Sand and Gravel water filter- HELP

Okay so I have been charged with finding out how to build a simple sand/ gravel water filter for use at scouts on Thursday and I have come up with ZERO... Does anyone know enough about it to explain to me in laymans terms on how to construct one... or rather what grades of sand/gravel i need? I'm planning on using a pop bottle, and layering the sand and gravel inside it.... using the screw top end as the tap.... I have a BASIC idea of what i need... I just want to be sure it works! Thanks guys and girls Jay

Topic by Biggsy   |  last reply


sand, gravel, & rocks? LAVA mmmm....

Hello boys & girls, We're a little over-stocked on crushed lava rock and thought the fine members at INSTRUCTABLES might like to take advantage of a special offer. Use coupon code "INSTRUCT" to get 5% off your order (can be combined with current free shipping promo). It takes a few hours for new promo codes to propagate the Amazon robot so if it doesn't work right away, try again in a little bit. The current listings are for 20lb dry lava rock (red or black). Screened. Rinsed. Kiln-dried. http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=bl_sr_kitchen?_encoding=UTF8&node;=1055398&field-brandtextbin;=substratesource Think of all the DIY Earth Boxes... terrariums... aquarium backgrounds... and more you'll be able to create. If you have any questions, feel free to post in this thread, shoot us a PM, or visit our site. http://www.substratesource.com Thanks! Have a great holiday season. P.S. If this is too spammy, please don't kill me! Friends?

Topic by substratesource   |  last reply


Ice Alaska: Ice

Ice for the competition is collected form gravel pits around Fairbanks. In the summer gravel is mined from old river channels. The resulting ponds contain little organic material. Additionally during nine month winter, temperatures range from +40 to -60F (+5 to -50C). These factors combine to create exceptionally thick clear ice. The following are pictures of an iced over gravel pit.

Topic by jesse.hensel   |  last reply


Just found out: Clean inside of a thermos - Simple!

I just had to clean my thermos prior the tournament tomorrow. A quick peek inside revealed some stubborn residue. Propably furring (chalky deposits) from the boiling water i use to make tea in them... (we have quite "hard" water with lots of calcium). The throat of the bottle (Full-metal thermos) was too narrow for normal cleaning-brushes... I fortunately had a bag of rice standing around and thought  "Hm... Hard and small things"! So i quickly added half a handfull of dry rice in the thermos and a bit of cold water (2-3 spoons). Then i shook it a bit and poured the rice out. The inside was quite clean and almost "pristine" again. This method should also work for thermoscans with glass-interiors. Another (better) way of doing that is propably (but ONLY if you have a METAL-Interior!) to add a hand of sand or fine gravel with some wather (Maybe even a bit of dishsoap) and give it a shake. Again: Only do the sand/gravel if your thermos does not have a glass-interior!! Have fun and enjoy a good drink while outside! :)

Topic by Orngrimm   |  last reply


Gap up under concrete gravel boards?

I have the huge gaps under my concrete gravel boards. I would like some ideas as how to fill these in? I initially was thinking bricks and I have done one row but it’s time consuming as some old concrete has to be hacked away, so I’m looking for solutions pls as my neighbors rubbish comes over, pls see pics cheers

Question by MasoudA2 


what is the ration and proportion of sand and gravel for one bag of sand? how many feet it will cover?

I want to know...for constructing a house flooring...in one bag of cement what is the ratio and proportion of sand and gravels? and how many feet will it cover for that mixture for the floor?

Question by    |  last reply


Can portland cement be mixed without sand or gravel?

I'm planning to switch from wood to cement because we are soon moving into a condominium where noise should be kept to a minimum. If yes, what is the ratio of water to cement? if no, can i mix it with sand only and what is the ratio. Thanks

Question by beehard44   |  last reply


How to measure the displacement of a gravel particle by arduino kit ans extensometer sensor? Answered

I want to measure the displacement of a particle of gravel in the surface of an slope, along the year (each hour ot forur hours or something like that), in order to study the erosion evolution of the terrain. I suposse that the use of an arduino kit (with sd or micro sd datalogger among other characteristics) and some extesometer sensor could be the better option, but i don´t know how to do it... Thanks!

Question by madepablo   |  last reply


Can I mix cement, aggregate, and water in place?

I have a 250 sq. ft. area that has 2" of pea gravel on top of clay.  Can I mix cement into the gravel then water from the top to get a surface hard enough to put pavers or stones on?

Question by Silvermist73   |  last reply


How to create underwater fish tank LEDs? Answered

Ever seen those glass pebbles that are somewhat opaque? I would like to place these at the bottom of a 15 gallon fish tank and have it lit up from underneath, probably through the use of LEDs. I am looking for any ideas of creating such a thing that would be safe to place under water, that won't fry the goldfish. Food for thought, could you also use Black light LEDs or would that possibly kill the good bacteria in the tank. There could be a possibility to place it under the fish tank (outside the water), though I would have to remove a structural panel. Would creating an LED mat for underneath the fishtank be easier? Specifications: -Powered from a wall socket -light up and through 1.5" - 2" of the glass pebbles for 1' x 2' aquarium bottom.

Question by jc.021286   |  last reply




Measurements

I just took the concrete clases and didn´t see measurements for diferent jobs like: mortar for bricks, cement for walkway, in the form of 1 part cement, 3 part sand, 3 part gravel.

Topic by macoga13   |  last reply


greenest possible aquarium?

I was given a 50-ish gallon aquarium and stand, and would like to get it up and running in the most environmentally friendly way possible. I have purchased some gravel already. Help! And thanks!

Question by fought piranhas   |  last reply


Can decomposed granite be mixed with cement for use as structural concrete?

We have a mountainous property with no sand and very little rock other than granite. Can I use decomposed granite (as fine as sand and small pebbles) as aggregate, instead of river gravel and or sand?

Question by MikeT107   |  last reply


How do I replace chain link fence posts? Answered

I have a really old chain link fence that completely encloses my yard on three sides. Both sides and all the corner posts are metal and firmly in the ground with concrete. But for a 5 "post" section in the back of the yard, the previous owner just stuck RR ties in the ground, which are rotted and leaning. I want to replace these with metal posts. My question is: should I set the posts in cement or pea gravel? I've read arguments for both on this site. Since the other sides and the corners are sturdy, do I need to wait 24 hours before reattaching the chain link "fabric?" Thanks in advance! Any advice would be appreciated!

Question by lmm67   |  last reply


Right ratio for making bowls with concrete? Answered

I recently got someone to buy me concrete mix - I asked for ready mix as I've seen people suggesting Quikrete, but I ended up with 2 bags - one with the cement and one with the gravel and sand. Now, I want to make smallish bowls for outdoor use over the weekend (bird baths, small plantholders, etc.), but I'm not sure what my ratio must be for the sand / cement or sand / cement and gravel mix (and I'm not planning on buying another product). I've read that people can mix only the sand and cement for a smooth finish, but will this be strong enough? The gravel I have is quite large, and it might make the finish too chunky when the concrete is dry. I'm also planning on not using bowls or containers as molds - I want to smooth it out on the outside or inside of a bowl by hand with a trowel or something similar. Will I be able to make this work? I want to make small bowls, so I don't need to mix large amounts at once. I have never worked with concrete before, so I want to start out with small items anyway just to get the hang of things.

Question by Nocturmia   |  last reply


Well Filter

Hi there, I need a water filter for my well, which i can hook up before the water riches the pressure tank. I got a lot sediment in the well. I was thinking of a filter like from a fish tank. My Idea is , i fill it with gravel from big to fein (Sand) gravel in at least a 6 inch pipe and about 4 feet long. The pump company ( Flotec) told me that i need a pipe with min. 100psi rating. I want use a clear pipe so i can see when i have to change (clean) the gravel.It should also be mounted in the basement ( freeze protection). I found on the i-net a clear pipe with treats on the top and bottom, but than it's not rated any more for 100 psi. so what can i do. Any clue?

Topic by germanudo   |  last reply


how do i make a column with concrete?

Molds, iron/wire gauge, how deep I must sink them in the dirt (semi-soft soil) and how it is supposed to be the foundation. Also the "specifications" for the concrete like which and how much sand and gravel to use with the cement note: they must have out side the ground 3 to 3,5 meters in height, that is about 10 to 12 feet in height

Question by lidiarichiniti   |  last reply


Water shed-I have a 30 degree driveway about 1\3 mile long.When it rains I get a torrent of water to the hiway below.

I have installed 4" cross drain pipe with stocking and ducting, but the clay slit covers the large gravel and the water goes over them. I'm considering a swale with large rocks down the water paths. any helpful suggestions of construction before i spend more money.

Question by matotunka   |  last reply


How can I heat my swimming pool early? Although I live in the south (NC), my pool is shaded by neighbors' huge trees. Answered

It takes 2 months to get to a good swimming temperature.The pool is 16 x 30', depth varies from 3' to 9'.? I have a solar blanket which will keep the heat in. But it will also add trash(grass and gravel) if I put it on and take it off everyday.

Question by diydiva   |  last reply


How do you change the lights on the bottom of the tank?

I noticed there's instructions on a coffee table aquarium. I'm interested in building one for my goldfish carp. When I saw the way it was done, I had a few questions to ask. Such as, how do you change the bulbs to the lights since they're on the bottom of the tank, zip tied to the shelf, and are facing away from you? How do you gravel vac the bottom when you need to do a water change?

Question by    |  last reply


Washout! Is there a good way to backfill under a concrete driveway?

I just purchased a home, and we discovered some water damage to the fill under the driveway and front walk.  The driveway still has intact slabs, but a little freezing and thawing and I will have gravel instead.  I was thinking about trying to shove paver sand under the slabs, and into the gaps along the sides.  I was just wondering if anyone had a better idea, or suggestions on how to get the sand underneath and compacted enough to make a difference this winter.

Question by Rutabaga1000   |  last reply


Is my axolotl sick?

I'm new with axolotl so I'm wondering if my axolotl sick or is he a golden albino axolotl. The spots aren't fluffy it is like the skin of a frog I don't think he is sick but just for sure if anyone could tell me is he fine. p/s: I know gravel aren't good for axolotl i just bought him so I'm changing the to bigger stones soon. I bought him because he was kept in a poor condition in the store so I want to give him a better home

Question by SheepyMix   |  last reply


Need advice...

