How much Molten Salt would be neccasary to run a 6000 kw steam generator?

Initial steam conditions 150 to 170 psig Saturated going into a 6" inch steam flange?Thanks?

Question by jsaliman 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Low-tech fireworks in China

Out in Naunquan, China the villagers use molten iron to celebrate instead of fireworks. The tradition dates back some 500 years when the blacksmiths of the day couldn't afford fireworks and did this instead. While there's only one color to work with, the effect is pretty stunning and a lot more in-your-face without, you know, melting your face off if you don't get too close.via Gizmodo

Topic by fungus amungus 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


I want to bind together two pieces of hard candy

I need to get 2 semi-circle shape hard candy pieces and bind them together. Is a molten sugar glue gun work for this? Is it fairly sage to use? Safe to consume? I need to do this for mass scale... Not at the beginning though....

Topic by ReneL22 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


Some "Attractive" Questions

I've been thinking for a bit, and  I have some questions on magnetism. Question 1: Is molten metal magnetic?  If you place a magnet over a molten metal like iron for example, will it be attracted to the magnet? Question 2: If diamagnetism can be used to repel water, can you use nagnets to slow down or even stop the speed of drainage if the magnet is strong enough? That is all. Thank you.

Question by Fizzxwizz 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


i was melting some salt and some of it turned flurescent red? Answered

I was melting some salt using a pencil butane torch to test how hotsalt needs to be to melt in practical, and i noticed something odd as i was melting it, and that thing was that there were some flurenscent red dots appearing on the molten salt, what were these? was it metal sodium? or sodium oxide?

Question by oldmanbeefjerky 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Campfire powered foundry?

Hey guys, Ive been checking out a few of the foundry instructables here, and I want to make one. I have 2 problems. 1, I don't have any charcoal, and two, I don't have a fan. So I was wondering... is there a way that I could make a foundry that would get the heat from a campfire or firepot? I'd there are 101 uses I can think of for molten aluminum.., Thanks in advance! IaC

Question by I_am_Canadian 9 years ago  |  last reply 6 months ago


How to make a crucible capable of containing molten aluminum?

I am working on melting aluminum/copper and i have enough power to melt them...only problem is something to contain it...I do not have acess to welding equipment/ceramics and any advice on how to make/obtain a crucible without special order would be nice! Even if its not a real crucible but can serve as 1!

Question by trf 9 years ago  |  last reply 7 months ago


Welcome Me!

Weeee! I am professional! BIG RED W00T!

Topic by Molten Boron 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Stopping an oxyacetylene weld from popping? Answered

I'm pretty sure that anyone who has oxyacytelene welded has had a weld "pop" when they jab the rod into it or overheat the molten metal. I've been doing some oxyacetylene welding and I'm working on my lap joints. When I was simply laying a straight line on weld across a plate I never made the weld "pop." Now every time I pick up a torch and try a lap joint it goes "POP!" and flings molten metal everywhere. What am I doing wrong? Can anyone shed some light on my problem? Any help is much appreciated!

Question by dla888 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


What does THIS mean??

On THIS INSTRUCTABLE I couldn't figure out which step to look at first because they were all the same: "You will be assimilated. Resistance is futile."Okay, so not in those words exactly. But very very close!

Topic by Molten Boron 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


can one cast aliminum into a silicone mould?

I am looking for a quicker & smother way of casting aluminum & have been advised to use silicone but according to what I have read --- the temperature of molten aliminum is to high for a silicone mould! True or false?

Question by toshcama 9 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Expertise needed on melting and remolding plastic (PP, HDPE etc.) at home with hand made molds... there must be a way!

