring power density from cellphone tower.

I am working on a project to measure the power density from cell tower. Most projects I saw involve expensive antenna and also a spectrum analyser which is too costly. I came across showing ppl fabricating a target single band microstrip passing through a RF Detector circuit. I think chip like AD8318 could handle it?? But how am I gonna filter if were to use an antenna with range of 200MHz to 2GHz eg. (https://www.sparkfun.com/products/8347) to measure a specific GSM band like 900/1800 MHz from the cell tower? I need help on the filtering and RF detector circuit part!!The closest resemblance to my proposed system: https://www.favoriot.com/category/how-to/

Topic by StudD   |  last reply


Q: can i power a (9v-battery) multitester with 8 or 10v?

Hi, i´m living in a mountain-cabin with a small solar-kit (12v battery, 6 x 2v cells).i want to buy some multi-tester (which normally uses a 9v battery).i hate to buy batteries (and not just becauce i am a cheap fukc - might actually cost about a bit less than the tester itself, go figure, beauty/beast of capitalism)since i got anything from 2-4-6-8-10-12v here (for free - thank you sun): can i run the tester with 1 volt more or less? (or does all hell break loose .. which i´m actually kinda fond of)bowing

Topic by la xerra   |  last reply


The Clinic // Get help with your Instructables!

Hello and welcome to the newest version of The Clinic! If you have an instructable that's not getting the attention you think it deserves, post it in the comments below for honest feedback and suggestions to improve it from fellow authors and Instructables staff. We want to help you create the best instructables you can! Curious about the basics of creating an instructable? Check out my FREE How to Write an Instructable Class! You can also read through our Featuring Checklist. Posting a great instructable has many benefits, including:More viewsMore comments and followersHaving your instructable Featured on the site Having your instructable featured on our social media accounts (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Pinterest)Better chance to win contests Driving traffic to your websiteP.S. While I know the goal for any instructable is to get Featured, it's not the end goal here! We're sure to hand out features, but please keep in mind not every instructable is feature-worthy. Even the most popular authors have unfeatured instructables! Don't let it get you down - you're still amazing! :D

Topic by jessyratfink   |  last reply


Make use of iCamera 1000 units?

I have 3 "iCamera 1000" camera units laying around. I do not have the rest of the security system they are designed to function with, but there has to be some way to make use of them and have some fun. I have lots of cat 6 cable and RJ45 connectors to custom make a cable if anyone has the expertise to figure out how to make use of these. Before posting here, I searched and searched here and on Google but only found information regarding the "normal" application of these cameras..... I was hoping for something more outside the box which is why I am here. I included a front/back picture. Thanks for any ideas!!

Topic by PigWhistle   |  last reply


The future of "mobile" energy...