I have a pvc bar made from 1 1/2" pvc schedule 40. the longest vertical pieces are 18" or less...I have a fishtank on it a 1/4 full and having 2nd thoughts.. Any guesses,estimates,educated insight on whether this will hold 0hh 450-475lbs ie 50gallon tank minimal gravel and deco plus fish lights etc...I'm still elaning towards I think so but i have a lot of electronics in the same room right now i dont need soaked.... And obviously I'm not holding anyone accountable for their opinion...

Question by needadvice 


would this be a good skateboard and area to skateboard?

Today i got into skateboarding agian. im wondering if this is a good skateboard and area to skateboard. my mom thinks she got it at walmart. this was about 2 or 3 years ago. the wheels seem heavy and don't keep spinning. the board seems ok. there is an area as you can see that has grip tap comeing off a bit.  the area. i have enough room to skateboard but i its not long enough for me to get good speed and keep going. once i get good speed i have to stop unless i want to go into the gravel which would hurt. if you can answer this that would be good. (sorry it's so long)

Question by mberg   |  last reply


Brick floor?

I'm Yeti-gone-awry! I want to rebuild my shop and to put in a new floor or have one poured would cost about $1300.00 of which I'm a little short of. I was in Colonial Williamsburg last week and in the Blacksmith shop I noticed they had a brick floor. The bricks were laid close together. I have bricks, a lot of bricks. I could lay down a layer of gravel then a layer of sand and then put the bricks in, but should I lay them next to each other w/o spaces between them or lay them a 1/2 inch apart on all sides and sweep in mortar mix between them and wet them down? I know that if I bring in a milling machine I'll have to pour a thick pad for it. Thank you. Chuck

Question by Yetigonawry   |  last reply


magnetic bike pedals DIY? Answered

I'm Brainstorming a better magnetic pedal .   I know Proton and Mavic already make them But I'd like to have a Mag-Pedal that can be used with any shoe .    ... IDEA:  Using recycled neodymium magnets glued recessed into a gel insole  and magnets on pedals I'm hoping to make it easier than cleats on special shoes.  Of course you won't get the locked in power of straps or clippless cleats .This would be ideal for mud,gravel, quick commuting on regular bikes,bmx,mtb,people who what some full leg power on the up stroke but want to put your foot anywhere on the pedal you want.  Question: Might there be extra bearing ware from magnets?  Will there be enough magnetism through an inch of rubber to work??   Please critique my idea . 

Question by BtheBike   |  last reply


How can I extend the height of my 4' chain link fence somewhat attractively? Answered

I have a 3 month old Pharaoh Hound who can (when she's an adult) jump up to 6' high. We live in a wooded area with lots of little animals like squirrels and rabbits. I'm afraid she'll catch sight of something and hop over the fence and take off into the woods. I don't really want to do an electric fence unless it's a last resort. She doesn't stay out for long periods, mostly just to go to the bathroom and when we're hanging out. Bushes are also not an option because A) I don't have the money to buy ones that are tall enough and fill the entire length (about 120') and B) There's gravel around the fence and not good for planting. What do you think?

Question by jtp139   |  last reply


Sawdust as a medium for hydroponics? Answered

Actually I have 2 questions pertaining to hydroponics. First you should know that I have a passive hydroponic system functioning right now the container is partially submerged in a nutrient solution with holes in the bottom of the container. The medium I'm using right now is perlite to allow more oxygen and act like a wick. I do have a top layer of aquarium gravel to anchor the plant better. I've been thinking of trying to add more oxygen to the roots by using an air pump. I was going to insert the tube from the top (the dry section above the water) pointing down to the wet section to blow some air to the roots. Would this be an unnecessary addition if I continue to use perlite as a medium? My second question is the title, would sawdust work as a medium for hydroponics? I assume it would be able to act like a wick for a passive system my concern is would the roots get enough oxygen in sawdust? Also most mediums are inert sawdust wouldn't be, would that have a negative impact on my plant?

Question by thecoonskin   |  last reply


Corkscrew Robot - can you do it?

Here's one for the more creative engineers - a robot running on corkscrews instead of wheels or legs. Tim Lexen, an engineer in Cumberland, Wisconsin, has come up with a novel design for robots. It has a triangular body 18 centimetres on a side, capped by a round lid, and three stainless steel coils 20 cm in diameter and 40 cm long. Each coil is turned by a motor - and by activating a coil, the robot can move in the direction of the coil's axis. "It runs very well on grass, sand, gravel and other outdoor surfaces," Lexen said when he presented his work earlier this month at the IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Practical Robot Applications in Woburn, Massachusetts. However, the prototype has trouble gaining traction on surfaces like polished wood floors. Here's the thing though; Lexen's prototype is only radio-controlled.  A human operator chooses what direction to rotate which screws. Given the idea, I bet the clever folk here could not only replicate the corkscrew drive, but make it autonomous. I'd bet an Arduino or Raspberry Pi would be up to the job. Go on - imagine the kudos of beating the boffins at their own game! New Scientist article. Abstract of Lexen's work. Video of robot in action.

Topic by Kiteman   |  last reply


workshop heating ideas.

Hello all, I have a slight problem, while designing my workshop for the winter months, I happened across a monumental problem... how am I going to heat it? As any Canadian reading this will know, our winters are not for the faint of heart (-50 anyone?), the structure I designed has a metal frame, HardiBacker lined inside and out as walls, screwed into the metal poles, fireproof spray foam insulation in between the cement board walls, it has been placed on a gravel surface, and is held to the ground by rebar that is nailed into the ground a few feet, and currently no ventilation. I know it has flaws left right and center, but I'm working with what i have right now, and I've got very little to work with. The structure is quite small 10' x 8' at 640sq. feet. Winter is on its way and I need ideas for heating. I've thought about wood heating but I'll need all the space I can get on the inside. propane heaters are quite expensive, and electric heaters.... well its out in the middle of a field basically. Im looking for something that can heat it up fairly quickly, and is safe, I made it fireproof so i guess a tiger torch isn't out of the question.....  Any suggestions are welcome! Cheers!

Topic by fasterthanfalcon   |  last reply


Would it be possible to make a fish tank from a plastic storage container?

About a year ago I bought a 10 gallon fish tank for about 10 bucks and 3 small comet feeder goldfish. I had a spare filter and some gravel then tossed in some hides. It look great but now that the fish are about 3-4 inches each I decided they would like a slightly larger tank. I don't want to spend 50 plus dollars for another tank. I was talking to another fish owner the other day and mentioned a large   plastic storage container, He said he had used one and built a wooden box around it to support it. My idea is to buy a 30 gallon storage container or cheap plastic pond and build a wooden frame around it then spray great stuff in the gaps for support. How does this sound? I have a desk with a couple cricket keepers on and a leopard gecko. I planned to put wheels on it so I can slide it in and out of the space under the desk. I have a light that I can mount to the bottom of the desk. Does this sound like it would be okay or a disaster waiting to happen.  Thanks, Clemsonguy1125

Question by imthatguy1125   |  last reply


Looking To Pick Your Skilled Brains

Advice on best how to make a piezometer out of readily available hardware store parts without use of any power tools and access to only a very few hand tools. Basically a piezometer is a clear, straight plastic tube that you attach to the outside of (in my case) a plastic 250 Liter rain barrel (about 1.5 feet diameter, 4 feet high) from top to bottom. The top is exposed to the open air, while the bottom feeds into the bottom of the barrel (by going through the side very close to the bottom). It needs to have a diameter of about 1/2 inch, be very solid, straight and secure, and a 'water level mark' must be etchable in it somehow to indicate the normal level of water inside the barrel when the barrel is full (full means a few inches before the absolute rim of the barrel). The barrel is filled with gravel at the bottom, sand on top, and enough room for a 12" waterhead above the sand. I'm using it as a slow sand filter (SSF). The idea is that the pressure of water at the bottom of the barrel fills the tube up to the watermark against the action of the atmospheric pressure forcing the level in the tube down below the watermark. When the level of the water in the tube is about 15 inches below the water mark, it means the water pressure at the bottom of the barrel has decreased to the point where the sand in it needs to be cleaned (no water getting through). Any ideas will be greatly rewarded in the afterlife. Thanks!

Topic by SozzledBoot   |  last reply


Replacing motor in mobility scooter?

Hey all, I have a mobility scooter that I use for travel(caravaning among other). It's an Eloped Travel XL(40 kg or 88 lbs, 24V 22Ah battery), and I think it's only available in Sweden, but there are similar models all over the world.My scooter has got a 180w, 24v motor on a transaxle with integrated gearbox. The more I use it, the more frustrated I get. It's slow, 4mph/7 km/h, but worse, it really struggles uphill and sometimes it feels like its gonna stop all together. I've changed the batteries, with no improvement. It's not overheating. My guess is that it's just to weak. It might be ok to use when going to the shop or on flat surfaces, but not on gravel or grass.Anyway, I would like to replace the motor with a more powerful one, 350w or even 500w. The problem is that there isn't any compatible motors out there, so I'm guessing I'll have to replace the hole axle. I've been looking at these common China made electric motors that come in a range of sizes, have no idea about the quality though. Otherwise, maybe a powerful RC engine would work? I have no idea really, where to begin. Money is a concern unfortunately, otherwise I could buy a new transaxle or even a new, better scooter. Any ideas or help would be very appreciated! I'm quite handy but have never worked with these kind of parts before. How to pick the right sprockets, should I use chain or belt drive and so on.

Question by Alex Lillybear   |  last reply


Gathering in Columbus, Ohio, Saturday Oct. 11 (punch+pie)

This Saturday, October 11th, 2008, we will be having an open-house "inauguration" at the Steampunk Laboratory's new facility at the Millworks, at 2034 Leonard Ave, Columbus, OH, 43219.The Steampunk Laboratory is the name of an educational program to teach science and engineering through art, which we have been developing over the past year or so. We are now expanding that idea into a community fabrication and education center, and we have recently (i.e. last week) "graduated" from the Milo Arts Center, where we began, and are now located in a stand-alone brick building at another artists' community called The Millworks. Although we won't yet be quite operational (we're aiming for January '09 to start offering workshops and memberships, and the cnc is going through an iteration), we -are- going to have a little party commemorating moving into the new place, and are eager to invite interested people, communicate our goals, and share ideas. (But mostly it's an excuse for a deadline to get ourselves cleaned up and presentable as soon as possible! ;-)We'll have snacks, drinks, and music from 7pm to 11pm or so, this Saturday. Our building is located at the Millworks, whose address is 2034 Leonard Ave. The address of our building is 2038 Leonard, but it's tucked away inside the art community. To find it, turn into the driveway at the Millworks and park in the paved lot. Then walk past a large building on your left; turn left onto the gravel lot, and then turn right past the warehouse; our brick building is tucked in the corner beneath the wooden awning. Please feel free to bring kids, interested friends, and something to eat or drink if you like (but not necessary).http://www.SteampunkLaboratory.com

Topic by bowakowa   |  last reply


Brand new 5.5hp engine/packer won't run?