Hi, I want to make a rough casing for a project out of plastic of some kind. I tried the potato plastic instructables, but I'm not really happy with the result. So I attempted to melt down some plastic chips broken from old plastic casings (I think the plastic was polypropylene) in an old can on a barbeque (good as it was outside). This didn't work as I kept heating the plastic chips even when they became a bit soggy as I expected them to become much more liquid. This is because I hoped to 'pour' the molten plastic into a mold. Before this happened however the plastic caught fire. So, I was wondering if I heated them in a more sealed environment would the lack of oxygen make it possible to achieve a more molten consistency without the plastic igniting? Some plastics on consumer electricals have flame retardants... surely these would stop the plastic from igniting? If the plastic won't ever become liquid/molten, then I assume to mold it you have to have very high pressures (like commercial injection molding machines)... any ideas as to how to acieve these kind of pressures easily at home? I think with so much 'waste' plastic out there it'd be great to work out some easyish way of remolding it at home! Any help appreciated! Thomas

Question by themassoftoe 10 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Black powder is more of a reaction than a burn of fuel and oxidizer.

I did some experimenting with charcoal and saltpetre. While making a charcoal fire i threw in some saltpetre, usually saltpeter alone burns slowly with a molten residue left over, but when i added it to the fire it created a slow burning but intense and bright light that almost melted the steel basin the fire was in. So I did some investigating, firstly I took some 3mm charcaol chips and lit one, then I threw some saltpetre on, again a intense, bright flame appeared, while observing i found that the saltpetre creates a molten pool in which the charcoal 'dissolves', I tried this with sugar, to simulate a smoke mix, but nothing close happened. So it turns out that saltpetre burns sugar when mixed with it, but actually chemically 'reacts' with charcoal. I have a question to add to this, is there any other item in the world that reacts this vigourisly with saltpetre? And if you have some charcoal and saltptre to spare can you pls try this, its really amazing.

Topic by mitchells 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Aluminum Casting with 3D Prints

Is there any reliant and consist way to create high RPM gears using 3D prints? What I had planned to do is 3D print some gears out, make silicon molds out of them and then pouring wax in the silicon molds. I then would put the wax into sand and then pour molten aluminum into it. To me, it sounds good in theory but I thought somebody else might have tried making PLA 3D prints into metal.

Topic by rexdino5 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Copper inlayed wood

Hello, I'm new to working with wood, and I want to find a way to inlay pieces of copper into small pieces of wood. Can someone explain how I might do this. I want the copper pieces to be flush with the wood, and I like an element of spontaneity, so I'm wondering if its possible to pour molten copper into a crevice on a piece of wood. If it's not how can I at least get the piece of copper to stick into the wood? Thanks for any thoughts. 

Topic by kpryce 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


potassium nitrate reaction with hydrochloric acid?

I recently mixed sugar and potassium nitrate to make a rocket. i ignited the mix and after it was done burning it left a molten pool of what i assume is potassium nitrate. i pored hydrochloric acid on the solidified pool and i produced a large amount of heat and was creating a brown-red gas. the gas was heavier than air because it sank to the bottom. can anyone tell me what this gas was?

Question by myakka 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


fire sleeve?

Fire sleeve is a common term for a Silicone coated fiberglass sleeve, generally used in industrial or aerospace applications. Fiberglass acts as an insulator or barrier for constant temperatures up to 540ºC. Silicone is generally able to withstand temperatures up to about 260C degrees continuous. Silicone, however, has the added benefit of being able to withstand and repel much higher temperatures for short durations, including liquid molten metals. Fire sleeve is used as a protective sleeve on industrial hoses, hydraulic hoses, cables, wires, etc. Fire sleeve generally refers to two variations: An aerospace version is made with a braided fiberglass substrate and is commonly used in the aerospace industry. Its construction enables qualified hose assemblies to meet the SAE standards which have been established relative to the protection which this product provides. An industrial version, constructed of a knitted fiberglass substrate is also available. Because it is less expensive it is more commonly used in hot industrial applications where this type of protection is needed. The industrial version will not meet the SAE standards. Fiberglass sleeve—without the Silicone rubber coating—has a higher continuous temperature rating, up to 1000ºF or 540ºC and is available as a knitted or braided sleeve for protection of hoses and cables where molten splash protection or weld splatter protection is not required. Fire sleeve is used for industry, aerospace, automotive, mining.