Right now our current standard is still to use LI-Ion batteries when it comes to rechargable and power demanding devices.We all want more power for our phones, laptops or battery powered tools on the job.And we also want to be able to charge our batteries faster and faster.Back in the old days a D-Cell like lead acid battery in a flashlight was good for about 3 hours until it started to dim a bit.With up to 4 batteries inside they were not just heavy but also quite hazardous.Chargin was usually done over night and you just hoped they were not blowing up while charging.I spare you the other types that came after and that we still use as they all have their good and their bad sides.If we trust our marketing experts than quite soon we will only have electric cars on our roads and battery the size of a suitcase shall be able to run your car for hundreds of miles.The ideas of graphite based batteries or those using crystals and their forming reactions are all great and promising.Some will certainly make it to the consumer in a few years.The one thing that we are never told though is where all the energy to charge those batteries is supposed to come from.Replacing the combustion engine with electric motors is one thing but if no fossil fuel is used....Energy does not come out of thin air!Right now a lot of countries already struggle to provide a reliable power supply grid and distribution network.If you ever enjoyed a scorching hot day during a blackout caused by everyone using too much electricity you know what I mean...The population is growing as fast as the energy demand for our industries.Solar and wind are well and good but without proper storage solutions of not real use because no one can really predict how much they can produce.You know, weather and such things...If we trust our so called experts than all will come together really nice.By the time we have really powerful batteries we will have enough alternative energy supply chains up and running to keep them charged.I have a few issues with this entire concept, so let's see what other people have to about this:Imagine you have a nice and big cabin somewhere really remote and beautiful - but with no electricity for miles.Obvious solution for the modern hunter or nature lover is to invest into free energy.Free because that is how your solar, battery and inverter system would be advertised.You buy the stuff and after that all the electricity comes for free - the things pays for itself!Reality is a bit off though as you need to maintain and replace the costly batteries over time and such things.All this however totally changes for a residential home.Getting a huge solar system on your roof is no problem.Getting off the grid next to impossible.You see, once (or even before) you sign up for an electricity contract it is defined that your home is in a residential area.This brings certain limitations like the requirement to connect ot gas (if available), water, sewage and electricity.Only way to enjoy your "free" energy is by getting a good deal with your supplier.Some countries do it differently but around here it goes like this:Whatever you use still comes right off the grid.That is because your solar system really struggles to cope with load changes and providing surplus back to the grid.And since your meter is not capable ofworking properly with it either...To make it "fair" it is metered how much you use and how much you supply.Most companies here even do this on at least an hourly base - just to fair...For your bill the amounts are then adjusted.What you supplied is taken off.Sadly in most cases going negativ is not an option - if you provide more than what you use only your supplier is laughing.To make things worse what you supply is valued far lower than what you get from the grid.Often the difference is above 20%.Control....Around here quite a few people basically covered house, shed, carport and all with solar panels.This was while we had a great subsidy from the government to go solar...After now over three years most of these people still struggle to get anywhere near even for their investment.Without the grants the timeframe to break even was estimated to be around 12 years - which is about the time for when you need to replace the lot anyway and start over.Some do get nice savings on their bills though but families with kids not so much...If you have little to no chance to get your investment back before you have to replace it, then it is not really that much of a good deal after all.Imagine in town with hundreds of small houses everyone would be able to get the same money back for the electricity they provide...Pay 18 cents per kWh from the grid and get 18 cents perkWh for what you supply and once you provide more than you use you get money back.The providers won't allow this to happen as it means they not just loose some money but also they would lose control.How could they justify another price hike?How could they explain the blackouts?Why should tey pay you at all... ;)If a city with enough open and unused space would decide to go solar on a huge scale and while add also add a lot wind turbines....Someone would need the electricity provided and someone need to step in for those times where demand is above supply.Here the old triangle of power goes into full swing....You see a city or town would need also need a sub station to handle the electricity and to distribute it to the town houses, shops and so on.Funny thing is that only a "provider" can do such things.Doing it privat is usually only possible in really remote areas, like big mining outposts that just have no other option than using generators or solar/wind.And in most areas a town or city is no longer allowed to be a provider of electricty - at least not in the drirect form.Buying in bulk is no problem, having your own supply system however is not in the books.Right now most, if not all the big wind and solar farms are owned and operated by energy providers.There is billionaires everyhwere who could build a solar and wind farm the size of Texas if they really wanted but they won't do it either...Starts with the land, goes over the usage rights and won't end with activists claiming how bad it all is.Means