Hey peeps, me again. My father recently put up a little shed (one with the frame and tarping) and he put a dirt floor in, and also we just put new gravel in the driveway after digging it all out. Well he's borrowing a packer from the construction company he works for, for packing the dirt down and possibly the driveway. It's got a brand new 5.5 honda utility engine on it (although it had a big lump of clay fall on the gas tank, it's nearly inverted :p ). We had it running last night but it was fluttering, we only had to move it so we never used it. Today, a whole different story, it sputterd for about 5 seconds and stopped. We (well me, he's just sitting here drinking) can't get it to work. I've cleaned the sparkplug. Pulled the gas tank off and completely emptied it out thinking maybe someone at work put diesel in it by accident or something. Put it all back together, and I got it to run for a couple second a few times. Also, I pulled the oil dipstick out, and it's one of those engines where it's not a verticl dipstick, it's basically diagonal, on a slant. And the tag that's still attached to the engine showed a diagram where it shows to check the oil, and showed where the oil level should be. Well Not the case, oil literally GUSHED out of the opening as soon as I opened it. (Long long post I know).. So I emptied the oil out so it wasn't "flowing" out of the hole (after this is when I got it to run a couple times). I'm so "fricken" confused. I know what I'm doing, just finished a advanced engine course. But what the fuck?! My last guess is perhaps change the oil (gas in it?!?). It's now 6:10pm and well basically no day left. I've spent all day tinkering with it. If anyone actually made it to the end of the post, I really need some help. Anyone have some ideas? Thanks in advanced

Topic by Punkguyta   |  last reply


What would be the VERY BEST way for me to TRANSITION into my newly adopted off-grid, survivalist, subsistence lifestyle? Answered

A 16'x16'x16', 256-square foot, A-frame cabin on an elevated 3' concrete paver floating DekBlock foundation with a 3'x 6'8" front flush door, one rear 48"x 48"horizontal slider window, and another upper 24"x 24" horizontal slider window for the sleeping loft.I'm thinking that one of those standard U.S. Stove designs might provide just a little too much heat for my needs up in the Copper River Basin region of ALASKA's rural backcountry. Who knows? What are your suggestions for the above described "habitat"? Where can I find the best deals for my 256-square foot space? (Heating/ventilation-wise, we're speaking of subzero temperatures and heavy snowfall, so, I don't believe that "opening a window" is a practical solution for me if it gets too hot and smokey inside my A-frame.) Plus, I've done the HEATING ESTIMATE for the A-frame I'm going to build and the numbers come out to about a 620,000 btuh (heat loss) for the new dimensions I'm finally settling on: 16'x16'x16' or 256sq.ft. This calculation is for -50 degrees F with cold floor, ceiling, and glass surfaces taken into account. (Insulation isn't a factor this early in the design.) "Wow!" I thought at first. "A 620,000 btuh HEAT LOSS! I reckon you can never have too much stove even for an A-frame design." (Being that A-frame cabins retain heat so well, and that my sleeping loft may get really HOT in the Winter, this was a preliminary concern.) Foundation:(4) 8"- diameter cardboard cylindrical concrete forms for pin-point piers;(4) 84" reinforcement rods for pin-point concrete forms;(16) Bricks for base of footing;(24) Layout stakes;(8) 5' batter boards;(1) Spool of wire for joining the two 14" reinforcement rods for each footing base;(1) Spool of line for marking building layout lines;(?) Bags of cement;(?) Bags of gravel;(?) Bags of sand...*A few questions about the amount of concrete needed for the four footings and the four concrete piers: "How much concrete will be needed for four 8"-deep concrete footings poured into four 16"-diameter, 44"-deep holes with each containing four bricks and the four reinforcement rod supports? How much concrete will be needed to fill four 8"-diameter pin-point concrete pier forms to an estimated height of about 80"-inches? How many total bags of cement, gravel and sand (aggregate) will my foundation require? Most importantly, how much will it all cost?"A-Frame Structural Triangle (Theoretical Dimensions):Sides = 16'Base = 16'Angles opposite sides = 60 degreesAngle opposite base = 60 degreesArea = 110.85125168441 sq. ft.Perimeter = 48 ft.Framing:(2) 2"x 10"x 16' girders;(12) 2"x 6"x 12' rafters;(6) 2"x 6"x 8' joists;(4) 2"x 4"x 4' collar beams;(10) 4'x 4' plywood sheets for subflooring;(2) 16' framing braces for structural support against wind damage;(?) 3200-square feet of roof/wall sheathing material for exterior surface areas...*A few questions about the amount of roof/wall sheathing material needed to cover the 3200-square foot exterior surface area: "How much exterior sheathing will I need? How much will it cost? I understand that metal sheathing is preferred in the Copper River Basin region for its snow-shedding ability, so, given everything I've just said, what are my options for the A-frame I recently designed?"My total approach to this whole subsistence lifestyle (i.e. living off the land within a small, confined space) is probably all wrong. I understand that I might need to change my complete "mindset" and adopt a sort of NAUTICAL (or MARITIME) theme with my decor, furnishings and appliances.Since I'm really getting into boats anyway (my one chosen option for escaping the bitterly harsh winters of ALASKA's COPPER RIVER BASIN if all else fails), I feel that marine stoves, composting toilets, and an overall nautical aspect in the "finish work" might help me cope since sailboat cabins tend to be tiny, and I may need to transplant a lot of what I have to my seagoing vessel, "Vera Essie".www.geocities.com/wduncanbinns

Question by Herr VOLKMAR   |  last reply


An alternative to expensive grinding stones

For some people buying a decent grinding or honing stone is a lifetime investment.Prices of over $500 for a single stone of a very fine grid are not uncommon.But what about the average Joe who just needs to sharpen a knife or tool every now and then?If slicing and dicing is not your living than investing in a set of diamond plates might be better than getting a set of stones.But there are limitations, firstly their size and then how long they last.The later is really important if not used correctly as even diamond toold can be ruined quickly.In some case these small sharpening tools are hard to handle.The bigger plates can still be a pain if they don't come with a proper mount.Well, and if you forget to clean them after use and put them in a dry place it will be quite hard to remove the rust.A nice alternative I found is sandpaper, specifically sandpaper on a glass plate.Good wet and dry sandpaper is available from almost gravel to a 10.000 grid, above that you might have to make a special order.In general the finer the grid the more you pay due to the ingredients.I use a glass plate from and old scanner as they are both heat proof and really strong, window glass is not recommended here.The glass is covered with strips of kapton tape for the ease of later cleaning.The tape is then evenly covered with a contact glue, preferably the spry king to get an even cover.Same for the sheet of sandpaper.I try to get the glue over the glass edge a bit and to have at least two sides of the sandpaper going over an edge.Just to have an area to work close to the edge without risking to lift the paper off.Once a sheet is too worn I place the plat in the oven for a few minutes so the glue softens and peel the sheet off.If too much glue remians on the tape I replace it before I put a new sheet on.Of course you need a bunch of plates although it works fine with two different sheets halfing a plate.The thing works best under slow running water, so use your tinker skills to come with a suitable frame and water supply ;)But even with just a spray bottle it is a cheap way to replace a costly stone, especially if you do require a bigger surface area.

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


Choosing drive motors for kids riding toy

I'm building  "robot horse" for my daughter, and have the metal frame mostly complete.  The plan for locomotion is to mount reversible powered 6" wheels to the outside of each hoof, and steer tank-style. My biggest challenge is finding reasonably priced, reasonably powerful drive motors for each wheel.  My issues are  1)  I'm inexperienced at specing dc motors.       A) I'm not real sure how to translate published specs into real world motion.  I don't know exactly how much power it takes to get this reliably moving over rough ground to a top speed of around 1 mph.  I also don't have a good sense of much voltage you can pump into a DC motors.  (IOW, should I be able to push 2 x the rated voltage for a quarter second to get it moving? Will the motors naturally increase their amperage at a constant voltage (and thus power) as they are resisted by torque?)  How much power will starting from a stop take?  What about a slight uphill slope?     B)  I'm not sure what form-factor is best:  Gear motor?  Gear motor with final drive belt?  I would like to use worm-gear motors, as I think it would be safest if the wheels didn't move when unpowered. 2)  Hunting around supplier web-sites, I see lots of $20ish gear motors that use 5-20W of power.  Great price, but would 4 of them make enough power?  (See #1A above)  Also, I see lots of fractional HP motors for >$100 that would unquestionably be strong enough, but would cost more than the project justifies.  I found very little in between.  Are there motors and gear boxes that could power this at a reasonable price?   Relevant clarifications and details: 1)  The horse is about 40" high at it's withers (shoulder) 2)  Frame is made of 1/2" square tube steel. 3)  Normal rider + vehicle will be about 150 lbs.  However, unquestionably, larger kids (or multiple small kids) will at some point hop on it and try to ride it.  At 250 lbs. rider+vehicle weight it doesn't have to go fast, but shouldn't burn up the motors. 4)  It'll be powered by a lipo battery pack that shouldn't have any issues with 20A+ max currents and can be sized as needed for voltage. 5)  I'd like to keep the motors and gears <$200 total, if possible. 6)  "Rough ground" = flat grassy turf or reasonably smooth gravel. 7)  Motors need to be reversible. Can anyone lend some perspective on what type of motors to buy for this?  How much power/torque should I look for?  Any advantages/disadvantages of any particular gearing style for this application? I am assuming that motors on each wheel are the way to go, but if there are any other power transmission schemes that would work better, I'm all ears.

Topic by SvdSinner   |  last reply


Tempered glass screen protectors - understand and beware!

