Quantum physics

Wow I was looking for some info on quantum physics and stumbled on this *cough* nut job *cough* and check this out *cough*Scam! *cough*

Topic by iman   |  last reply


Quantum Minigolf

Hi!http://www.quantum-minigolf.org/Remember I was talking about how it is to play golf in the quantum world during the show and tell at squid labs? For a popular science presentation, my friend Friedemann came up with the idea of implementing a simulation of quantum minigolf: virtual quantum minigolf by tracking a real golf club and projecting the golf ball on the ground. Credits for the original ideas and for the excellent realization go to him!Best wishes, Matthias

Topic by mgoerner 


Quantum Levitation

Wow, just in time for The Mad Science Fair- an awesome magnetic levitation set-up. The Superconductivity Group at Tel Aviv University have been working on thin-films of superconductive materials and have found some...cool effects.  The thin films will apparently have a few defects, resulting in very specific areas where the magnetic field permeates.  This rigidly constrains the composite, allowing even "up-side down" levitation! (locked in space, beneath a magnet.)  Would be so awesome to play around with but apparently the deposition of the superconductive film is a real challenge, not to mention the sapphire substrate. A forum post at HI Capacity had these links, probably after a member saw Gizmodo's article "What the Hell Magnets? Why Are You So Amazing?" Via youtube: ASTCvideos Quantum Levitation QuantumLevitation

Topic by CrLz   |  last reply


Macro quantum effects?

A permanent magnet's magnetism is commonly described as a small molecular effect wherein the the effect of individual molecules is polarised in a way so that the effect reinforces and creates a macro effect throughout the entire material. Is it possible - do you know of any surfaces or materials, real or proposed, that could be considered to be a similar kind of "upscaling of 'microscopic' properties"?

Topic by 8bit   |  last reply


What the BLEEP do we know?

How many have viewed the movie or read any of the books enititled: What the BLEEP Do We Know? [http://https:www.whatthebleep.com What the BLEEP link]I just viewed the shorter version of "Down the Rabbit Hole", and would like to have some opinion on whether it is worth my while to veiw the extended (6 DVD) version of it?

Topic by Goodhart   |  last reply


See quantum weirdness for yourself!

An article in ScienceWorld reports on a proposed experimental setup which would make quantum entanglement visible to the naked eye! Using stimulated emission (the same effect that causes lasing), a group led by Nicolas Gisin of the University of Geneva proposes to amplify one photon of an entangled pair to a level that is visible to the naked eye. Observers watching through polarizing filters would then be able to directly see the "spooky action at a distance" of quantum correlations.

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply


Quantum superposition, big enough to see!

In today's Nature online, there's a report of an experimental group who have put a naked-eye visible oscillator (an aluminum-nitride paddle about 30 microns wide) into a quantum superposition of moving and not moving simultaneously.  They cooled the paddle to a few tens of millikelvins, and connected it to a superconducting circuit that could drive the paddle to osciilate.  After confirming that the paddle was in its quantum ground state (no vibrational energy), they put the superconducting circuit into a superposition of on- and off states, and directly measured that the paddle was in the corresponding superposition of vibrating and not vibrating. In the words of J.B.S. Haldane, "Life is not only queerer than we imagine, it is queerer than we can imagine." Update #1:  Science News also has a report on this result, with some slightly different details.  The paper itself is a pay-per-view Nature article. Update #2:  Science magazine now also has a report on this result, with a better and more detailed explanation of the superconducting phase circuit.

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply


Copenhagen or Many Worlds Interpretation?

Which interpretation of quantum physics do you prefer? Personally I favour the Many Worlds interpretation as it better explains how the particle 'chooses' what state it collapses into, whereas when I consider the Copenhagen interpretation, it makes me think that the particle is deciding, which bothers me, obviously. However, the Many Worlds interpretation throws up many issues, such as the problem of probability (if a universe is created for every possible outcome, the probability of anything is 1, including say, your computer randomly exploding now). Which is quite ridiculous. But still, to me, a better explanation. So your thoughts?

Topic by Rupert95   |  last reply


Physicist proves that teleportation of energy is possible

A physicist has demonstrated that teleportation of energy is possible, a discovery that has profound implications for the study of physics.  Feb 5, 2010 Here is the link:  Physicists teleport energy And in case that doesn't work:   http://www.smartplanet.com/business/blog/smart-takes/physicist-proves-that-teleportation-of-energy-is-possible/3967/  And, a link provided by LEMONIE that goes straight to the actual paper on the subject:    Energy-Entanglement Relation for Quantum Energy Teleportation - Masahiro Hotta   http://www.scribd.com/doc/26418681/Energy-Entanglement-Relation-for-Quantum-Energy-Teleportation-Masahiro-Hotta/     I don't know why that last link it not clickable though....      

Topic by Goodhart   |  last reply


Can any (Physicist) explain this laser-weirdness that I'm seeing? Answered

I've got some cheap-o red-lasers. Up close on surfaces I see what looks like old-fashioned monochrome TV static in miniature* (and red). Other people see it too, I think it's some kind of "Quantum-noise" but would like other opinions. L *I don't like looking at it - it reminds me of this.

Question by lemonie   |  last reply


Quantum random-walk puts single atom into observable superposition of states

Http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/39802Single atoms have been spotted doing the quantum version of the random walk by physicists in Germany. This sighting of a "quantum walk" could help in the design of quantum search algorithms, or in the understanding of the transition from the quantum, microscopic world to the classical, macroscopic world.Update 15 July 2009: The actual paper appears in this week's Science (pay-per-view, unfortunately). Here's a nice diagram from the article, contrasting (left) the quantum superposition with (right) one of the classicial random walks. The histograms below show their actual measurements in the two situations.

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply


New Instructables CSS not displaying images in Firefox Quantum (v58). Anyone else having issue? Answered

New Instructables CSS not displaying images in Firefox Quantum (v58). Anyone else having issue?Can view perfectly in Chrome.