it won't happen and if it does then the energy providers get together and claim they guy might have money but does not have the right to provide energy unless he actuall starts a corresponding company and plays by their unwritten rules.Can we still dream about it though?The dream is kept alive like the fire of hope that is only a tiny amber.If you sign up for electricity you are asked if you would like to pay bit extra so your electricity comes from alternative sources.Why is that bad, after all it is green?The initial investment might be huge for a wind farm but after that it is more or less just providing mone out of thin air.You can look the cost up for the new windfarm build near you.Same for the electricity prices in that area.And also the expected output of the entire farm.Do the math and calculate how quickly they break even....Once they do it only profit but you still pay the extra to go green.A bit like the new road that came with a toll....After 5 years the motorists paid it off but 10 years later they are still being charged while the road is disintegrating...Now add electric cars and our constantly rising consumption to the mix...We can't provide the electricity ourselfs as we don't get fully paid for it, we can go off grid either.The atom as the source of electricity is being phased out slowly as well.Finally as some might say, considering the thausands of years we have to deal with the produced waste and what aftereffects the storage might bring.Our providers will keep their grip on us for as long as they can.No government will stop them as in return they wouldn't have electricity.A cold war if you like.We never cared how much fuel our cars use until the OPEC decide to limit supplies and drive the prices up.And you can see the riches especially in Saudi Arabia.For most of the big OPEC players it really does not matter anymore whether or not they have oil or not.They make the same or even more money by other means and more modern means now.After this initial shellshock we woke up and decided that for the shopping trip of the wife a small car with just 4 cylinders will do.Overcrowded cities and roads also pushed us more into thinking small.Again it took force to go further, this time by governments slowy "going green".Emmissions, greenhouse gasses, polution, particles and corbon monoxide...Sounded all godd in the ads but it meant we could no longer afford our old car or even got banned from entering the town center with it.But a lot people still can't afford a modern car that meets the standards.Once they finally got the money and car the laws change again and they need yet again a newer car.This created a huge export and recyling market and profits for other people though.And what differenc did it all make in reality?While we were forced to improve and lose money countries like the US refused for years to even consider reducing the pollution.Countries like China and Russia even increased their pollution to impossible levels.We all remember how Bejing was literally shut down for the Olympics so the athletes have a chance to survive the games...We know how the pollution or global warming problem is misused to make money.The governments get huge payouts in the form of taxes from those cars that can't meet the specs.The dealer smiles with the increased sales of cars.And again the government smiles too as they get taxes from this as well.We know it happened before and is still happening with everything realted to fossil fuels, global warming and pollution, so why would electricity be any different?Reactors and coal fired power plants are phased out with basically nothing to replace them.Solar and wind will provide and till then we keep what we really need to keep....There is no plan for what comes after coal and the atom.There is no alternative.Batteries need electricity.And providers will always be the middleman controlling both the price and the availability.So how does this actually work you might wonder...No matter who invents or produces a new device to provide electricity - there is a very limited market for them.A farmer can't buy a full size wind generator and place it on his land...But an electricity provider can buy thausands of them....And if you go bigger than ask yourself who would need a 10 or 100MW fusion generator?Providing electricity is only a viable option if you go big and if you can sell the excess with a profit margin.Leaves only our electricity providers as customers.If you don't have to care about the buying price because it will be put down one way or the other onto your customers than it is like a credit.Only difference is that once it is paid off you start to get money back!Imagine that for your bank account ;)And if you know what you sell can have a very generous profit margin because your buyer does not care then the solar or wind farm will be quite costly to build..."We know we are not cheap, but who else can deliver you what you need?"And like our big supermarkets there will be an agreement on what the wind generator can cost.Ressources....Be it wind, be it solar or just the modern electric motor in your car - they all require stuff that is very limited on our planet.Take Neodyminum.Without it we have no wind generator or fancy motors as we wouldn't have powerful enough magnets.Vital elements and mineral required are only available in a few spots on our erth in quantities justifying mining them.I won't make this much longer than it already is, so please look up what is really needed to keep our future solow and wind projects alive.Then go and check where we can find thes things in good quantities.Once you did you might realise why the world tolerates the abuse of human rights, freedom or just self expression in other countries ;)If only China would stop today to export and sell their rare earths and prcious minerals basically our entire production worldwide would suffer quickly.Entire industries break down quickly and prices for certain things would literally explode.The US already started to re-open long abandoned mining projects as suddenly even the most costly operations become viable again.Think about this next time you fancy a world free of cars and truck using combustion engines ;)