I recently had the joy of needing a new screen protector for my mobile after being dumb enough to drop it on gravel. The hard cover took all the impact but the film protector on the screen was scratched badly. Was old and partially worn anyway so I decided to upgrade to a Tempered Glass screen protector. Being somewhere rural I had no chance to get one in a shop so I ordered online. With no intention of advertising for some sellers, I collected a few links so you can check what I am talking about: Item1 Item2 Item3 Item4 Item5 Item6 So, what is my concern with these? They all can be found on amazon and other online services as well as on local markets... As I said I ordered a glass screen protector. If you check these listings and even some of the packing you will notice they all have a thing in common - being shatter proof and of 9H hardness. I also love this video showing how to remove and fix a glass screen protector! The last time I checked glass had one very distinct feature: It is hard and before it really bends it breaks - unless you use fibre optics of fibre glass cloth... What is my concern and warning here? Pretty simple: Stay away from expensive scams! Some claim their screen protector is only 0.25mm thick, even the 0.2mm one I measured was over 0.5mm with the glue... The hardness of 9H refers to the so called Moh's hardness - look it up on Wikipedia if you like. That means these tempered glass protectors would have a similr hardness than a diamond, or at least close to it. Problem is that they are made from plastic to start with and not glass at all. They claims that the screen protector is flexible because it is so thin - again a fake! Even the thinnest tempered glass will shatter if you bend it enough, not so these plastic ones. If you think I am making all this up try to use a really sharp knife or deburring tool and cut the thin sides of one of these protectors. All the ones I tested could be cut quite easy - and I though glass can't be cut with a kinfe... A nice website showing that the scratch resistance is far from the claims can be found here. And a video showing how a real glass screen protector sounds and breaks can be found here. So is it really all bad and should I avoid getting one? Not really if it is only for the added protection. To be clear here, and without the intention to blame any of the above sellers, some protectors actually do have a top layer made from glass and you can hear it as in the above video - it sound solid and not like plastic if you tap it with something hard. Another factor is the simple fact that plastic absorbs impact much better than glass. So where a real glass screen protector might shatter and crack like in the above video, the fake ones might one get a nasty dint or scratch. But you should be aware and clear about what you get and what to expect from it. These glass imitations are made from a strong polycarbonate plastic, similar to the stuff used for bullet and explosion proof "glas" windows - if you every watched the Mythbusters you have seen the big sheets I mean. The top layer of these things is specially treated to repell water, oil and dirt, it also gives the surface the good scratch resistance. The technique is nothing new, camera lenses, plastic sheets and the clear covers you see over the timetable at your bus stop all use it. The new thing is to intentionally mislable a product to make the consumer think it is glass ;) What is the real difference for the user? Check this video. Here a guy performs a drop test with a real glass screen protector. Thing is once the protector breaks the screen itself is broken too but until then it was not too bad. Here it is demonstrated how a real glass screen protector reacts to certain types of abuse - one of the reason I decided on glass. Compared to the plastic counterfeits just the sound on the glass is worth it, but I think the hacksaw was best. Another video from XDA gives a bit more info on how the glass is made - if you can't seeing a phone being abused then don't watch the drop tests at the end ;) Glass with these hardness levels and types of surface protection will give the user a long and worry free use of the phone. The plastic fakes will perform at a similar level for some time but will show signs of wear long before even the top coat of the glass one fails. Both types have their uses and if the fakes would be labeled correctly the user would actually benefit from that. On bigger screens like a tablet I would actually prefer the plastic ones to prevent damage once it needs replacing. On a mobile used in less than perfect conditions I would also go for plastic as it usually is a bit thinner and will fit better within quality hard covers. But when it comes to real abuse like using with dirty fingers most of the time or mostly outdoors where a lot of dust and fine sand can be involved I always go for glass. If you paid attention to the surface treatment then you already realised that the plastic and the glass are in the same region, making them quite scratch resistant. Still fine sand or metal dust will scratch it.... The difference is in the hardness of the actual material that was covered with the oleophobic film. Glass will not give in any way, where plastic is much softer - so not to be confused with the surface hardness! This mean that sharp and point object will easier penetrate the plastic than the glass, something to be considered if you often ecounter harsh use. In terms of actual protection we need to differenciate between surface quality and actual screen damage. After all when badly scratched we can replace the protector but if the display got damaged we are back to square one. The surface hardness was already covered so let's move on to the screen itself. In some of the above videos you can see the abuse a screen might see in normal conditions, and if we would not drop our phones so often repair shops would not be at every corner LOL I have done quite a few screen repairs, mostly for friends and work mates that did not want to pay the hefty extras in a repair shop. From there I got the stories on how it happened and in almost all cases the screen cracked when the phone landed on the corners. In one case the screen and glass protector failed, including the actual display when the phone was dropped out of a 4WD and landed screen first onto a rock. A glass protector will spread the (direct onto the face) impact force onto a much larger area, where a plastic one will produce a dint onto the actual screen much sooner. So again glass wins in terms of actually protecting your expensive screen. But be aware that all this is useless if the phone lands on the corners!! Let me explain: Both the top glass on your screen and the screen protector have a thin layer of "glue". This acts like a shock absorber, so unless an impact goes deep enough so the pressure on the actual screen is too much only the protector should fail. But the screen itself is a tight fit into the frame of the phone, so all side and corner impacts go directly into the glass. As the rest of the glass has no way to give or go the stresses will crack the screen. How should I treat my phone with the new screen protector? Exactly the same way you would without it of course. But if you don't have a proper cover that offers protection of the corners you should invest in one. Having a quality protector and a good case does not mean your phone can be used as a football, see it as an added insurance in case something does go wrong. For obvious reason it can also pay off to have a spare at hand, if something bad happens that requires replacement of the protector you won't be left with an unprotected screen ;) Last but not least, double it up: For people that already know their screen will see a fair bit of abuse in term of scratches it is a good idea to put an extra film protector onto the glass one. Once it is too scratched you peel it off and replace it, while the glass protector gives you the actual protection for your screen. Corning Willow glass As time of wrinting Corning Willow glass is the only "flexible" glass on the market, unless stated with your flexible screen protector you can assume it will be just plastic. I did not list it above as this high tech material is mainly reserved for displays and at least to my knowledge is not available for screen protectors, although I will stand corrected as I have to assume some big players use it for their protectors. The material is actually a sandwich where an ultra thin sheet of glass stis bewteen two layers of durable coating, read it up on their website it is quite interesting. It won't reach the strength of their famous Gorilla glass so without an outer plastic that has the additional oleophobic coating it won't provide the strenght of real tempered glass protectors. Some phones like the Galaxy Round and the fleixble HTC phones use it for example.

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


Fastest you have ever been.