Question by drinknhand   |  last reply


how would you drill hole big enough for a led throwie to get in the side a glass bottle ?

Thats if it possible and preferably without breaking it ?

Question by moo of the cow   |  last reply


Why can a function satisfying same boundary conditions as functions Un(x) of a complete set be expanded as ΣCnUn(x)?

This is a question I encountered while reading Introduction to Quantum Theory by Hendrik F. Hameka (Please don't worry, I'm not trying to cheat on my homework, I am just asking out of curiosity). The book states the following:      "It can be shown that a function f(x) that satisfies the same boundary conditions as the functions Un(x) of a complete set can be expanded as f(x) = Σ CnUn(x) ... If we multiply by U*m(x) and integrate, we obtain < Um | f > = Cm " This second part is fairly straightforward because ∫ U*m f(x) dx = ∫ U*m Σ CnUn(x) dx and it follows that < Um | f > = Cn Σ < Um | Un > = Cn Σ δn,m = Cn However, the first part confuses me because I can only justify it when Un(x) = (2π)^(-1/2) e^(inx) (The example of a complete set given in the book, actually) In that case, it can easily be seen that the expression Σ < Un | f > Un(x) is just the Fourier Series expansion of f(x) and thus the result is valid for the particular complete set. However this does not explain why this is valid for all complete sets: "how can you prove that this conclusion is valid not only for this particular complete set, but for all complete sets?" is my question. Thank you in advance for answering! Please feel free to post any questions of your own if you need clarification. Also, please be advised that you should not post responses on the order of "you didn't specify an interval of integration, so your question is impossible!" - if you know enough to answer the question, then you will understand why said interval is not specified, etc. Once again, thanks!

Question by Xellers   |  last reply


How do I wire a 6 volt gell cell to power 2 photo flashes?

I have used a 6 volt gell cell to power a 6 volt powered camera flash before. No big deal. I also have a couple Quantum Battery 1 (6 volt output) units that can power two 6 volt powered flashes at the same time. I'd like to rig a gell cell with higher capacity than my Quantums to mirror that 2 flash capacity. I'm unsure of how this should be wired. I plan to mount this within an electrical project box. I appreciate any and all advice & suggestions. Thanks!

Question by mghorner   |  last reply


Firefox - Login | Signup is missing

Recently Firefox updated and now the "Login | Signup" is missing from the upper right corner of the webpage (attached screenshot).Current version of Firefox is Firefox Quantum 64.0.2 (64-bit).Previous to the latest series of Firefox updates, those buttons were visible.

Question by dwfunk4475   |  last reply


Wii Friend Codes

Here are my wii friend codes Quantum of Solace: 3609-5355-8761 Buy this game! Then post yours! Animal Crossing: 4511-4786-9191 Post yours! Brawl: Will Post Later. Please Post yours! Rockband2: Will Post Later. Please Post yours! Please post your own! BB

Topic by Bartboy   |  last reply


Is there a way to make a small motorized greeting card opener ?

A friend wants to be able, at swap meets, to display greeting cards as people pass by, but in a novel way. That is, have a card slowly open, stay open for maybe 15 seconds, then slowly close. And repeat, ad infinitum. Is this doable with cheap parts, or maybe a disco ball motor ? Thanks in advance ! Alan, Quantum Leap Unlimited Onward, Upward

Topic by AlanL27   |  last reply


Creating an electromagnet as powerful as an NeFeB magnet with same size

Is this possible?So I'm working on this project on levitation using superconductor and strong NeFeB magnets. I'm try to determine the possibility of replacing the magnets with electromagnets equally as powerful and of the same size if not smaller. But I'm bit skeptic about the idea as I'm not sure how possible it will be to construct such electromagnet (or buy them preferable). Is this something that is possible? can anyone reading this give me recommendations? thanks

Topic by gjimoh   |  last reply


Random GoodHart: a newly discovered LAW

I know this is kind of random, and I just now, moments ago, accidentally discovered this, but there is a GOODHART's LAW  :-) It states:   once a social or economic indicator or other surrogate measure is made a target for the purpose of conducting social or economic policy, then it will lose the information content that would qualify it to play that role. This almost sounds like a parallel to the famous Quantum Mechanics rule of effecting the state of a particle by observing it.  This bulletin was brought to you by the Totally Random Goodhart Reseach and Useless Information Recovery team.  Thanks for reading.

Topic by Goodhart   |  last reply


Lawn mower starts but dies right away did some carb work on it help?

this lawn mower is a American yard Power Pro 5 hp Quantum the mower starts fine but dies right away I did have the carb off and it looked fine I checked all the holes in it and they seemed open and fine,            I put it back together and still it does the same thing,  Help please this is my first time getting in to it to this degree. I am a electricain soI'm  not completely  unknolageable thank you

Question by sparkypeg   |  last reply


EPR (Einstein Podolsky Rosen) paradox

. Following a link in one of kelseymh's posts, I started reading the Wikipedia page on Bell's Theorem. Before I got through the first sentence of the Overview, I got sidetracked on the EPR paradox (read about it before, but found I had forgotten or misunderstood a lot of it). A lot of it still doesn't make sense. They didn't teach us a lot a quantum physics back in the '70s. heehee. Looks to me like I need to understand EPR before I try to go any further. Any volunteers to try to explain it so that Joe Plumber can understand?. TIA

Topic by NachoMahma   |  last reply


What is a wavefunction?