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


RGB Led doesn't mix colors

Hey all I am working with common anode RGB LED. I hooked each leg (red, green, blue) to pins 2-4 of my Arduino UNO. I then hooked the anode to 5v via a 22 ohm resistor. The code I wrote was very simple; turn pins 2 through 4 low, delay 500, turn pins 2-4 high. The problem I found was that instead of the color turning white it stayed red. I tried mixing red with green and red with blue, each time same thing it stayed red. Does this sound right?

Topic by Mpc1055   |  last reply


What kinds of contests do YOU want to see on Instructables?

Hi everyone! As we're planning contests for the next year, we wanted to get suggestions and feedback on the types of contests we're running. :DIs there a contest we ran years ago you'd like to see again? Any contests you're sick of? A weekly challenge you'd like us to expand on? Do you want the contests to be more specific or more open ended?We're trying to shake things up in contest-land - so any and all suggestions are welcome! I'm especially interested in what types of tech contests you guys would like to see, as well as ideas for food contests. P.S. For anyone wondering about weekly challenges - we're still trying to figure out a way to do it that makes it easy for you guys to enter and easy for the editors here to run. But I promise we are discussing it! :)Have prize suggestions? Check this topic. Want to get a preview of some of our upcoming contests?

Topic by randofo   |  last reply


How do i disable an auto clip limiter?

I have an eb7500pro rack mountable amp running 1800 watts rms in bridge mode and i cant get the amp to turn up to clipping i would like to. i know your not suppose to clip the amps i know all the possible dangers when entering clipping zone. when i turn up the amp to about half 1over4 of the way up and the volume decreases. and when j turn it down the volume kicks back in. when that clip light emits it turns down the volume I know because i play a constant hz tone and slowly turn it up and it turns itself down how do i stop that?

Topic by samhenderson156   |  last reply


May 2019 site changes: my observations and thoughts

In early May 2019, Instructables' website has been radically reworked with a revamp. Changes I have observed include:Navigation: Many categories and subcategories have been eliminated and instead reworked under other folders as part of the changes (there is no "Play" category and subcategories such as "NERF" and "Paper Airplanes" no longer exist) "Recent" filtering is not directly available to people browsing the site--you must sift through the categories and get through at least two pages to find a way to filter the selected category for "recent" (i.e. Homepage -> Circuits -> Projects -> (Page at which you may select "recent"))There are no filters for searches On the front page and in the categories' main pages, featured projects are emphasizedThe Forum/"Community": Without manually typing in the URL, there is no direct way to access the "community" page Buttons to access the forum among in the category pages are tied to the community pages for that category (as a result. They do not allow you to see the general forum posts of the community without viewers manually deleting the category from the URL and going from thereThe way people navigate about sites controls what they can see and how they see if, so all of these things will change the flow and behavior of Instructables' viewers versus how it was before. Versus before, it is more cumbersome for viewers to get to recent content while featured content is more readily available. This will influence where people go and what they see.----------------------------------What do I believe this means for the future?Drawing on my decade of experience on this site, I suspect viewership of non-featured Instructables will drop. Thus, the viewership gap--between those projects that have been featured and those that have not think--will then widen.Of these changes I think people will say you either "get featured or get buried."

Topic by OrigamiAirEnforcer   |  last reply


Archery Load Cell Circuit

I'm looking into a system that will enable me to determine the distribution of load on an archer's draw hand grip, probably as a percentage of the whole load. I have some basic ideas drafted, but before I start re-inventing the wheel, has anyone anything similar set up that I could look at or consider developing.The sensors/load cells must be able to fit between the two layers of a standard archery tab. There must be three sensors, for the three fingers of a normal "hook" grip, and I think either an Arduino or Pi based processor.

Topic by Warleyman   |  last reply


School Project - Arduino Personal Locator Beacon

Hi All, I'm currently in Year 12, undertaking my major design project.I have chosen to design and produce an emergency survival kit that comes with an in-built personal locator beacon. The personal locator beacon must have the capability of transmitting geolocation data to emergency services for atleast 72 hours. It must be able to work in remote areas.I have purchased a range of parts in order to help create this project, of which, I will list below.- Arduino Uno r3 Development Board- Arduino compatible Long Range LoRa Shield- Arduino Compatible GPS Receiver Module- 2600mAg Metallic Power Bank- 5/5.8GHz 5dBi Wireless Networking AntennaI have been experimenting with Ardunio & Components for a while and now understand the basics. I have managed to get the GPS module to work and receive geolocation data. However, I have only been able to do this when the Arduino is plugged in and powered by a computer. For my project, I need to be able to send geolocation data to a specific source, whilst on the go, in remote areas.I plan to power my components by using a portable power pack (similar to a portable phone charger), however, I am unsure of how to program the gps module to send geolocation data to the long range shield, which will then send the geolcationd data to emergency services (it can be a proof of concept but it needs to be communicated to something such as a cell phone or a radio frequency).I would really appreciate any advice or information that can help me develop this project or point me in the right direction. Kind Regards,Adam

Topic by awsomeclone2218   |  last reply


Not able to open drafts.