I have a car, but no permit or license. One day, my brother told me to bring him something while he was at work. I was driving down the street going the speed limit or a little over and under. I turned onto the main road Speed limit, 50mph, and just went 50 or so the whole way. and when i got back onto the highway, this guy is following me to my bumper basically, so in the non passing zone just getting on i am going about 25mph, as you are getting on it is 35mph limit, as soon as it reaches 50mph, i jam the gas, it goes into passing gear and in no time i am doing 80mph. and on an S-curve still doing 80. On the stretch i am doing about 60mph, and decided i should just stick to the speed limit. Got a story? A Nice Morning Drive It was a fine morning in March 1982. The warm weather and clear sky gave promise of an early spring. Buzz had arisen early that morning, impatiently eaten breakfast and gone to the garage. Opening the door, he saw the sunshine bounce off the gleaming hood of his 15-year-old MGB roadster. After carefully checking the fluid levels, tire pressures and ignition wires, Buzz slid behind the wheel and cranked the engine, which immediately fired to life. He thought happily of the next few hours he would spend with the car, but his happiness was clouded - it was not as easy as it used to be. A dozen years ago things had begun changing. First there were a few modest safety and emission improvements required on new cars; gradually these became more comprehensive. The governmental requirements reached an adequate level, but they didn't stop; they continued and became more and more stringent. Now there were very few of the older models left, through natural deterioration and . . . other reasons. The MG was warmed up now and Buzz left the garage, hoping that this early in the morning there would be no trouble. He kept an eye on the instruments as he made his way down into the valley. The valley roads were no longer used very much: the small farms were all owned by doctors and the roads were somewhat narrow for the MSVs (Modern Safety Vehicles). The safety crusade had been well done at first. The few harebrained schemes were quickly ruled out and a sense of rationality developed. But in the late Seventies, with no major wars, cancer cured and social welfare straightened out, the politicians needed a new cause and once again they turned toward the automobile. The regulations concerning safety became tougher. Cars became larger, heavier, less efficient. They consumed gasoline so voraciously that the United States had had to become a major ally with the Arabian countries. The new cars were hard to stop or maneuver quickly, but they would save your life (usually) in a 50-mph crash. With 200 million cars on the road, however, few people ever drove that fast anymore. Buzz zipped quickly to the valley floor, dodging the frequent potholes which had developed from neglect of the seldom-used roads. The engine sounded spot-on and the entire car had a tight, good feeling about it. He negotiated several quick S-curves and reached 6000 in third gear before backing off for the next turn. He didn't worry about the police down here. No, not the cops . . . Despite the extent of the safety program, it was essentially a good idea. But unforeseen complications had arisen. People became accustomed to cars which went undamaged in 10-mph collisions. They gave even less thought than before to the possibility of being injured in a crash. As a result, they tended to worry less about clearances and rights-of-way, so that the accident rate went up a steady six percent every year. But the damages and injuries actually decreased, so the government was happy, the insurance industry was happy and most of the car owners were happy. Most of the car owners - the owners of the non-MSV cars - were kept busy dodging the less careful MSV drivers, and the result of this mismatch left very few of the older cars in existence. If they weren't crushed between two 6000-pound sleds on the highway they were quietly priced into the junkyard by the insurance peddlers. And worst of all, they became targets . . . Buzz was well into his act now, speeding through the twisting valley roads with all the skill he could muster, to the extent that he had forgotten his earlier worries. Where the road was unbroken he would power around the turns in well controlled oversteer, and where the sections were potholed he saw them as devious chicanes to be mastered. He left the ground briefly going over one of the old wooden bridges and later ascertained that the MG would still hit 110 on the long stretch between the old Hanlin and Grove farms. He was just beginning to wind down when he saw it, there in his mirror, a late-model MSV with hand-painted designs covering most of its body (one of the few modifications allowed on post-1980 cars). Buzz hoped it was a tourist or a wayward driver who got lost looking for a gas station. But now the MSV driver had spotted the MG, and with a whoosh of a well muffled, well cleansed exhaust he started the chase . . . It hadn't taken long for the less responsible element among drivers to discover that their new MSVs could inflict great damage on an older car and go unscathed themselves. As a result some drivers would go looking for the older cars in secluded areas, bounce them off the road or into a bridge abutment, and then speed off undamaged, relieved of whatever frustrations cause this kind of behavior. Police seldom patrolled these out-of-the-way places, their attentions being required more urgently elsewhere, and so it became a great sport for some drivers. Buzz wasn't too worried yet. This had happened a few times before, and unless the MSV driver was an exceptionally good one, the MG could be called upon to elude the other driver without too much difficulty. Yet something bothered him about this gaudy MSV in his mirror, but what was it? Planning carefully, Buzz let the other driver catch up to within a dozen yards or so, and then suddenly shot off down a road to the right. The MSV driver stood on his brakes, skidding 400 feet down the road, made a lumbering U-turn and set off once again after the roadster. The MG had gained a quarter mile in this manner and Buzz was thankful for the radial tires and front and rear anti-roll bars he had put on the car a few years back. He was flying along the twisting road, downshifting, cornering, accelerating and all the while planning his route ahead. He was confident that if he couldn't outrun the MSV then he could at least hold it off for another hour or more, at which time the MSV would be quite low on gas. But what was it that kept bothering him about the other car? They reached a straight section of the road and Buzz opened it up all the way and held it. The MSV was quite a way back but not so far that Buzz couldn't distinguish the tall antenna standing up from the back bumper. Antenna! Not police, but perhaps a Citizen's Band radio in the MSV? He quaked slightly and hoped it was not. The straight stretch was coming to an end now and Buzz put off braking to the last fraction of a second and then sped through a 75-mph right-hander, gaining ten more yards on the MSV. But less than a quarter mile ahead another huge MSV was slowly pulling across the road and to a stop. It was a CB set. The other driver had a cohort in the chase. Now Buzz was in trouble. He stayed on the gas until within a few hundred feet when he banked hard and feinted passing to the left. The MSV crawled in that direction and Buzz slipped by on the right, bouncing heavily over a stone on the shoulder. The two MSVs set off in hot pursuit, almost colliding in the process. Buzz turned right at the first crossroad and then made a quick left, hoping to be out of sight of his pursuers, and in fact he traveled several minutes before spotting one of them on the main road parallel to his lane. At the same time the other appeared in the mirror from around the last comer. By now they were beginning to climb the hills on the far side of the valley and Buzz pressed on for all he was worth, praying that the straining engine would stand up. He lost track of one MSV when the main road turned away, but could see the other one behind him on occasion. Climbing the old Monument Road, Buzz hoped to have time to get over the top and down the old dirt road to the right, which would be too narrow for his pursuers. Climbing, straining, the water temperature rising, using the entire road, flailing the shift lever back and forth from 3rd to 4th, not touching the brakes but scrubbing off the necessary speed in the corners, reaching the peak of the mountain where the lane to the old fire tower went off to the left . . . but coming up the other side of the hill was the second MSV he had lost track of! No time to get to his dirt road. He made a panicked turn left onto the fire tower road but spun on some loose gravel and struck a tree a glancing blow with his right fender. He came to a stop on the opposite side of the road. the engine stalled. Hurriedly he pushed the starter while the overheated engine slowly came back into life. He engaged 1st gear and sped off up the road, just as the first MSV turned the corner. Dazed though he was, Buzz had the advantage of a very narrow road lined on both sides with trees, and he made the most of it. The road twisted constantly and he stayed in 2nd with the engine between 5000 and 5500. The crash hadn't seemed to hurt anything and he was pulling away from the MSV. But to where? It hit him suddenly that the road dead-ended at the fire tower, no place to go but back . . . Still he pushed on and at the top of the hill drove quickly to the far end of the clearing, turned the MG around and waited. The first MSV came flying into the clearing and aimed itself at the sitting MG. Buzz grabbed reverse gear, backed up slightly to feint, stopped, and then backed up at full speed. The MSV, expecting the MG to change direction, veered the wrong way and slid to a stop up against a tree. Buzz was off again, down the fire tower road, and the undamaged MSV set off in pursuit. Buzz's predicament was unenviable. He was going full tilt down the twisting blacktop with a solid MSV coming up at him. and an equally solid MSV coming down after him. On he went, however, braking hard before each turn and then accelerating back up to 45 in between. Coming down to a particularly tight turn, he saw the MSV coming around it from the other direction and stood on the brakes. The sudden extreme pressure in the brake lines was too much for the rear brake line which had been twisted somewhat in his spin, and it broke, robbing Buzz of his brakes. In sheer desperation he pulled the handbrake as tightly as it would go and rammed the gear lever into 1st, popping the clutch as he did so. The back end locked solid and broke away, spinning him off the side of the road and miraculously into some bushes, which brought the car to a halt. As he was collecting his senses, Buzz saw the two MSVs, unable to stop in time, ram each other head on at over 40 mph. It was a long time before Buzz had the MG rebuilt to its original pristine condition of before the chase. It was an even longer time before he went back into the valley for a drive. Now it was only in the very early hours of the day when most people were still sleeping off the effects of the good life. And when he saw in the papers that the government would soon be requiring cars to be capable of withstanding 75-mph headon collisions, he stopped driving the MG altogether. Written by: Richard Foster