In the Physics topic on the EPR paradox, NachoMahma asked about wavefunctions and "collapse."Let's put aside the whole "collapse" issue -- not all physicists agree that it is a sensible concept. NM's comment has a link to the Measurement Problem, and I'm not a good enough theorist or philsopher to contribute to that argument.What is the wavefunction? "Is wavefunction only a convenient way to say it's located somewhere close to here, but we're not sure exactly where until we measure it?""At any particular point in time/space the object is in a definite spot with a definite set of properties, but we can only make a reasonable guess?"No. The wavefunction, spread out over all of space (I'm speaking non-relativistically here, but the formal interpretation applies to spacetime), is the fundamental "thing" in QM. "Objects" are wavefunctions. If the wavefunction is localized (non-zero for a small contiguous set of coordinates, zero everywhere else) then treating it like a particle makes sense. Otherwise, it doesn't; the thing behaves like a wave, showing diffraction, interference, and lots of other effects. My preference, when I talk about these things, is to just call them "quanta." They are not particles, they are not waves; they are their own kind of entity with well defined, if really hard to understand, behaviour.How do I get to that point? Well, quantum mechanics is one example of a "field theory" (electromagnetism is the most familiar classical field theory). The equations we write down (the Schrödinger equation non-relativisitically, the relativistic Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations) to describe how quanta behave are coupled partial differential equations (PDEs), which relate the values (and derivatives) of the field at every point in space to their evolution in time.A PDE which relates the time and spatial properties of a function is either a wave equation (if the solutions are sines and cosines) or a diffusion equation (if the solutions are exponentials). The Schrödinger equation is a wave equation, and we call the solutions wavefunctions. Electromagnetism also has a wave equation, which is how we get radio, light, etc.The difference is that the functions in EM are "real valued:" the value of the field at each point in space/time is a regular floating-point number (the "phase" in EM is determined by the relative values of the field and nearby points). The wavefunction is a '''complex valued''' field -- at each point in space/time, the field has both an amplitude and a phase (or equivalently a real and an imaginary component). This means that wavefunctions can interfere in ways more complex than simply "adding" or "subtracting", which can have quite interesting consequences.You get probabilities by taking the square (norm) of the wavefunction. This procedure gives you a real value, a probability, at each coordinate. When you make a measurement, those probabilities determine which coordinate value you see as the "location" of the quantum. The actual result is random, but that isn't because "we're not sure exactly." The quantum objective does not have a single coordinate location until we make the measurement.How that happens, whether by "collapse," "decoherence," "many worlds splitting" or something else, is a subject of intense philosophical and experimental argument.

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply


LEDs keep on taking over. Excellent.

It's no secret that we love using LEDs for our projects. They sip power and are fantastically tiny. You can even get an introduction to how they work with just an LED and a coin battery. If you haven't used one yet, make it a new year's resolution to make one light up this year. If you want to complete any resolutions, that'll be one of the easiest.Yesterday's announcement of the Macbook Air in San Francisco pushes the LEDs further. This isn't the first laptop to have it, but it's a dramatic display of how far the tech has come and how far it needs to go. LEDs aren't perfect for every use, but they hopefully will be someday.According to this article some of the current goals are for better whites, deep-UV, and quantum cryptography. All of which sound pretty tasty.But what about you? What do you want from LEDs that you don't see just yet?

Topic by fungus amungus   |  last reply


USes for my mac?

I have this old B&W; G3 and so far I have 4 hard drives in it (2 old 6 gig in raid stripe, and 2 old 20 gig quantum fireballs). I also have a dvd burner in it, but it's kinda hard to use all the drives at once :(Regardless, I'm wondering what I can use for a OS on this old unit (350mhz) and I have 512mb of ram in it (I think). I tried mac os x server 10.4.9 this morning that I burned onto a dvd, it booted, but when I tried to proceed in the setup, it told me that it wasn't compatible with my mac or something to that extent.I'm downloading Gentoo as per recommendation from a friend, and then he told me, he never could get linux to work on any mac. Such encouragement. I'm just stumped and curious to see if anyone else has some ideas for what I could use this server for.

Topic by Punkguyta 


Art as an investment vehicle.

I find it hard to say anything nice about the The Artist's Pension Trust (via the BBC) and I'm finding it equally difficult to completely denounce it. I suppose many of my misgivings may have more to do with the general state of art within contemporary culture than with the trust itself. Anyway, decide for yourself at their official homepage. Or just take the New York Times' word that the Artist's Pension Trust is infused with "a healthy dose of socialism.""Such informal trading systems, where young artists swap their own work for art made by others, has always served this dual purpose of combining pleasure with diversified financial security. The idea is that at least one of the group will become a recognised and valued artist, and as such a broad arts portfolio is likely to contain at least one valuable work of art. Now, a multilingual globetrotting financier has formalised the system, making a quantum leap in the process, in the form of the Artist Pension Trust." -- BBCHowever, if you really want to make a good investment, let the BBC show you How to Spot a Banksy for fun and profit.

Topic by randofo   |  last reply


midflex idea bulb

I was in my quantum class today taking in some nice Schrodinger equations. The professor was having a hard time figuring out which students were understanding the material. I thought to myself, "Wouldn't it be nice to have a consistent way to show the teacher you understood." So then it hit me... why not have a classic idea bulb on top of a hat. You could push a button and it would light up. Thus indicating to the teacher that you understood the material. Simple enough, but kind of annoying to push a button every could of minutes. Why not use the new Mindflex toy to gauge your understanding of the material? The user could wear the headset like usual. Instead of controlling a ball like in the game, a sudden decrease in concentration (the realization of an idea) would turn the light bulb on. The electronics should be simple enough. It would obviously be better to use an LED instead of an actual light bulb. I would build it myself, but I don't want to spend $60 on a mindflex game. What do you think? Elijah

Topic by Mirage_662   |  last reply


Jargon ... it's not just for breakfast anymore

Here's the title and abstract of a preprint that was posted to arXiv yesterday. I have no certain idea of what it all mean, and I'm a practicing physicist! I just find the ratio of unintelligible jargon to English really amusing.Monopole and Topological Electron Dynamics in Adiabatic Spintronic and Graphene SystemsAuthors: S. G. Tan, M. B. A. Jalil, Takashi FujitaComments: 21 pagesSubjects: Quantum Physics (quant-ph)A unified theoretical treatment is presented to describe the physics of electron dynamics in semiconductor and graphene systems. Electron spin fast alignment with the Zeeman magnetic field (physical or effective) is treated as a form of adiabatic spin evolution which necessarily generates a monopole in magnetic space. One could transform this monopole into the physical and intuitive topological magnetic fields in the useful momentum (K) or real spaces (R). The physics of electron dynamics related to spin Hall, torque, oscillations and other technologically useful spinor effects can be inferred from the topological magnetic fields in spintronic, graphene and other SU(2) systems.