Question by bstflex 4 years ago


Print a cast for pewter molding

I have a 3D model that I would like to have printed so I can use it as a cast for a pewter mold. It is a simple pin that I designed in 3DSMax.. Would the cast have to be metal, or is there some plastic/poly that would take the heat of molten pewter?  I don't want to have to pay a jeweler to do this, I already have the model in 3D, it seems like it should be easy to print a cast so I can make them myself..

Topic by 3DPiper 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


sodium production

Another way for sodium production heared some where that molten sodium acetate  produces sodium metal, carbon dioxide and ethane Sodium Acetate baking soda and vinagar melting it and doing electrolysis to make sodium Melting point 324 °C, 615.2 °F (anhydrous)<(no water)> 58 °C (trihydrate) still has water Sodium Hydroxide Melting point 318 °C, 591 K, 604 °F ive made sodium with lye very useful thanks alot to this video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rL1cKb3_ojE message back on what you think

Topic by symboom 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


NYC Soldering Championships

Apparently, for all of you in the NYC area, July 29th (next-next tuesday) is the NYC Soldering Championships."With solder irons blazing, and the power of molten metal at their finger tips, New York City's electricity enthusiasts and hardware hackers will connect components to complete circuits for the glory of being the fastest soldering gun in NYC."The end goal is to solder an entire electronics kit (which has not yet been chosen) as fast as possible. Unfortunately, you must be 21 or older to enter.....After the competition, the Ignite NYC talks will begin, several of which seem quite... interesting...For registration and more information, check out NYC Resistor's site.

Topic by T3h_Muffinator 10 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


how to make sodium metal from sodium acetate?

Electrolysis of sodium hydroxide to make sodium http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rL1cKb3_ojE video showing sodium being made a diagram of how it works http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castner_process heared some where that sodium acetate molten (with no water) produces sodium metal, carbon dioxide and ethane Sodium Acetate  Melting point 324 °C, 615.2 °F (anhydrous)<(no water)>  58 °C (trihydrate) still has water baking soda and vinagar   Sodium Hydroxide Melting point 318 °C, 591 K, 604 °F

Question by symboom 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Melting silver to repair jewellery

Hello everyone, Iam a disabled pensioner living in Australia. I have a few pieces of silver jewellery where links have opened, and require "soldering". A jeweller has quoted me $40 each repair. I have a 3 inch square of silver sheet left over from a jewellery course I took years ago, and want my husband to melt it on the links for me. He has tried a hand held soldering iron and also a blow torch, neither worked. Please can someone advise us what else to try ? They are only minor melts required, but we cant make the silver molten in our garage. Many thanks

Topic by Charmy666 5 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Another, really problematic, bug with the new editor -- gets cut off!

This was originally pointed out by Molten Boron in a comment embedded in another topic.  It deserves it's own bug report.  This bug causes substantial difficulty with actually being able to post comments.When replying to a comment that is more than a few levels deep, the right margin of comments gets too close to the right sidebar.  With the new editor, the text box itself gets CUT OFF, effectively "hidden behind" that right sidebar.  This includes some of the formatting icons, as well as the POST and CANCEL buttons below the box.  Also, the text you are typing gets hidden in the same way.Obviously, this can make it impossible to successfully create a comment.

Topic by kelseymh 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


How should I make a right side wing using only the left side?