Topic by Yerboogieman   |  last reply


The risks of DIY carpet cleaning and how save a buck or two....

I am writing this partly because of bed experiences with rental angents/landlords and as a general help.Here in Australia as well as other parts of the world it is common pratise that a real estate agent goes through your rented home multiple times a year to check if you keep it clean and undamaged.In most cases these visits go without any hickup until you move out.At this point agents often try to make your life a misery.Some expect you get the house back to the state it was 10 years ago when you moved - an impossible task.Carpet cleaning is usually done with a rented machine.This mean you pay a deposit for the machine and "rent" is made by the highly overpriced cleaning fluid you have to use with the machine.But more and more people see that a $100 machine from the discounter is a "money saver".So lets start with the main differences between a rented, commercial grade machine and those you find at the discounter to buy.The later comes quite small and in plastic, the commercial one is usually all metal and has huge water and waste tank.And lets be honest here, if a good vacuum cleaner sets you back more than twice what your new floor cleaning machine costs.....For me the real difference is in the sucktion.If you start with 10 liters in a commercail machine then you should expect to get over 8 liters back in the waste tank.The added waste often makes it seem much more though ;)The cheap discounter vesion however often struggles to get half of the water back out of your carpet that it drained into it!This is not only due to the weaker vacuum created but also due to the general design and lack of sealing the area that is sucked up.But during a hot summer week this makes no vital difference as it dries off anyway, or does it?Dryness and contamination....If you wash your clothes than you let them fully dry before you wear them.With a freshly cleaned carpet we often don't have that luxury and if the weather won't play nice you might end with a moist carpet for weeks.A proper wash of the carpet would require that water is actually flowing through the fabric.This is achieved by designing water outlets and sucktion areas to be in close proximity.However, most carpets these days are thin and flimsy, the underlay brings the comfort and often the required insulation from the cold floor.Fun fact: Most quality carpets in the EU come with a rubber or foam like backing which prevents that little spills go through and also leave the carpet basically dry after a cleaning.If the amount of water your machine collects does not get very close to what you filled into the tank then you end with a quite wet carpet and underlay.Cold from underneath and with basically no airflow through it.And if you ever removed an old carpet that was cleaned every few years you do know why you wear a protective suit, gloves and a filter mask on your face....It is simply impossible with a handheld machine to prevent water and contaminants from getting into the foam underlay of US and AU style carpet assemblies.Once fully dry there is little chance for anything to grow, but every time you clean the carpet you add the water required...I had it in two rentals that when I cleaned the carpets with a really good machine that stains from within the underlay came back up into the carpet.A job planned for a day then turned into three days of using heater fans and living in a sauna while washing carpets :(The same is true if you end up with fresh dirt or such on the carpet while it is still moist underneat - it gets worked ino the carpet and becomes even harder to clean.Is a commercial cleaning the better option?Sadly I have to say this highly depends on your agent/landlord and how much time and money you have.In some areas agents simply ignore the law and demand from you that the carpet looks at least as good as when you moved in.And if old stains you did not know about come from the filthy underlay a rented machine can come close to the cost of getting a commercail team in to do the job once you vacated.Either way you get an invoice for the service and a statement about the condition of the carpets before and after the cleaning.These guys come with a big van and before it fires up with water only the vacuum is used.Imagine a monster sized vacuum cleaner head on steroids that connects to an industrial sized evacuation fan in the van.It literally lifts your carpet from the underlay and leaves nothing loose behind.The actual cleaning and sanitation works the same way only with the big difference that the water is sprayed with pressure through the carpet and into the underlay.Final round is done dry and with vacuum only, means the carpets are dry enough to walk on them without getting wet feet.A complete dry state is usually reached within 2 days during the summer unlike rented machines that keep the humidity in your house up and high for about 2 weeks until back to normal.Main benefit of a commercail cleaning is that you won't get any issues with your agent/landlord unless you damaged the carpets or made them impossible to clean - ever dropped an ink jet printer refill kit? ;)If I do it myself with a reasonably good machine or a rented one : Do I have options for the cleaning solution used?Trust me, I had to figure that one out quickly when I moved into my first rental down here.4 bedrooms, entire house with carpet except for the kitchen and wet areas.They appeared reasonably clean at a first look but when I used a UV flashlight at night the story was shocking....In what must have a room for a baby the carpet looked like a psychedlic art impression under the UV light.The living room was not much better.As a result the rented machine ran out of cleaning fluid quickly.Bought 2 bottles that were supposed to be suffient for the house size but if you need several rounds per room.I "finnished" the former baby room and was one bottle down already.Called it a day and in the dark the UV light showed a slithly fades art impression but nowhere clean :(The shop had a heavy duty cleaning solution but I did not consider it with a price twice as high.Instead I wondered what would make my carpet different from my clothes in my washing machine....So I got a canister of Oxy-cleaner - sometimes called nappy soaking powder, or similar.Just make sure you get one that does not foam up too much.I used a bucket to dissolve a good amount of the powder before filling it into the machine - at about 40°C.What ended in the waste tank when using this cheap alternative looked digusting to say the least!With that encouragement I decided to make a new bucket with some added washing powder, just a tablespoon worth or just over.Washing powder for front loader does not foam up much, unlike the stuff for top loader, so choose wisely.That was, all counted, the forth cleaning round for the former baby room but after this the UV light showed a clean carpet that also had nice spring fresh smell thanks to the washing powder.Using the same appraoch of lots of oxy cleaner and a bit of washing machine powder in semi hot water made cleaning the rest of the house a breeze!When going slow with the machine it was like mowing the lawn, it left a clean path behind.Not all carpets might tolerate oxy cleaners though, especially if they are quite colorful, so do a spot check first if you never used the stuff to clean up a little spill of red wine before.And please keep some of the commercial cleaning fluid at hand to give the machine a quick wash through with it, otherwise the shop might ask you if you used non approved cleaning stuff with it ;)Tips for adjustable cleaning machines....Some of the rented machines come with several possible adjustments you can make.In the most basic form you can adjust the amount water used and how strong the machine sucks.Keep the sucktion as high as possible unless you actually want to pre soak the carpet.The amount of water should be adjusted to the type of carpet not to how dirty it is!You want just enough water to soak the carpet without going into the underlay too much.A clear sign of using too much water is if you waste tank is only half full when the water tank is empty.A few of the really good machines let you adjust the distance between the water outlet and sucktion area.In most cases there pre-set to what, from experience is the most commonly type of carpet in the area.Your might be different though...A greater distance means more time for the cleaning solution to do its job.This works especially well for thicker carpets with amount of water turned down to below 50%.For thin carpets a short distance is better as the water does not have to go deep into the fabric.Here you can even increase the water flow for very dirty areas without risking to soak the underlay too much.In either case you should check the machine before taking it home and if adjustable have the options explained to you in the store.Anything for really bad areas?The entrance area is often subject to whatever our shoes collected outside, especially if you have kids or playful dogs.A bit of oil from the road, some sticky residue of something, dust, small gravel and sand....Vacuum out what comes out first, then use a suitable, not too stiff brush if your vacuum cleaner does not have a rotating brush in the head.Use a spray bottle and prepare a solution of warm water with a bit of washing machine powder and a shot glass worth of methylated spirit.Slightly wet the soiled area with the spray bottle without saturating it.Use the brush to agitate the carpet fibres - preferably directional and with even strokes.If they are not wet in the deeper areas spray a bit more.Again: you don't want to soak it you want to wet it.Give it about 20 minutes on a warm day a bit longer if the insede temps are below 25°C.Check with your hand if the area is still wet, the alcohol should speed up the evaporation here.Before it dries up repeat the process and check with a paper towel if it picks up the stains already.If so then run over the area with cleaning machine.Best results are achieved if you manage to get the fibres wet all the way down with the brush and won't let the area fully dry off again after the spraying.How can I speed up the drying time?The only way to speed things up is heat and airflow.If outside humidty is quite high then you will struggle.Even in the summer times the humidity levels over night can get well into or even over the 80% region.Opening doors and windows then to get the carpet dry won't really help you.Best time to clean your carpets is actually at night because by the time you are done the sun is out and the humity levels much lower.On a good day below 30%.This is true even for the winter times.Put a few fans up and make sure the temperatures are well above the 20°C mark.If in doubt you have to turn the heater on.Once the humidity inside is sky high you open up all windows and doors to have an exchange of air.A few minutes suffice here unless there is wind at all.If it is a hot summer day you can of course just let it all open until the sun goes down again.During colder times pay special attention to cold areas, like your toilet, bathroom or in general areas that won't warm up properly.Even if the room was not cleaned the moisture can accumulate here and cause mold and mildew.If in doubt make sure the ENTIRE house is warm enough until your carpets are fully dry again.A humidity sensor or gauge certainly helps, two are better so you can check inside and outside at the same time.