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply


Nemomatic Open Studio Show

Hello Friends!  If you are reading this then you are invited to my Open Studio and Show, Saturday October 24th from 4-8 pm in Berkeley CA. I have a number of pieces new and old to share with you including a brand new big one (see attached flyer)!    My shop-mates Quantum Builders (green homes) will also be having an open house so you have that much more of a reason to come.   I don't get many opportunities to show this many pieces at one time, and even fewer opportunities to meet and talk with you all,  so I hope you'll come if you can. Click here for full details and directions with map. I thought it would be more fun if I kept the new work semi-secret so I won't post final photos until the week following the show (sorry out-of-towners).  If you just can't wait, drop my by news page and you can see some of the works in progress.

Topic by nemomatic 


A new (and potentially real) way to produce hydrogen from water

A report in Science News today describes the results of an extremely detailed molecular simulation (full non-relativistic quantum mechanics) which shows how small clusters of (less than two dozen!) aluminum atoms can catalyze the dissociation of water into hydrogen with very high efficiency.  The paper has apparently been accepted by Physical Review Letters, but there's nothing up on arXiv :-( Before the alternative-energy fringe starts jumping up and down, the big roadblock to this mechanism is how to fabricate and distribute aluminum atomic clusters (called "superatoms" in the report; sigh...).  Making "nanoscale" (another annoying word...) clusters of atoms usually involves high temperatures and vacuum systems.   Together, those will consume substantially more energy than you recover from making and burning the hydrogen. However, if that roadblock can be overcome, then this does become a viable technology for fuel cells:  fill a tank with water, pour in a pouch (or bucket) of aluminum clusters (magic pixie dust :-), and hydrogen starts bubbling out.  It will be interesting to see how this shakes out Oh, and the simulation makes cool pictures, too!

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply


What's your favorite Valentine's Day oblation?

It's getting near the middle of February, a time when those of us who are single bemoan this fact and those of you who aren't are expected to produce an offering to remain that way. So what's your ritual sacrifice of choice? Candy? Jewelry? Flowers? Or do you rail against the commercially imposed standards of society and get your significant other something more out of the ordinary? Ladies, do you often get your gentlemen presents, or is it mostly a one-way street? Personally, I'm in favor of composing sonnets. It's inexpensive, about as old-school as you can get, and doesn't put money in the pocket of De Beers. When e'er I see you after lab is done, You make me wish that zero could divide If only so our 2 could equal 1, Such that our theories could be unified, You move like music set to calculus, A SIN-curve body makes sin seem divine, Curves like space-time but oh so sinuous, That make me wish that I were your COS, But TAN to this topic, I do feel Some measure of quantum uncertainty, What your superposition might reveal, Should I ask you, what you might say to me, So 'til I feel that I could stand the shock, I think I'll leave that cat inside the box.

Topic by Mother Natures Son   |  last reply


Etsy and Instructables Sew Useful Results

We're excited to announce the results of the Etsy and Instructables Sew Useful contest! The rest of the fantastic projects can be found in the Etsy group. Check them out for more inspiration. First PrizesEach winner will receive a Singer QUANTUM(r) 9940 computerized sewing machine.Educational: Rain or Shine Solar Charger by blondietheblondHybrid: Fire Skirt! by laHelpful: Airtight waterproof hearing aid dryer by kerri9494Runners-UpEach winner will receive a laser-etched Leatherman Juice S2 and an Etsy Labs gift box filled with goodies.Educational: Envelope Book by donovanbeesonHybrid: SewUseful Plushie Personal Boom-box / Goodnight Pillow by opcpHelpful: SewUseful Walker Bag With a Professional Touch by pauljuliadesignsAll the winners should watch for a personal message from us for prize claiming instructions.Contratulations to everyone who entered. The high quality and sheer variety of entries made the judging quite difficult- next time we'll see about enlarging the prize pool to celebrate even more of your fabulous work!Special thanks to all of our dedicated judges, who sifted through all 126 awesome entries:adam, adrian1, ashley, Chillionair, canida, daniellexo, emilybidwell, enid, erinhaldrup, ErinS, EtsyTrainee, ewilhelm, HeyMichelle, iheartmoustaches, jessiep, julieincharge, matt, natalie, pt, rachel, RevolvingDork, SarahSays, sarawearsskirts, stellaloella, TeenAngster, Tetranitrate, trebuchet03, and vanessa. For more information on the way we judged this contest, check here.Original contest rules can be found here.