I have a little ceramic figurine. IT'S LEFT wing (opposite of one shown) is broken and has been lost. Now, I want to somehow use IT'S RIGHT wing (pictured) to make another left wing for it, through casting, molding, clay baking, using foam or whatever. I don't have access to anything high tech. Basically foam, clay, etc. but no molten metals or anything. Any ideas? I mean, it would seem simple enough to just make a mould with the existing wing and use it as a mold to make a new one, but the wings are obviously mirror images of each other, so not only are they on the opposite side, they're sort of reflected. Here is the wing I have, I need to create the other. Thanks,

Question by macgyverunigrad 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Sealing wax stamps - for wedding invitation cards and DIY paper products

http://www.etsy.com/shop/blackmarketintl This wonderful Value Boxset including the below: One Wooden stamp (H: 9cm) with the letter made in brass (diameter: 2.5cm), the brass part is detachable and with a spoon. Two White candles. Three sealing wax sticks including the color of molten gold, silver blade and crimson red. It all comes with a beautiful box in L:18.8*W14*H3.5cm, total 0.3 kg. How to use: 1) Cut small piece of sealing wax onto the spoon and melt it by the white candle. 2) Drip the wax drop by drop onto the designed area, don't pour it too fast. 3) Wait for about 30sec so the wax is thick enough. 4) Put the stamp on the wax slowly, and wait 1 min before taking it out. It will be done beautifully! Please visit our ETSY shop for details~ Black Market

Topic by Black Market 7 years ago


2 New home-made chocolate ideas I have (sort of) come up with!

I have just been inspired by the Peanut Butter Cup recipes, to make some for my family.. but I decided, that since some people have nut allergies, I would make some filled with Lemon Curd... a little odd, but it works... they are cooling at the moment.. but I had a sneaky taste of one! but I ran out of Lemon Curd (only had 3 teaspoons of it!) so I rumaged in the freezer, and found some frozen raspberries from last years harvest! basically I crushed 3 into each muffin paper, and covered in molten chocolate... I think these are even nicer... (instructable being written.. will have to photograph batch 2!!) Has anybody got any other interesting chocolate recipes?? I was thinking maybe some crackling sherbet to go on top.... Will (AKA IllegalFun)

Topic by IllegalFun 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


DIY Solder Pot

Just today, my brother offered to give me his old coffee maker that he had replaced with a newer one. He is well aware of my electronics hobby, which is why he offered to give it to me in the first place. Nothing is wrong with the coffee maker electronically - he just didn't use it for a long time in which it became moldy on the inside. He cleaned the inside properly, and as a precaution I did it a second time. Now that it is cleaned, I'm curious as to if I could turn it into a solder pot. Seeing plenty of DIY solder pots, I'm thinking I could use an empty soup can, cut to a reasonable size, and have it rest on the heating element of which the coffee pot would normally rest on. Would I be able to do just that or no? Any suggestions as to what to use for the "bath" or "pot" of which will hold the molten solder? Thanks in advance! P.S. This is a basic electric drip coffeemaker I'm wanting to salvage - just to clarify.

Topic by TXVisual 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


The Lovebox, Laser Projector, Dirty Soap...