Hi Team,I am unable to open drafts. Clicking on profile pic, its shows drafts, but nothing gets showed up once I click on it.Please help resolving this.Regards,Vineet

Topic by IoT Cloud Guru   |  last reply


Author Spotlight Interviews: Nominate an author!

We recently began a new round of author spotlight interviews. For the first interview, we chose to reach out and chat with Nikus, who recently won the grand prize in this year's Epilog Contest. You can check out our interview here: Author Spotlight: NikusThese interviews are a great way to learn a little more about individual contributing authors here on Instructables, and see what makes them tick! Is there someone who is an active author that you'd be interested in learning more about? Now's your chance to nominate a fellow author. There are no set requirements to be eligible to be nominated. But generally, we're looking for authors who've shared a good handful of high-quality projects, which made a notable splash within the Instructables community.And yes, if you're feeling bold, you may certainly nominate yourself! : )

Topic by seamster   |  last reply


What is the most affordable laser cutter for a beginner?

I really would love to try out laser cutting. ..But have no idea what knowledge it requires. I want to be able to design and cut custom wooden puzzle, laser cut fabric and also to cut felt and foam. I would like to start up a small home business. Keeping in mind that I have no clue what knowledge it requires and also know that I have 4 kids and will have to have this machine in my home. I do own a silhouette cameo but unfortunately it does not cut felt or wood. It’s a fun machine for cardstock and all…but nothing heavy duty. So is it safe to have a laser cutter at home with kids?? I mean will the light or whatever that comes off the machine be harmful for my children? Also how much is the cheapest desktop version? Will it be able to cut large fabric? Can it cut 0.5” or 0.75” hard wood?? Would that be pushing my luck?? Please let me know…so I can start saving up for it. I really really love crafting….but availability of items and affordability is a big issue. Thanks!

Topic by shazni   |  last reply


Hack Needed: Rechargeable Halogen Spotlight

Greetings all, I'm in need of a hack to replace the lead acid battery in a rechargeable halogen spotlight purchased at a local store. The spotlight came with a AC recharger but 15 charge time hours returns only approximately twenty minutes of usable light. I'd much like to replace the power source with something of a longer duration than the current one third of an hour. As much interested in simply rewiring the device to work from my car's AC outlet if possible. Mind I only have a few dollars invested in this device still I'd like to see if a replacement power source is worth the effort. Thanks to all who reply.http://ledmuseum.candlepower.us/third/fixit.htm

Topic by patron_zero   |  last reply


Be your mechanic

Hello to all the magnanimousStudent professors and those who work in their own businesses Do not be tired of your loved ones. My name is Amir 48 years old and I have almost 32 years of experience in mechanical testing of cars in Tehran. I'm very interested in electronics and I repair almost 70% of my belongings But I did not attend classes in any classroom that I learned early. I'm glad to be among you I'm also happy to be in touch with mechanical questions Thank you

Topic by aryyyya1349   |  last reply


Equalizer for phono input to amp

Circuit for converting an MP3 player output to input for a phono input on an amp.

Topic by knorrisster   |  last reply


Need Help in Building DIY LiFePo4 battery pack

Hello all, my wishes to everyoneam very new to this Electrical, Batteries and DIY, with the help of google i can gained little knowledge with that i could able to gather products to build my own electric scooter (1500W 60V HUb Motor and 60-72V regenerative controller with Daly LiFePO4 60V 45A Comm BMSactually am planning to Build 60V 36Ah LiFePO4 Battery Pack Using 19S6PBattery : LiFePO4 32650 3.2V 6Ah BMS : Daly LiFePO4 60V 45A Comm BMS Controller : 60-72V 1500W 35A am confused when times comes to assemble the battery pack, pls help and guide me with appropriate diagram or chart for 19S6P pack, help me how to connect batteries in series and parallel along with BMS so that i can build my first battery pack with out no mistakes Do i have use capacitors while connecting batteries, if so provide me the type already bought the battery tab spot welder from my friend for reference i have attached pictures of the products i mentioned and bought already please don't mind if i asked too much help/suggestions, want to make my own DIY battery pack by learning ad gather information about battery pack and build one one in perfect way Thanks in Advance

Topic by tejeyes 


Not Able to Get to Drafts - Help!