Topic by Downunder35m 


UV filtration in your fish tank or small fish pond

Year after year the topic "I have a fish tank" seems to go more out of control. What was once a hobby just to have some fish can now be a design feature both in your home and inside the tank. Realistic looking lasdscapes, optical illusions that make you think the tank is much bigger and the list goes on. But one thing that now always pops up is the must have thing of UV filtration. Or to be precise: UV-C sterilisation! Now, if we trust Wiki and our big water suppliers then UV-C will literally kill anything alive that comes into contact with. So of course it would be a good thing to have for your tank - or not? UV-C is very dangerous for your eyesight and quite harmful for your skin! Looking into a proper UV-C lamp without protection means you can go blind! Even good sunglasses might not have enough protection in the UV-C range, so only use them for additional protection but never without and glass between you and the lamp! Don't be a fool! Treat UV-C seriously! You would not look into the full sun with your sunglasses and would not expose your eyes or skin to a powerful laser, UV-C is to be treated the same way! Let's start by using some boring text to explain the concept a little bit. On a large scale special and quite powerful systems are used to treat our drinking or pool water. Here special UV-C lights with a wavelenghts of 260nm or below are used to shine through the water passing by. There are two key factors here. a) the wavelenght b) the water flow rate and the corresponding time the water is in contact with the UV light To ensure all bacteria, viruses, algae and other harmful organics are dead the water must circulate for long enough so even the last water molecule had a few seconds of exposure. All this only works good with "crystal clear" water for obvious reasons as otherwise the UV has to be even more powerful to pass through. Single cell organisms literally crack into pieces similar to being exposed to gamma rays, more complex cells like algae have their cell membranes damages and the DNA suffers as well causing reproduction loss and early death. Even some chemicals break down, most importantly here chlorine based substances. Differences within the UV-C range! If you bothered to check Wiki about the topic of UV-C you will already know that only certain wavelengths within this spectrum will actuall be powerful enough to do what we want it to do. And here is the first problem for us hobby users. Most cheaply advertised "sterlisation lamps" you find in places like Ebay are actually totally useless. Stating to be selling a UV-C light to sterilze your water in such a case is still not considered to be fraud though. Simply because it still does what it supposed to do, just very slow and with very little effect. Only the so called "short wave" UV-C range is powerful enough! To avoid loosing business during the times of the biggest hype in 20 years no seller will actuall state the available wavelengths. That means without this info anywhere you can be certain the advertised lamp is of little to no use. Even those advertised to be short wave UV-C might not be the real deal. However, if a decent manufacturer is behind the actual lamp used it is possible to check the datasheet for these performance figures - but again most cheap systems come with no-name lamps inside. Check the prices for a reputable UV-C light with the same lamp fitting, e.g. G23 and you will see it might cost more than your entire system. Ok, you have a poper short wave UV-C lamp or consider getting a canister filter with one in it.... Never, ever test your lamp without proper protection!!!!! UV-C will damage your eye within seconds! If you system or lamp does not provide a viewing port or shine through area then you have to place a piece of glass between you and the light! UV-C won't be able to penetrate normal window glass but will pass through quartz glass. Place the lamp in a box and cover with the glass. How make proper use of UV-C sterilisation... The replacement lights are quite expensive, so let's see how to get the most out of them. As said before exposure is the key factor so the flow rate of the UV system must match tank size and flow rate of your filter system. Canister filters with a build in lamp should be designed to match but I will tell you later what to look for ;) Most of us will prefer to have a in-line system if there is already a good canister filter at work, so I will focus on those and rop in solutions. If you compare in-line system you might notice that some quite small and low power units claim to allow for the same flow rates as for example 40W units. Some are fraud and just want to sell while others use simple physics to make the claim true. A good system will utilise an auger like "ramp" that forces the water to circulate around the tube many times - causing up to ten times longer exposure rates. Others create this sprial effect more like a vortex with some diverters and modified inlets. The later seems to be less efficient though with low power lamps. An in-line system should be on the outlet side of your canister filter so the best quality water will pass through it. A drop in solution should be used alone and without the existing normal filter pump you might have in there. Ok, got it, but how do I actually use it now? Despite common thinking a UV-C system should not run 24/7 like your normal filter. You really only need it to solve problems you should not have in a healthy tank! It is not a magical solution to make your underlaying problems go away ;) Let's start with the most common reason someone buys a UV-C system: An algae or bacterial outbreak causing greenish or milky water. If that developed slowly over a period of weeks then you would be better off to do a good clean of the tank and filter plus a decent water exchange. A few drops of meds will do the rest. And if you constantly get algae growing on your glass, ornaments and plants then your nutrient levels and water quality is not right anyway and needs a good check. But of course there is also the problem of light - too much for too long and unwanted gree appears everywhere. If in doubt reduce the light power, shade out natural light or reduce the on time for your lights. Having said that we now face the problem of a sudden outbreak after introducing new fish or plants. If you don't have a quarantaine tank chances are that sooner or later you get unwanted or even harmful guest into your tank. Here the UV-C will be beneficial, which is why a canister filter with build in light should have a seperate switch or power supply for the light. After an outbreak or while introducing new life into your tank the UV-C will remove a lot of the things that we don't want to bring along. For new life I leave the light on non stop for a week, that is for a small 4ft tank with 200 liters. To control an outbreak it depends on how bad it is. I assume here you can still see the back of your tank  but that the water either appears greenish or slightly milky from bacteria. As a personal thing I prefer to to remove and clean my filter material before treating a severe outbreak. Once done I fill the filter with a mix of activate carbon material and fine filter wool. Reason for this quite simple: The outbreak causing stuff is already in your filter material and will be a constant source of re-infection. And since breaking down all this bad stuff causes even more bad stuff to be produced as biological waste we want to discard it properly once done. Using just fine filter wool and activated carbon also reduces the flow rate bit if compacted ;) Now we can turn on the light and pump and forget about it for a while. It is not recommended to run UV lights on a timer as you want them on all time to prevent short lifespan and have ongoing treatment of the water. Good idea to take a picture at the same of a day from now on to compare and check results. After 3 days the water should definately be clearer, if not then either your filter material is packed too losse or the lamp is no good. Once the water appears to be clear do a readin test - take a newspaper behind the tank and check if the text is clear - blurry means the water is still not clean. You will reach a point where the water quality will not further improve as much as in the days before. This is the time where you discard or clean out to dry your filter material and put the original stuff back in. The activated carbon should be discarded of course. You cleaned filter material will now need a certain time to grow enough good bacteria to go back to the old performance. During this time you should still leave the light on. In most cases with enough fish and plants in the tank a week should be sufficient. After that you can leave the light off and keep the tank fit and healthy. Special case: Algae everywhere! Especially after getting a new plant you can end up with quite pesty algae growth. Be it these long ghost hair types or in a bad case the black stuff growing on plants, ornaments and the glass. I have even seen tanks with algae covering the entire bottom of the tank causing the gravel to look like carpet. Here I can only advise to set up a quarantaine tank for your fish. Then remove all infested material for manual removal and cleaning. Infested plants should be cut clean and what can be boiled should be boiled in water for a few minutes. Now start scrubbing in the tank with ongoing water replacements. I prefer to let everything settle over night without any bubbler or pump running. This way I can suck up a lot of sediment the next day. If you can remove all plants and fish you can now use hydrogen peroxide and add it to your tank water. But this is only feasable for small desktop tanks. Before using the UV as above to cure an outbreak you should consider all water one last time. Allow at least 2 weeks with ongoing water checks before adding plants back in and another week before placing your fish back in the tank. The week before adding fish should be used to monitor the plats for any signs of algae you might have missed - if you find any remove it! A week after the fish is back in you can turn off the UV light. Underwater UV-C light!? In most online stores you will find quite cheap UV lights to be advertised as underwater or in tank use. Although it might sound tempting you should be well aware of the dangers of using them. The glass of your tank will block the harmfull UV rays but the water surface won't, so either don't ever look at it or use proper sunglasses with real UV protection. Apart from the dangers to you these lamps are not just cheap in price but also cheaply produced. That means there is no way of telling how much or how little UV-C is produced. If they are good then you still need to know in what type of tank setup you can use them. As plants can tolerate a bit of UV a placement as far away from the nearest plant should do, especially if you can place a bubble wall betwenn light and plants. The fish is another thing as some seem to be unaware of the danger in their tank. This means they can get too close to the light but I have not found any articles explaining how harmful UV-C is to fish or their eyesight. I guess once your fish starts to bounce into everything you know... ;) My advise is to stay away from the idea of hanging a UV-C lamp in your tank, the risk for you and your tank is just not justified. If you need to go cheap then get two or thre of these lamps so you have spares. But use them externally ;) Meaning: Take a UV proof plastic container of small size and place the light in there. To be really safe tape the lid and all holes for the hoses with black tape. Place the container above the water level of your tank and if you only have an internal filter pump push a suitable sized hose into the outlet to feed into you canister. Check how high you pump can make it and place the outlet or overflow slightly below this level. When to change the light? If you made it all the way down here then you might already had the benefit of using light to "cure" your tank. Now we are faced with the high replacement cost for the lamp itself. Ususally only flouroscent tubes are used. It is always good to check after purchase what type of lamp and manufacturer (if there is one) was used. In some cases the system itself is like an inkjet printer: Just a cheap way to make you buy the consumables. Let's say you new in-line filter was priced at $100 to have a nice round number, some are cheaper some much more expensive. The lamp used might be an exotic type and not even be available easy, so before you buy your system check where you can get spares, not just the lamp of course. A replacement lamp can be as ceap as 20 bucks or cost even more than your system if you need to order it elsewhere. The quartz glass sleeve can break too meaning you then need a lamp and cylinder. Going with a reputable brand and paying a bit more certainly helps to get spares in the future. Let's just assume you either got your system in bulk due to the price of replacement lamps or can get them at a reasonable price. UV-C lamps are not like your normal flouroscent light tubes you have around or maybe even on top of your tank. Consider them like the tubes used in the now unhealthy tanning beds. After a certain amount of time they no longer produce enough of the short wave UV light that we need. As you can't see it and most of us won't have the means to specifically measure it we have to trust manufacturers recommendations. For most good brands the numbers are the same: 8000 hours max. Considering the costs it does make sense to keep written track of the usage. Not too hard since we won't use them like normal lights but instead have them on for a week or more without turning them off. I recommend to have a replacement at hand long before you need it. A lamp can fail premature, crack or simply burn out. The 8000 hours are based on 24 hour usage, so one day on, one day off. This could mean for us the lifetime can be slightly longer but I would not go over 9000 hours. As a rule of thumb: If the water does not show good signs of getting clear on day thre the lamp is due.