Topic by jessiep 


Dance of the Scientists

So you think you can defend your research in front of a panel of experts? How about if you had to do it... with interpretive dance.No, this is not a joke. This is the first annual Dance Your Ph.D. Contest. Read this description and hit the link for videos of the dances....the diversity of the dancers was nothing compared with the diversity of their output. The graduate student category is a case in point. The first dance, Gruetzbauch's 30-second galactic tango, focused on one phenomenon: the capture of a galaxy by a larger one. Schraffl gave us raw data—a small scene from Il pittore parigino by Domenico Cimarosa—without analysis or metaphor. Sven Ramelow did a bit of both. His quantum physics Ph.D. title allowed him to make a play on words: The acronym SPUC is a homophone of a German word for ghost, and hence the scary sheet dance. Meanwhile, he used a laser light attached to his head to illustrate the strangely behaving photons he studies. (Very clever.) But then came Brian Stewart.No one was surprised when he scooped the prize. For one thing, Stewart wore nothing but a shimmering, translucent loin cloth. (That's worth a few bonus points in my book.) But the judges told me afterward that his dance stood out because it accomplished two things at once. Most importantly, "he connected with the audience," said Pastorini. "That is the purpose of dance: to create emotions." A big help was his choice of music a jazz interpretation of African Pygmy tribal music by Herbie Hancock which created an atmosphere of funky ancientness. Dance Your Ph.D. Contestvia Neatorama

Topic by fungus amungus   |  last reply


Observing single photons (may be future Instructable)

In a thread on building a DIY Geiger counter, I mentioned that it's possible to do an experiment to see single photons directly with your eyes. This is a lab we did when I was an undergraduate, more than 20 years ago. I haven't done the setup myself since then, so I'm just going to describe it; if I have the opportunity run it again, then I'll make an I'ble.If someone else decides to tackle it, please feel free to write it up yourself!The human eye detects light via a family of proteins called opsins. Different forms of photopsins are sensitive to different wavebands, which is what gives us color vision. Rhodopsin is sensitive mainly to greenish-blue light, and provides us with monochromatic night vision. Rhodopsin works by changing its conformation when it absorbs a photon; that change of conformation allows ions to flow through the rod cell's membrane and generate a signal. The signal from each rod cell is processed through the retina and passed to the visual cortex, where a representation of the visual field is constructed.Human rhodopsin has a quantum efficiency of about 25% (there's a 25% chance a single photon will be absorbed and produce the rod-cell signal). By comparison, cat rhodopsin is more than 90% quantum efficient. 25% QE is sufficiently high to be observable -- a source of single photons can be seen by a dark-adpated person with normal vision.You'll need a steady source of well-collimated photons. A green laser pointer (~532 nm) will do nicely. But how many photons does it generate? A wavelength of 532 nm corresponds to 3.53×10-19 joules. So a small 1mW laser pointer puts out 2.8×1015 photons per second (watt = joule/s). How do you reduce that to one photon at a time? With filters. An ND3 neutral density filter reduces the output light by 10-3 compared to the input, so a stack of just five ND3's in front of this laster pointer would result in (on average) just 2.8 photons per second! A stack of four ND4's would give you 0.28 photons/s on average.If you don't have neutral density filters, you can make a decent approximation, by stacking sheets of black trash-bag plastic. To make this work you have to measure the attenuation yourself, so you'll need a photodetector, something which gives an output (voltage, resistance, current, whatever) proportional to the intensity of light.Once you have your single-photon source, you need to set it up in a completely dark room. If you have access to an old-style photographic darkroom, use it. Otherwise, use thick (3-5 mm) black felt and gaffer's tape to seal any windows and doorframes. Put the laser on a table or stand pointed at your face, with the stack of NDs (or trash bags) in front of it. If you're doing this by yourself, you may want to have a piece of tape set up to hold the pointer's button down. Otherwise, your lab partner will take care of it.Sit in the dark for 20 to 30 minutes. This will seem like forever, so you may want something to help you keep track of the time. A standard CD will be about half finished, or you can get through ten pop sons on your iPod, when your eyes become dark adapted.Turn on the laser. You'll see intermittent flashes all coming from nearly the same place in your visual field; if you turn your head, the location will move in the opposite direction. If you've used filters to get down to a few flashes per second, POV will make them easier to see. At less than one photon per second, you'll see them individually.

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply


GID Vials, Tritium, TRASERS, Powders and Chemicals GLOW IN THE DARK!

TRITIUM! So I get a lot of questions from my post and instructables. Tritium Vials are Radioactive Hydrogen H3, also known as hydrogen-3 is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It is contained in small glass vials coated in colored phosphor then encased in glass or sealed plastics. These are commonly seen in Gun Sights, Watches (TRASERS) and some Emergency Exit Signs. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tritium_illumination Small amounts are legal and for approved uses. Read the NRC guides Typically the Trit vials are small, expensive and dim. The latest GID (Glow in the Dark) Chemsticks, LED's and GID Powders or paints seems much more effective and usable. * Cyalume, as used in a lightsticks, emits light by chemiluminescence of a fluorescent dye (also called fluorescor) activated by cyalume reacting with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalyst, such as sodium salicylate. It is the most efficient chemiluminescent reaction known. up to 15% quantum efficiency. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemiluminescence New LED low power requirements and high Lumen or light output have provided many solutions that are low cost, high power and longer lasting. GID Paint or Powders are "charged" with light or daylight sources as with your traditional kids toys or stickers. New products are brighter, glow longer and are now waterproof, have many colors and applications. http://www.4physics.com/catalog/GIDinfo.php Also this is occasionally confused with the chemical illumination. However these paints powders and materials use common phosphorescent materials include zinc sulfide and strontium aluminate. Use of zinc sulfide for safety related products dates back to the 1930s. However, the development of strontium oxide aluminate, with a luminance approximately 10 times greater than zinc sulfide, has relegated most zinc sulfide based products to the novelty category. Strontium oxide aluminate based pigments are now used in exit signs, pathway marking, and other safety related signage. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorescence Hope this helps! 01/2011 - Update Source for Materials http://www.darkniteglow.com/glow-shop/ ERCK www.Candlepowerforums.com Additional Tritium Resources * U.S. NRC: http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/operating/ops-experience/grndwtr-contam-tritium.html * U.S. EPA: http://www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/tritium.htm * U.S. DOE (Argonne National Lab): http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/tritium.pdf * California EPA: http://www.oehha.ca.gov/water/phg/allphgs.html * University of Idaho: http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/tritium.htm

Topic by erckgillis   |  last reply


Home automation & Home door sequrity including one android apk file project available ???