Hey all, I haven't been able to access my draft 'Ibles for a few weeks. Whenever I click on the "Drafts" link it takes me to the Instructables home page. I can see all of the ones I have published, but as soon as I try to flip to drafts it redirects me away.I was able to finish up and publish my last project by finding the Editor page in my browser history, but I can't do that for other ones that I haven't opened since I got a new computer.Is this a bug that's been going around or is there a different way I should be accessing the drafts?I appreciate the help!

Topic by BakkerJo   |  last reply


Home Page Images

The images for "Explore Projects" on the home page never seem to change. Repeat viewers could be excused for thinking that nothing has changed on Instructables between visits.How hard would it be to update the images on a daily basis ... using perhaps a random function?PS: This post is likely to be missed by viewers in other "Categories" and "Channels" as the posting options are too restrictive.

Topic by lingib 


Unable to view comments

I'm unable to look at my list of comments - if I click on ...https://www.instructables.com/member/Kiteman/discu......I get sent back to the front page.Anybody else?

Topic by Kiteman   |  last reply


Can't access my Inbox on Instrucables

Is anyone else having issues accessing their inbox on the site? Every time I try to open it it takes me back to the home page. The issues been happening for awhile now.Anyone know a fix or how I can get into it?Cheers

Topic by lonesoulsurfer   |  last reply


Driving Simulator - Google maps

A perspective version of 2D Driving Simulator on Google Maps work-in-progress, using new Map3D class of Google Maps API for Flash.http://geoquake.jp/en/webgame/DrivingSimulatorPerspective/(choice of car or bus)

Topic by lemonie   |  last reply


Calculating my DC motor

I'm not sure on how to calculate the things I need. Please help!!!!Pulley Radius- 5.85mmMass(load)- 0.2334 kgVolts- 9VCurrent- 0.096ASpeed-112.4rpmForce-?Torque-? Power-?Power Out -?Efficiency- ?

Topic by hj212121   |  last reply


Recommendations on propellers/controller for over 100g body.

Hello everyone,I am currently trying to build a DIY drone. I have never involved myself in any sort of creating drones. My current project is about making a drone with a morphing body we created. Previously, we just purchased a pre-made drone and took apart all the necessary components and re-attached all onto the morphing body. But the drone we used is this model : Holy Stone HS170 Predator Mini RC Helicopter Drone 2.4Ghz 6-Axis Gyro 4 Channels Quadcopter Good Choice for Drone TrainingThis product can make things fly when the weight is over 30~50g. Would you be able to recommend some products or any sources that can be useful for building a DIY drone? Thank you!

Topic by melonmelon11   |  last reply


Diy kinda mCable/HD elite cable

Hello, I would like to make my own mCable / HDElite cable. Basically I don't care about getting a cable, but I wanna find out how to grab a source, apply a "filter" to it and send it to the tv/monitor. I don't want to try a capture card, if they can make a cable, I'm sure we can do something cool. I was searching on raspberry pi, but there's too much lag with a capture card. Any help/clue ? Thanks!

Topic by DonovanL2   |  last reply


Discussion-link @ profile is dead

- i go to my own profile- Click on my "Discussions" (Link = https://www.instructables.com/member/Orngrimm/disc...- it takes me back to https://www.instructables.com/Please fix

Topic by Orngrimm   |  last reply


Help with antique three way switch

I have a 60's era Stiffel table lamp that has a bad rotary switch. It's a three-way switch with an unusual design. I cannot find a replacement. Is it possible to salvage this switch in some way? Any help is appreciated. Tom

Topic by ttemple2   |  last reply


​How to add a loud speaker to (the most basic) landline phone?

Hello!How would you connect a loudspeaker to a basic landline phone (so several people can hear the conversation)? (Basic phones don't have loudspeakers, only the one handling the headset can hear). The loudspeaker doesn't have to be super loud, it could be like the ones powered by USB on computers, or much smaller, as far as we could hear the conversation. It's not that easy since theses phone are merely powered by the little current inside the landline phone line. So I guess I need another power source, like a USB charger, and maybe to amplify the sound signal, to use the loudspeaker. I started to learn electronics for a few months, but I have no idea how to handle this problem. Any advice would be great! Thanks for your help!

Topic by hobhob   |  last reply


Bl-tb6600-v1.2

Je veux un code arduino avec ce contrôleur de moteur pour son fonctionnement. Avec explication.