Sign-up for our newsletter here. Dec. 20, 2007 Welcome back! Don't forget to enter the Homemade Holidays Contest! Share your homemade holiday gift ideas through an Instructable, a Slideshow, or a Video, and win great prizes from CRAFT magazine! Check out these cool instructables! LoveBox - The box of love Put your electronics knowledge to work by making a special present that delivers a random message of love when it's opened.posted by matseng on Dec 18, 2007 Rubens Tube Yule Log Make your fireplace dance along with the Christmas tunes by putting a classic physics experiment to good use.posted by bofthem on Dec 17, 2007 Cool Wave Ring Learn how to make a cool wave ring from scratch, or many other kinds, with these clear instructions and helpful videos. posted by hydemetals on Dec 13, 2007 Dirty Soap For the friends that have dirty minds and good senses of humor, this is the perfect stocking stuffer that makes soap fun again.posted by fungus amungus on Dec 15, 2007 Chocolate Peppermint Bark Dark or semi-sweet chocolate, white chocolate, and crushed peppermint candies. What could be easier? posted by canida on Dec 8, 2007 Win a $15,000 VersaLaser! Low cost tank-tough workbench Build a workbench that can survive being run over by a tank, or at least anything you can throw at it.posted by jmengel on Dec 16, 2007 Mysterious Lightbulb PrankHave you ever seen the Magic Lightbulbs magicians use? Here's how to make one that will drive people crazy! posted by Kipkay on Dec 13, 2007 Laser Image Projector Project a creepy green image on any surface without having to worry about any focusing problems. posted by echo_anomie on Dec 19, 2007 A Home Power Plant - Wind Power Generator Revised Plans for Building a Wind Power Generator in the form of a Savonius Rotor Windmill. No welding or casting required, posted by bhunter736 on Dec 14, 2007 Build a Greenland Kayak This instructable will teach you how to build a 17 foot long Greenland kayak that will weigh 30-40 pounds and cost less than $300. posted by nativewater on Dec 18, 2007 Gingerbread! 'Tis the season for gingerbread! Whether you see it as a food or a building material, you can probably use a few new tricks. Check out these Instructables for some fresh ideas. Gluing a gingersnap cottage (like a nerd) Here's a safe and effective way of gluing a gingersnap cottage with molten sugar. posted by all_thumbs on Dec 2, 2006 Gingerbread Cake Bars with Lemon Glaze This the combination of gingerbread and lemon is easy to make and well worth the time! posted by aliciak on Sep 8, 2007 Candy Towers Built with a Molten-Sugar Hot-Glue Gun Build Seussian candy towers with molten sugar to make your gingerbread house unique. posted by ewilhelm on Dec 20, 2007 How to create gingerbread houses If you're new to the gingerbread house scene, here's a great way to get started. posted by simonechavoor on Dec 14, 2007 Ginger Bread Houses A few of our own gingerbread houses that we made to get into the spirit of the season. Happy Holidays! posted by ewilhelm on Dec 20, 2007   Now go make something awesome, and I'll see you next week! - Eric

Topic by fungus amungus 11 years ago


How to build a clockwork robot?

Http://www.dailykos.com/stories/1632015#comment_65467648 To enter the Fukashima U2 with radiation at 1000 SVR plus can a clockwork autonomous robot gathering data with sonar be designed to go where no autonomous robot has gone before. The reason is all electronic devices would cease to function at about half that  SVR level. The clockwork mechanism would need to be designed to provide autonomous movement  so all sensors would have to be non electronic devices. Might mechanical sound, pressure, temperature or other forces be used for controls? Is it possible to provide a mechanical power storage source Compressed air energy storage (CAES) Fireless locomotive Flywheel energy storage Gravitational potential energy (device) Hydraulic accumulator Liquid nitrogen Thermal Brick storage heater Cryogenic liquid air or nitrogen Eutectic system Ice storage air conditioning Molten salt Phase Change Material Seasonal thermal energy storage Solar pond Steam accumulator Thermal energy storage (general) Chemical Biofuels Hydrated salts Hydrogen Hydrogen peroxide Power to gas Vanadium pentoxide What sort of time/energy is achievable?

Question by Rowland Whittet 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Firesleeve(Silicone Coated Fibreglass Sleeve)http://www.hsinsulation.com?

Firesleeve(Silicone Coated Fibreglass Sleeve) 1)Silicone rubber coated fiberglass sleeve(sleeving) - Protects hoses, cables and wires. from molten metal splash, high heat hazards and occasional exposure to flame, in steel plants, glass plants, foundries, cutting and welding shops and wherever hoses, cables and wires may be exposed to high heat or occasional flame. Fireproof sleeve also may be used to insulate your race cars plumbing system. 2)Continuous protection to 500F, short term exposure thru 2200F Extremely flexible and conformable through out entire size range at temperatures -65F thru 500F. 3)Impede heat radiation of flame 4)Protect operator from burning by hot pipe 5)Impede heat lost and favor to saving energy 6)Moisture-proof, water-proof, resistance to oil and pollution 7)Color: red and blue mainly. 8)Bore diameter(mm):15,20,25,30,35,40,45,50,55,60,65,70,75,80,90,100,110,120,130;(Sizes from 1/4" I.D. to 6" I.D.) Yancheng Hengsheng Insulation Co.,Ltd Web: http://www.hsinsulation.com Email: hsinsulation@hotmail.com Tel :+86-139-61986280 Fax : +86-515-88430696