Please help me for this project. how will be arduino program code , which pin are connect to apparatus to apparatus. please give me all description step by step this project implimentation. Project planning:-                   1.Home automation & Home door sequrity including one android apk file.                   2. 4 Relay:   1. Blue led light.                                 2. Red  led light.                                 3. White led light for bath room using PIR sensor.(this light switch on/off only using pir sensor,                                            because-wet hand electric shock on switch or, damged mobile display).                                 4. Fan using voltage regulator.                                  note:- light switch on/off & fan switch & voltage regulataor incease/decrease including appk file.                   3.Home squrity switch board on/off may be   a.display board on wall of house.                                                                b. display in android apk file.                   4.when open door with corect srquirty,then photo upload in memory card.if incorect password then a lout of sound.                   5.when fire in house ,alarm using gas sensor. Room temperature, huminity show in display. Apparatues:            A: Led light on/off by mobile app.                  1.ESP8266 Serial Wi-Fi Wireless Transceiver Module for IOT.                  2.Generic(unbranded )4-channel relay control board module with optocoupler, 4 way relay module for arduino                  3.Arduino Uno R3 ATmega328P ATMEGA16U2 Compatible with USB Cable.                     or,xcluma Atmel Atmega 2560 Mega2560-16Au (16 Mhz) R3 Board+Usb Cable For Arduino.                  4.Led light 3(Blue,Red,White for Bath room),Motor Fan.                  5.REES52 REES_2 Bread Board or Solderless Pieces Circuit Test Board Project Board.                  6.Jumper Wires Male to Male, male to female, female to female.                  7.Generic KG001 HC-SR501 PIR Sensor Pyroelectric Infrared Module 2pcs(for bath room & door open).                  8.Adraxx LM7805 7508 Positive Voltage Regulator IC, 5V 1A.                  9.Resister 1k ohm.                  10.REES52 MQ2 Arduino Compatible Gas Sensor, Methane, Butane, LPG, Smoke Sensor.           B: Home sequrity.                  1.Quantum QHM495LM 25MP Web Camera.                  2.SanDisk Ultra MicroSDHC 32GB UHS-I Class 10 Memory Card With Adapter.                  3.REES52 621033926893 Universial 16 Key Switch Keypad Keyboard Fit for Arduino by REES52.                  4.Silicon Technolabs 20x4 Line LCD Display With Blue backlight HD44780 for ALL Arduino,Rasp Pi,AVR,ARM,8051 (Blue). Software:      1. Arduino-1.8.5.                2. wampserver & notepad++ (for php web page).                3. Android Apk file.      please help me for this project. how will be arduino program code , which pin are connect to apparatus to apparatus. please give me all description step by step this project implimentation.  i will waiting for you.

Question by somnathpanjaproject2018   |  last reply


Is it worth dropping $400 on a shiny new Rigol DS1054Z scope?

I will describe my situation: I am a hobbiest that likes to make cool projects, and plan to get into maybe RF analog stuff, (maybe start out with making a few FM bugs, reverse engineer a simple video transmitter kit, and a few other things.) as well get into arduino some more, AC analysis (learn about Xformers, power factor, maybe some math, etc.) and I so currently have an old 2ch. 30MHz analog oscilloscope that is a PITA to make real measurements with. Not only is it huge and takes up a lots of space, but also I'm not even sure it is in cal!) I will be transferring into UVA (or maybe VT) for EE, and gone this summer for a NASA internship at langley. (maybe I will be able to take it with me w/ a toolbox of some electronics stuff!)   The scope I am looking at (what appears to be what many subscribers seem to use, and/or claim is pretty good) is the Rigol DS1054Z. I only know how to use my $30 30MHz BKprecision scope I got on craigslist from the son of a father who was a TV repairman, and have NO experience with the use of the fancy-shmancy digital scope! What little I know is from watching EEVblog review of other scopes in the past. (I do know that they can be useful for 'capturing' waveforms, and can be set up to trigger on a pulse, maybe a certain digital codes, and that could come in handy for reverse engineering crap.)   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7v-tFYbc7h8   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2qdtQkBKhc   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ETCOhzU1O5A   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-gStNYfqMXk     What sells it to me, being a complete newbie to electronics and digital scopes is that it has a nice big screen, the specs seem good (other certainly think, I have no intuition of what any of those things mean except the bandwidth, and maybe the sampling rate, 1GSa/s), 4 channels, intensity graded display, and it has loads of functions and stuff for me to grow into, and hacking it to make it think it is a DS1104Z is tempting, but I probably will not do that right away. Maybe once I feel what it offered is limiting.   The deal breakers is the $400 price, a bit steep for me (cheap for something this good, apparently but still.), the fear that by the time I really start using it, it will be obsolete and the same money can buy some quantum super duper ASIC tech whiz bang 3GHz 100Gsa/s 1GB segmented memory spectacular scope!   I am not really sure if it has a source, or signal generator either. Some sources claim that higher end ones do, or certain models anyway, and it seems like the official site say's no. http://www.rigolna.com/products/digital-oscilloscopes/ds1000Z/ds1054z/ That brings me to my next point. Should I also get a decent function generator?   

Question by -max-   |  last reply


Is it worth dropping $400 on a really nice oscilloscope (Rigol DS1054Z)?