Topic by Oluwafemi hubert 


Challenge: A key defroster for opening bike locks in winter.

Hello all.So I live in Montreal, winter is long here. Every morning opening our bike locks is problematic. We fixed it partially with lube, but this post is not about these solutions.I have been looking for a device that could heat the frozen core of the lock. You can see an image attached of a product not available anymore to get the idea. I guess it was not working very well...I have zero knowledge in electronics/electricity. I thought this question could be interesting/challenging for some of you. So ideally the gadget would be:Small enough to be carried on the key chain or in a commute bag.Able to be inserted in any type of locksBuilt with a safe way to prevent unwanted switch on (to avoid burning bags/pockets/houses...Lol)Able to produce enough heat to defrost the lock Rechargeable would be best (USB best best), capacity of 5mn maybe to operate twice a day...Reasonably quick to unfreeze the lock, so you don t freeze yourself (That s why I abandon using hot pouches around the lock, pouring hot water will fix it quickly but then it will freeze again)As I said, I don t have the skills to even begin to find a solution, but I saw a lot of smart stuff here and I am curious to see what you guys would answer to that. My guess is that it must be very difficult, if not I can t see why a similar product is not widely commercialized. I think a lot of people would buy it.Thanks for the reading, I hope I picked your interest. Have a good day.

Topic by Ericmont   |  last reply


An Other One

I have made a Plotter using 2 Stepper Motors from CD/DVD Drives.As so many have been done, not sure if the there would be interest on how I made this one.I have made the frame on my 3D printer, and made a circuit so the motors don't get hot enough to fry eggs on.Here is a video of it in action:

Topic by Palingenesis   |  last reply


Recent changes are clunky, complicated, and a bit annoying.

Let's start with the community:Getting to community pages are complicated- There should be access from the front page.There is no over all community, each one is segregated. There should be a "general," page for things like website concerns, over all information, etc.Moving on to the website:There are no "All," options to view all the updates/feeds.I understand the defined feeds were sought to give clear access to each ordered category, but it's far too many channels or feeds to follow. How are "Featured," and "Editor's Picks," actually chosen or defined? Having to go to the "Feed" tab to fill it up is annoying. If we are forced to use this clearly not wanted "Feed," feature, allow us the ability to follow a category from the category's page. (It's there in the Author's\Member's section so it's clearly available)Over all? Unimpressed. The basic usage of the site seems to be gone in an attempt to be "hip and cool." Please bring back the "All," option so we don't need to follow 200+ feeds to just see all the really cool things the members create.

Topic by spankthejester   |  last reply


Last update make this site pointless.

Tanks for making this site pointless by removing RECENT option.

Topic by gonzzo   |  last reply


Interference of codes problem

I want to ask for some help from you regarding of my final year project. I'm doing a simple SMART HOME project by using Arduino wemos. While compiling the function of the smart home, i've encountered some problem to compile it. Actually this is my first time using arduino and i don't really understand about the arduino ide syntax. Actually, there is no error in my coding. Basically, there are 5 functions that I want to put in that smart home. First, to control the lights,curtains and fans using ON/OFF Button, and security system only by using TSOP and IR, and lastly controlling the roof for the clothesline. So, I've problem with controlling the roof for the clothesline. The roof for the clothesline works when the rain sensor detects water/rain and it actually functioning when I do it separately. But, when I compile the code with the other functions, the roof is actually functioned, but it works only if I switch ON/OFF the lights/fans/curtains. So, here I attached the source code of my project with four functions, which are for the lights, fans, curtains and roof.

Topic by mahathirhe   |  last reply


Feature page

So after the website's layout has changed the feature page disappeared. I can't even access it from https://www.instructables.com/featured/ . Is it gone forever? It was the best way to follow all new instructables posted here and I've been accessing it for years.

Topic by oliveira.igorm   |  last reply


"Recent" over ALL topics

Please PLEASE bring back an option to see the recent ibles over ALL topics.At the moment i have to go like- Choose topic (Like Circuits)- Click "Featured projects"- Click "Recent"And this for all 7 topics...I would really like the old instructables.com/recent back. Showing the recent ibles of the whole site.

Topic by Orngrimm   |  last reply