Question by firesleeve 7 years ago


Changing Your User Name

If you are thinking of changing your user name, or creating a replacement account, these names all appeared to be available today:Single:spoodle pibbler spongdoodle ptwingoid mimbly phthyppy cruddite titicaca toastron QTMcWhiskers woodlouse ichneumon tastycrat fingerlician melllvar gasolinda dynamikeDouble:brian damage, stick chick, bent metal, anon rodgers, joey mousepad, electric cornflake, currency cat, ted maul, the increduloid, norbert dentressangle, window licker, metal mickey, dennis plaxton, ethel acetate, harold woodchip, frank plasterboard, milton keynes, edna coaldust, hector cement, albatross benson, lionel peppercorn, kevin fluff, permission granted, major woody, private parts, knex recycler, molten boron, ninja muffininator, ninja terminator, beg tets, odd bob, strange dave, spam master, sieve master, grease master, cheese eater, mr onions, wavey davey, whale omlette, penguin burger, sheep squeezer, fork bender, pork man, slime muncher, salty jim, PVC maniac, perineal suturesFootball (soccer):Eindhoven de gekste!, counterfeit Madrid, strathcarnage, portsmouth bubblejet, PNEOther:No!, medical meat supplies, licenced to ill, licenced to bungle, epileptic fridge boy, batch files R us, golden ninja warriorL

Topic by lemonie 9 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Anyone achive solar power overnight?

Here is how to do it: Use a standard 55 gallon steel drum and stick one of these on it. http://ieverred.en.made-in-china.com/product/tqZQNGTCJARz/China-Thermoelectric-Power-Generator-TEC1-031100-.html Provide water cooling for the TEG: http://www.customthermoelectric.com/Water_blocks.html If your water is 20 Celcius, you should pump 36 Litres/hour to keep max power output. Also hook up piping for hot oil for heating Now wrap it with 400 mm of rockwhool insulation. Fill it with molten salt and heat it to 250 Celcius. Tadaa: 24 W of power output, round the clock. (minus the power for the cooling pump, maybe 1-2 W) I calculate that the temperature will drop from 250 to 225 Celcius in 16 hours. To get the temperature back up in 8 hours you need to heat it with 2400 W. You can do this easily with a solar trough system of about 3 m2. A trough is good because you only need to align every few days. Budget Oildrum 50$ ? Salt 370 kg  = 150$? TEG 80$ Cooler 80$ Pump 15$ Piping 100$? Trough (plastic sheet and mylar) 100$? high temperature oil pump 500$ ? About 1000@ total. Does seem like a lot for a little. Anyone have a better idea?

Question by eripe 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


How to fix blue screen? Answered

Hello I hope that all of you are fine. I recently bought a second hand HP Pavilion laptop from eBay… when I received it I came to know that there was a problem with the wifi reception… I intended it to repair myself… so I unscrewed the LCD and came to know that the connections for the wifi were broken, so I soldered them, while doing so small bead of molten soldering wore fell on the LCD, but only damaged the plastic protection and found no dead pixels when it was turned on after fixing it… the windows started up pretty good… got the wifi signals as well but after a minute or so… one or two pixel size dots appeared on the LCD and after that the blue screen appeared… I tried to restart the laptop again but the blue screen appeared every time restarted it. I tired to restore the laptop, fix the startup, also tried to run the safe mode, but everything was useless as I  got blue screen every time… the laptop manages to operate in safemode with command prompt only once and as I tried to restore the system the blue screen appeared again… further more it sometimes gets past the windows loading in the widows repair section but when it loads the resolution changes and I get a blue screen again… it also hanged while repairing setup for the windows was operating... So a lot of different hang ups… but 99% of the time I got blue screen on all the options available… I am attaching the blue screen that I usually get… it would be so nice of you if you could guide me and help me fix my computer. Please see the attached pic Kind Regards Raishikoh