I will describe my situation: I am a hobbiest that likes to make cool projects, and plan to get into maybe RF analog stuff, (maybe start out with making a few FM bugs, reverse engineer a simple video transmitter kit, and a few other things.) as well get into arduino some more, AC analysis (learn about Xformers, power factor, maybe some math, etc.) and I so currently have an old 2ch. 30MHz analog oscilloscope that is a PITA to make real measurements with. Not only is it huge and takes up a lots of space, but also I'm not even sure it is in cal!) I will be transferring into UVA (or maybe VT) for EE, and gone this summer for a NASA internship at langley. (maybe I will be able to take it with me w/ a toolbox of some electronics stuff!) The scope I am looking at (what appears to be what many subscribers seem to use, and/or claim is pretty good) is the Rigol DS1054Z. I only know how to use my $30 30MHz BKprecision scope I got on craigslist from the son of a father who was a TV repairman, and have NO experience with the use of the fancy-shmancy digital scope! What little I know is from watching EEVblog review of other scopes in the past. (I do know that they can be useful for 'capturing' waveforms, and can be set up to trigger on a pulse, maybe a certain digital codes, and that could come in handy for reverse engineering crap.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7v-tFYbc7h8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2qdtQkBKhc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ETCOhzU1O5A https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-gStNYfqMXk What sells it to me, being a complete newbie to electronics and digital scopes is that it has a nice big screen, the specs seem good (other certainly think, I have no intuition of what any of those things mean except the bandwidth, and maybe the sampling rate, 1GSa/s), 4 channels, intensity graded display, and it has loads of functions and stuff for me to grow into, and hacking it to make it think it is a DS1104Z is tempting, but I probably will not do that right away. Maybe once I feel what it offered is limiting. The deal breakers is the $400 price, a bit steep for me (cheap for something this good, apparently but still.), the fear that by the time I really start using it, it will be obsolete and the same money can buy some quantum super duper ASIC tech whiz bang 3GHz 100Gsa/s 1GB segmented memory spectacular scope! I am not really sure if it has a source, or signal generator either. Some sources claim that higher end ones do, or certain models anyway, and it seems like the official site say's no. http://www.rigolna.com/products/digital-oscilloscopes/ds1000Z/ds1054z/ That brings me to my next point. Should I also get a decent function generator? 

Question by -max-   |  last reply


Turbine generator with heat pump

I got another weird idea that I like to share as I don't see me putting into reality anytime soon but someone else might do it for me after reading it ;) If you like me and call home where it is far too hot for most of the year you might have wondered how to cut the energy bills down. Especially if you in a remote area "off the grid". Sounds interesting? Then just do me the favour of posting here if you plan to put into reality and keep us updated ;) Technology has come long way and with some mirror like Mylar foil anyone can build big reflectors to use the sun for heating all sorts of things. Modern solar hot water systems are designed to produce a temp high enough to kill all harmfull stuff that might otherwise grow in our system but we can one step further: (Keep in mind it is just an idea with no prototype to proofe the concept works as expected!) Using heat pipes in a round reflector that is linked to solar tracker would allow us to boil water for as long as the sun is out there. Don't know if the flat types used for hot water systems are capable of producing steam but someone might have an old one at hand and is willing to test it on a sunny day? Anyway, assuming we can build a large enough array of solar ovens heating water pipes it is possible to drive a turbine with the steam. A linked generator of suitable size would now provide the electricity we might need to charge batteries or to power other things. But of course this would be total waste of the remaining energy in the steam! Plus we could really need some airconditioner, don't we? So in my vision we don't want to waste the water either, which mean we not only use the heat but also reuse the water to go back into the solar oven. If we now use an uscaled version of our RV fridge and instead of a heating element or a flame our remaining heat from the steam we can power a big fridge and an airconditioner on the same continous-cycle-ammonia-fridge type to cool what we need. Depending on the size and insulation rating of a house it is possible to be totally independent from the power grid during the sunny times. During the winter times the same generator can be combined with a ducted heating system where the waste heat of it is used to produce the steam we need. Of course integrating this into one unit would be the prefered option to keep the physical dimensions small. Combine all this with some good sized battery backup and inverter system and you might have enough juice to spare to make it through a cloudy day or two. Add some wind generators if you are in a suitable area to provide additional electricty. I think with new parts and some handy work it should be possible to create such a system for under $3000US. With access to some well sorted scrap yards even for free, not counting consumables, selants and so on... Sadly I don't own a house and currently not even have a garage to set up a little workshop so for now it stays an idea only... Tried to find some sponsors or at least people with interest to create something like this down here but it is like trying to explain quantum physics to a hundred year old in the retirement village. Sure, you can build something that would give me electricity and cooling for free? ... Of course it will work, so come back and show me once you made it.... If that crap could work, why are still buying fridges that run on electricty and airconditioners that drain our bank accounts?... We have 5 cooling containers outside runningon generators that use over 200liters of fuel every day and come try to tell me a steam generator can cut me fuel bills down by at least 50% if not more?... Just some of the more friendlier responses I got after trying to find some interest. Don't know if it is problem of the Aussie mentality or if I am just unable to make someone understand that we can use the scorching sun for free :( But I am not willing to give up on the idea itself, so what do you think? Oh! You have the financial means and access to create some prototype to integrate into a new cool house or  self sustaining home? Please feel free to contact me so we can start and make a living out of it ;)

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


Watching the moon without the blurry view?