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


Hydrogen Peroxide at home and in the Garden

Although the topic is quite old for some of us and mostly because I am too lazy today to make an Instructable: Hydrogen Peroxide ! Back in the day Hydrogen Peroxide was mainly known for the ability to bleech your hair, later it replaced chlorine based products for the preparation of paper and organic fibres. For me it is a good opportunity to go back in time and to pull out some of the remedies my grandparents already used. Who knows, there might be something that helps you or you might know other good uses that I failed to mention here, so feel free to comment. First off: What actually is hydrogen peroxide? We could check Wikipedia but I think it is enough to say that it basically water with an added oxgen mulecule which turn the stuff into a quite powerfull oxidizer. When hydrogen peroxide reacts the added oxygen is released and the normal water remains. Precausions and health risks. In the normal supermarket form hydrogen peroxide comes at a strenght of just 3%. This is just enough for wound treatment or cleaning off a fresh and small stain. The stuff you can buy at your hair dresser comes in concentrations of 5-15%, above that it is of little use to them. Pool grade peroxide however can come as high as 50%. It often requires a permit of at least leaving a copy of your drivers license to buy such high concentration but well worth it price wise. The downside of anything above 5% is a risk for your skin, eyes and airways. So when handling hydrogen peroxide you should waer long sleeve rubber gloves, safety or better swimming goggles and make sure that you don't create vapour by spraying it against the wind direction. Having water at hand to dilute and spillage on your skin is always good. What happens to me if things go wrong? Well, if handled correctly nothing should go wrong but of cause the worst would be eye contact. Getting concentrated hydrogen peroxide in your eyes means extreme pain and even with rinsing it out asap eye damage is more than just possible. Again: wear proper eye protection and if spraying use a filter mask, the paper type is enough!!! Nothing immediate happens on sking contact but a few minutes after contact the skin will turn slightly brown or goes white. This is caused by the oxygen release into your skin cells, if washed off quickly after noticing the discoloration will fade after a few hours. Prolonged exposure of the skin can cause skin cells to fully discolor and living cells might get damaged - a burning sensation is usually the sign that you need to wash the area now ;) Enough bad stuff said, let's see what we can do in the garden.... Fungal infection of your old roses or on your fruit trees? Sometimes the weather does not like our plants and by the time we discover a fungal infestation it is usually pruning time. There are commercial producta available that work quite well but especially the copper based ones tend to do more harm than good in th long run. An alternative is a solution of 10-20% hydrogen peroxide. Spray generously over all affected parts of the plant, leaves, twigs, stem and all. Make sure everything is properly wet! In some cases the fungus can act as a water replellent and it seems impossible to get any of the solution to wet these areas - a drop of dish washing liquid into the bottle will fix this! Watever runs off can be left as it only helps to get oxygen into the soil but of course you should not soak the area... Leave it on for about an hour, around 20 minutes if it quite warm. Rinse all off with clear water and repeat every 2 days for 5 treatments all up. After this time wait 2 or 3 weeks and check if the fungus still gows in some hard to reach areas. If so then repeat the treatment there until satisfied but wait another 2 weeks every 5 single treatments. In some areas of the world certain types of fungus on roses are refered to as "rust". ----- Moved into a new home and the garden beds smell really bad? The last house I moved into had a previous occupant with a big dog but no time to clean after his pet. The garden beds looked dead and I mean so dead that I could not even find weeds in them. And the smell was a distinct mix of old dog poo with lots of fresh cat poo mixed in it - the perfect outdoor pet toilet :( Trying to dig it all under made me recover that the top soil was more §$&*# than soil. I had to get rid of the bacteria of all the poo and somehow neutralize a lot of the unwanted "nutrients". The solution was to first loosen all the soil as deep as I could go. Then I added rice straw (but anything straw like or dry grass will do) to mix it through. At this stage I wished I had a gas mask LOL All up the contaminated garden beds covered about 20square meters. I got a 10 liter canister of pool grade hydrogen peroxide, from this I diluted down with 20 liters of water and a few drops of dishwashing liquid to help with the soil wetting. All was applied as evenly as I good with a watering can and then the area was covered with some tarp to try keeping as much oxygen on and in the soil as possible. A day later the tarp was removed and all beds watered with hose to drowning point. This watering was repeated every 3 days for 3 weeks to drive out all the excess and unwanted nutrients from the poo. The smell was already gone except for some cat urine residue which disappeared after some rounds of watering. Three months after the initial treatment I did some soil tests, added nutrients were required and the next season I had vegetables growing :) ----- Planting? Whether from seeds or seedlings, give hydrogen peroxide a try! I use a 5% solution to soak the potting mix I use before putting my seeds in it. Not only does it kill a few of the unwanted things that might still be in there but it adds a lot of oxygen into the soil, which gives the seeds a much better start. For seeds I use a 5% solution as well but only leave them in for about an hour before placing them between some wet paper towels until they start germinating. This way I can be sure all harmful bacteria and fungal spores are dead and I can use a sterile seed to keep going. Might just be my opinion but I think the germination rate is better and seedling in comparison start growing faster and stronger. Home uses.... As we learned before hydrogen peroxide, at least in higher concentrations is a powerful way to remove fungus. In our bathrooms we often have the problem that the ceiling starts to develop black spots as in the colder times water condenses here and takes a long time to dry off. If you now go to your favorite hardware store they will recommend the use of a chlorine based product, basically bleach... And although it does the job it also means your house will stink for days and if you scrub the ceiling you will get it on your sking and stink too. Hydrogen peroxide at 20% or higher concentrations can be sprayed onto the cleiling :) Of course you will need good protection for this and all things color should be removed, like towels or floor mats. By protection I mean a minimum of swimming goggles, a tyvek suit or similar to cover all exposed skin areas and at least a paper dust mask, better a filtered respirator like you use for spray painting or using insecticides. If you have a spray bottle with an adjustable nozzle then a stream is far better than a spray mist!! Not only is your exposure far lower but it much easier to wet the ceiling quickly. Wet all affected areas, then leave and the room, close the door and take off all clothes you used t protect you. The clothes can be left out to dry but double check that you had no soaked spot where your sking might have been in contact - if so rinse the skin with plenty of water! It will take some time to work and then dry, so best to do this in the summer time or if during the colder times you need to make sure the room is porperly heated and aired out to dry! Repeat until all black spots are gone, really bad areas will leave a permanent discoloration looking like a slight brwonish color is the ligh it right otherwise you won't see it. Once fully dry it is best to scrape off all lose paint and then to use a acrylic based sealer before giving the ceiling a fresh coat of white. The sealer will prevent the water to penetrate more than the paint level and if you get the fungus back on the paint it is far easier to clean ;) ----- Carpet cleaning.... When moving into a new rental with carpet on the floor you often are left with areas indicating the carpet might be "clean" but the underlay certainly is not. You can fix the underlay but you certainly can make sure all harmful stuff is gone from the carpet. Carpet cleaning machines can be hired but often much cheaper if you buy the "recommended" cleaning product with it. Rent is usually based on a daily base and price depends on how much cleaner you need. If you only want to desinfect the carpet which otherwise looks mostly fine than go for the smallest pack available and use it to spot clean areas you want cleaner first. For the desinfecting part I recommend to test how high you can go with the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide before using it on a big scale - keep in mind the carpet will never be fully dry and the remaining peroxide will continue to act! Test a 10% solution first before you go higher as you don't want to buy 30 liters or more of pool grade peroxide - just trust me on that one and only try to buy this much you do want to get into trouble a few days later! If 10 percent solution left on the carpet does not cause any bleaching of the fabric (unwanted bleaching that is) you can try higher for spot cleaning in demanding areas. A good spot to try the solution is under the cover or duct outlets, under these joining bars where carpet changes to tiles (if you can lift them off) or in wardrobes if the carpet goes inside. There are two way to treat your carpet once the general cleaning is done. a) use a garden sprayer or similar to wet the carpet This is good for single room treatment like for the baby room but especially on thicker carpets it requires a lot of solution and can become costly. Once wet leave for at least 30 minutes so the peroxide can do its thing, then use the machine with either the solution filled or just to dry off the carpet. I recommend to use the peroxide solution in the machine as it allows for better penetration and it will remove more soiled solution this way. If your catching container starts bubbling like mad it means you have a lot of §$%&#+ in the carpet and it might be best to first clean it all with the normal carpet cleaning agent before using the peroxide again - again tesing on smaller areas can help wasting the peroxide. If you need to store prepared solutions than it is best in a cold place. It will take several hours on an otherwise clean carpet for the peroxide to fully disappear so it best to use shoes and prevent skin contact during that time - especially if a baby crawls around ;) ----- Toilet.... We don't want to talk about it but everyone needs to clean their toilet sooner or later. For most things in there using the toilet brush when it happens will keep things clean and healthy. But what if someone in the house is sick or with a weak immune system? You could use all sorts of commercial cleaners and desinfectants but a wipe with wet towel or cloth soaked in a 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide will quickly eliminate all harmfull things on your seat, lid or bowl, including the buttons to press and the door handles ;) Just wipe and leave it wet for a minute or two then wipe again and ry - done! Personal use I always pack a small bottle of supermarket grade peroxide when going off road or camping trips. Although we now have modern desinfectants that won't stink or otherwise harm you I still prefer the old stuff ;) If you are far from civilisation than the last thing you want to need is medical attention for something that started as small as a scratch or graze.... Out in the unkown wilderness you will never know if the rockk you just crash landed on was used as a urinal by a fox the night before... A bit of gravel left in your skin might contain harmful bacteria... A cut with your own knife?? - What did you all cut since the last proper cleaning of the blade? You see where I am going here, a small thing might turn into something really nasty a day or two later. If you clean a freash and minor wound properly and then rinsie it with hydrogen perodixe most if not all harmful leftovers will be killed by the releasing oxygen. Of course this pretty much useless on bleeding wounds or where it is obvious that you won't be able to remove all debris from the wound - here it means you trip is still over in favour for proper medical treatment. The thing is that hydrogen peroxide was basically abandoned for all wound treatment once the modern "cleaning aids" became available as the peroxide will not only attack harmful things but also living tissue. The claims goes as far as causing bad scar tissue, damage to blood vessels and even "burning" of the tissue. One big problem I have with all these claims is that they were never really mentioned until the new meds came out. IMHO exposure time and how you use it it the key - common sense if you ask me. Noone should ever soak a wound in peroxide, if it is that big that you need to soak it you need medical attention anyway. And as said you should rinse the wound, that means all remaining liquid should be allowed to flow off - this will only leave a minor amount of peroxide in the wound and the exposure time will end with once all oxygen is released. For minor wounds I only use a paper tissue or cotton bud soaked in peroxide and wipe the wound.... ----- Smelly feet? Ok, maybe not the best way to start a conversation but we all know what sneakers do to our feet in the summer... Insoles with copper and activated carbon will help a lot and at least "cure" your sneakers while they are off your feet and have time to dry. But the smell is actually cause by bacteria growing from everywherey in your sneaker to your sking, actuall starting at your sking... If you wear your sneakers for long periods of time time or even whenever possible and also suffer from a bad smell hydrogen peroxide might be able to help you. Most sneakers will tolerate a machine wash and should come out germ free, if that is no option pack them in a sealed back and leaven them in the freezer over night - this will kill all bacteria and remove the smell. Now to break the endless cycle you need to remove the bacteria from inside your skin. So daily sock changes, freezing shoes and washing feet is a must! Your feet will really benefit from a foot bath in a 5% solution of hydrogen peroxide. To keep costs at a minimum use a container that is just the right size for your feet and prepare the solution from pool grade peroxide. I an ideal case you should not need more than 2 liters but all used product can be stored cool and re-used the next day, after that you need to make a new batch. Keep your feet submerged for at least 10 minutes. This will allow a deep penetration of the skin but might result in some white spots that will disappear after a few hours. Consenquent foot baths can be reduced to 5 minutes. After about a week you should notice that wearing your sneakes no longer causes and bad smell and you can stop the treatment. Freezing the sneakers over night, dialy (or more) sock changes and daily, proper cleaning of your feet should prevent any further bad smells :) ----- Bleaching your hair Althoug it was done for many years I really can't recommend using hydron peroxide for this purpose! Any concentration strong enough to have a proper effect in a reasonable time will at least cuase skin irritation. Back in the days they said your burning scalp is what you need to endure to get blonde hair :( And as said already you really don't want to get that stuff into your eyes... General uses If you have a fruit based stain then cahnces are hydrogen peroxide will remove it, especially if fresh. Even at supermarket concentration repeated application and proper drying off with a paper towel or similar will remove even red wine or beetroot stains. ------ Blood... On you skin blood is easy removed with cold water, same on other surfaces but washing off is no option a wet cloth or cotton piece will work fine. Hydrogen peroxide is good if things need to go fst or if the surface is porous, here the releasing oxigen will drive out the blood with the bubbles. ----- Fish tanks... If you love your tank then you really hate to medicate or even worse have a bad algea infestion, especially the stuff of the black kind. A change to activated carbon filter material is always recommended after a medical treatment to remove all leftovers from the system. However, certain medication simply won't be affected by a carbon filter and stay in the system until fully used or broken down otherwise. Especially in bigger tanks a partial water change is often out of the question as it would cause too much additional stress to the fish and plants. Hydrogen peroxide can help to break down most if not all remains of the used medication while at the same time adding more oxygen to the water. To be sensitive and safe in all enviroments I recomment to calculate the concentration based on the volume of your tank and to add the required amount of peroxide very slowly into the outgoing water stream from your pump. By slowly I mean in terms of a slow drip if using solutions over 10% to be added to the tank. If in doubt remove a suitable amount of tank water into a bucket and add the concentrated peroxide to reach the final tank limit. I strongly recommend to stay below 2% in favour over additional treatments a few days later if required. That means the diluted solution you add should be entered into the tank slowly if in doubt add a glass full every few minutes. For the treatment of the dreaded black algea you do the same 2% solution but be prepared that it will take several treatment until you see them die off. If you can then it is best relocate the fish for a few days so you can use a stronger solution of 5-8% just with the plants left in the tank. When transporting fish in a bag it can pay off to add a little bit of 3% peroxide to the bag to give additional oxygen for transport. I do this maually for every fish I buy from a store so I can be sure all fungus and bacteris is killed of before I introduce it to my tank. Really helps to prevent loosing a lot of fish just because you added one or two more to your tank ;) For the normal sized transport bags I use a good shot glass full of 3% peroxide in case you wondered. ----- Fridge and freezer Be it after long use or because you bought one second hand - once empty and warm some of our colling gadget just smell bad. A good clean with a hot water and your favourite cleaning agent is a good start, no need for aggressive stuff ;) If clean but still smelly, like after a power failure with fish in it you might want to go one step further. Best option is to use a spray bottle and a peroxide solution of at least 15% here. Use proper protection as mentioned above and spray all surface with the solution until soaked. What you can take out you take you take out, clean properly and then wipe or brush with the same peroxide solution. Bare aluminium should be handled with caution as in some cases it can oxidise badly, leaving a white and not removable crust behind. Here it is best to wipe and then wipe again with a cloth soaked in clear water to limit exposure time. No need to dry out - wipe out and check if it still smells, if so repeat and wiped off all areas as good as you can with a solution soaked cloth. Once the smell is gone dry out and enjoy smell free use from now on :) ----- Fruit and vegetables Unless you know exactly what happened to it you might want to clean your vegies and fruits properly before using them. Pesticides, herbicites, fungicites.... Not mention normal fungus and bacteria on the product.... On a commercial base hydron peroxide baths are often used to clean products for sensible people, hospital use or long term storage. For a personal use this only makes sense if you have free and unlimited access to the peroxide. An alternative are ozone bubblers. Expensive models can eb bought in shops or online, complete with timers or even a gauge showing the concentration in a room. On a hobby level for the kitchen sink we can use an ozone generator, air pump and bubble stone from the aquarium store ;) Let the pump bubble out the ozone for a minute or two, fill the sink with the fruit and veggies and move them around every few minutes. Best of course with an open window to limit you exposure to the ozone! Rule of thumb: If you can smell it is already too much in the air! The ozone in the water does the same as the peroxide: It breaks down harmful things with pure oxygen. The downside is that it is very harmful for your airways and body in general, so against all what youtube can offer I actually prefer to treat my fruit and veggie in a sealed bag. Place them inside, push out as much air as you can and then fill up with the ozone from the generator. Once the bag is full leave for about 30 minutes then wash and use or place the things in the fridge.

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