We put our biggest telescopes on the highest mountians and as far away from civilisation as possible.Reason behind is light pollution and atmospheric distortion.My days of playing with a big telescope in the garden every night are long over, life moves on once you need a job to make a living and something like a family.A while ago I had a look through a friend's telescope at night again when I was asked to give him a hand with the connection to Wifi, computer, printer and so on.Just imagine a big telescope with built in camera and Wifi.Checking the claimed to be astonishingly clear pictures of the moon we took I started to wonder...Being able to get a "close up" so to say of a little crater on the moon is nice.But I missed the clearity.If you take a picture with your phone or camera with perfect setting then you get the best possible picture.Not so much for the moon.Those who ever used a telescopic lens on the camera with some haze or fog will know how things in the atmosphere have certain effects.The moon is basically in a boring grey so BW cameras would be sufficient and also eliminate all the bad side effects of colored imagining chips.Other reasons than our atmosphere that can prevent a clear picture...The earth rotates and so does the moon, sadly this makes tracking hard over such a distance.Constantly changing brightness levels make the right exposure a nightmare, especially if you want to combine images to get a combined one without the shadows.So why not use what we already have to eliminate or compensate most of the issues we have?The hardware required for the tracking of stellar objects and computer control should not be an issue anymore.Once you position is syncronised with the current position of the moon the computer would be able to calculate and track with extreme precision.Using highly sensitive BW cameras might be a short term fix, better would be a chip and lens system only sensitive to the visible wavelengths with the least atmospheric distortions.The last would be to actually use an AI to track every pixel as it is taken and to compare it with previous pixels taken in that same spot to check for brightness matches and wavelenght.A simplyfied version of this is still in use for the restauration of old films from the analog days.The moving film meant that the pictures are not always perfectly in sync in terms of their position for the single images.If digitised like this the result would be a quite blurry film.An algorithm checks for the usual up and down differences and matches the positions so in reference to the selected frame rate it results in the sharpest possible image.For the moon there is always a majority of less distortion giving us the impression of the image we see.The key is have an algorithm that can detect and filter out those frames or if powerful enough pixels with the most distortion.Quite similar to the steady function on your cameras and phones these days, at least for the digital part.Just in reverse so to say.With perfect and smooth tracking a frame by frame collection of the area you want an image of would result in a much clearer and detailed image.A bit like HDR works now.You take a lot of images and combine them to get the best possible details on all light level and all colors.We only need BW though...How would an algorithm an an AI be able to make an image clearer and more detailed?Currently we already compensate for camera movements, brightness levels, focus, colors and much more through the AI of our phones.Where someone with a DSLR or the good old SLR and real film needs to find the perfect setting for a shot in the amount of time the shot is available we just click a button on the screen and the AI does the rest for us.Sure, instead of three or four pictures taken as quickly as your phone can do our MOON-HDR algorithm might need a few thausand pictures to create one good image and several hours to do so....But hey, it is up there every night and day, we can perfectly track it and automate the process over days or weeks if we want to capture a full cycle.If it that easy then certainly the big telescopes on those mountains would make use of it!!Well, they actually do, but for the sole purpose of deep space exploration.The movements of earth and in space and referenced to the possible errors of the hardware...We only need to care about pixels moving in a fixed image...The algorithm in the simple form works on a frame by frame base, the proper one on a direct pixel one.Either way the collected images will create piles where all checks match.More piles means more and more areas to overlay like in a stitching process.More overlays mean more "filter" used to check the original images against.The amount of light hitting the moon is pretty predictable and easy to factor in for an AI.The amount of light loss by the atmosphere at the time the image was taken could be factored in by the means of external atmospheric sensors.In the most basic form a "ping" with a laser onto a satellite on a fixed position between telescope and moon, or close by.The the google AI tries to find more and more links to make more and more reference about our internet use our algorithm collects pixel informations for a fixed position in a digital image.Quite simple once you think about it, isn't it? ;)It is just a matter of time and amount of data being collected.What was already possible in the days of converting analog movies into the digital world can't be too hard to do with an object that we can literally nail to the wall in terms of images....So why isn't anyone doing it already?In therory anyone could just hire some time on a quantum computer or old style super computer and use their own algorithms to sort the images.In reality that would cost you a few millions quickly.Graphics card are already well in use to do other things than bringing an image to a monitor.They used a calculating work horses - the bitcoin mining is a prime example here.Medical and scientific use another.Her it is quite ommon that clusters of powerful graphics cards do nothing than to run simulations.Already a form of AI, although quite simple.There is no huge market for telescopes, let alone big and powerful ones for the sole purpose of watching moon.Why bother, it is up there every night but all the stars and planets up there need to watched first....You will have a hard time finding a manual telescope with a simple way to follow the moon through the night.Watching the andromeda nebula on the other hand is quite easy...Worse still for the cameras.What is out there for use with telescopes or integrated into one is optimised to get the most light out of everything that is quite dim.Even your basic telescope usually has a moon filter already because the thing is so damn bright.Professional BW cameras would need expensive and custom made adapters to fit a telescope's optics.Last but not least is the tracking mechincs that are simply not designed to follow the moon, neither in its movement, nor the speed it is moving.But as said the tracking could be fixed with a custom version designed for watching the moon and a little microcontroller to drive very smoth running motors and gears.Is a fancy smartphone the way out for the images?Not really unless you want to constanly fight to get and keep manual control about the settings for the BW camera on the back.And they are not really designed to be used like that for hours every night.The only way out is size and speed.What would the perfect telscope/camera combination look like?Atmospheric interference means the light is scattered.And ideally that should be the only thing the AI has to worry about later on.Sadly, when we take a picture we need a certain exposure time to capture enough light.This mean mean collect something you compare to a fast moving object.You just cant get a clear image of spinning fan blades easy these days...Shorter exposure times are only possible with enough light.There are two way we use to get enough light for a given exposure time.Add some more light or use a bigger lens.Our standard telescopes are designed for eye pieces for, well, our eyes.Imaginea huge sized 40 megapixel sensor perfectly positioned in a telescope.Using only optics to compensate image distortion and to match the incoming image size to the sensor size.No telescope optics and camera optincs fighting for the right position, just perfectly matched for the purpose of takin images from the moon...If said sensor would be highly sensible most people would cry out and say the moon is too bright - but we want to use every bit of light to lowe our exposure times ;)Imagine a high speed camera only taking BW picture of the moon.At a speed of over 2000 frames per second....Why bother with overcomplicated tracking if you can take millions of images every night.You will only bother about storage and calculating problems after a single night already LOLThe amount of pixels of near identical properties in the same spot would soon be much higher than the amount of blurry pixels with different values.And the AI would still be able to match those blurry ones with frames from other images.But who really wants to see footprints and left over parts on the moon?We have been there, we have seen it...And if go up again we will have live coverage anyway from up close, so there really is no need for anyone to get a clear image of the moon from down here, or is there?

Topic by Downunder35m