Question by raishikoh 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Why at least some fireworks should be legal

Check out this column from the San Francisco Chronicle, arguing in favor of keeping at least some fireworks legal. Good stuff.An excerpt:This country was founded on blowing stuff up, and 231 years later it continues to be the thing that we do best. And yet in the past few decades, almost every Bay Area municipality has banned the use of fireworks within city limits. It's like we don't even want to be Americans anymore.Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger can build secret execution chambers at San Quentin. He can certainly declare some kind of statewide emergency to legalize fireworks. Think about that for a second. We're the most badass state in the most badass nation on the planet. Our governor once removed his own retina with a scalpel, then drove his car into a police precinct and gunned down all the cops inside. (Technically, it was a role he was playing. But still ... .) You're telling me I can't light up one measly sparkler on my backyard patio without receiving a $1,000 fine?To be completely fair, I don't have a ton of actual facts to contribute to the debate. I only did 15 minutes of research for this column -- and approximately two-thirds of that time was spent watching some dude on YouTube blow up a sand castle with an M-80.But I grew up in the Bay Area when fireworks were legal almost everywhere, and I don't remember any rogue ground flowers causing four-alarm structure fires. We enjoyed setting off our own Safe and Sane fireworks, and my high school classmates didn't all have molten claws for hands. Is it possible that the chances of serious property damage or injury with responsible fireworks use are actually quite remote?

Topic by canida 11 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Top 50 lists for answers in 2009

The Answers section has seen a lot of activity with loads of questions and plenty of good answers. To salute the curious and the knowledgeable, we are posting three top 50 lists. One for the best answers, one for questions, and a third for total answers. Enjoy! Top 50 members with best answers     member best answers 1 lemonie 250 2 frollard 191 3 Re-design 177 4 Kiteman 118 5 GuardianFox 107 6 seandogue 106 7 kelseymh 104 8 orksecurity 103 9 steveastrouk 102 10 ZEROGX 72 11 NachoMahma 60 12 NobodyInParticular 55 13 AndyGadget 52 14 jtobako 42 15 alex-sharetskiy 40 16 KillerSafeCracker 37 17 Burf 35 18 Gorfram 35 19 11010010110 34 20 UziMonkey 34 21 mikeasaurus 32 22 Grathio 28 23 Joe Martin 28 24 caitlinsdad 25 25 DJ Radio 24 26 MahavishnuMan 20 27 Mr. Stealth 20 28 rickharris 19 29 jeff-o 18 30 ChrysN 17 31 RelaxedSoup 17 32 cyberpageman 16 33 gmoon 15 34 CameronSS 15 35 RavingMadStudios 15 36 randofo 15 37 Jayefuu 14 38 karnuvap 14 39 killerjackalope 14 40 AngryRedhead 13 41 fwjs28 13 42 iPodGuy 13 43 Prfesser 13 44 Zengineer1618 12 45 ewilhelm 12 46 Jack A Lopez 12 47 kevinhannan 11 48 purduecer 11 49 canida 11 50 siliconghost 11 Top 50 members with questions asked   member questions asked 1 PKTraceur 50 2 knexsuperbulderfreak 49 3 XOIIO 48 4 sharlston 41 5 Berkin 39 6 ReCreate 37 7 NYPA 36 8 miiwii3 35 9 mad magoo 34 10 _Ko0LaiD_ 28 11 flanimal 28 12 cyc4015 27 13 godofal 25 14 Re-design 25 15 Zem 24 16 trf 23 17 madrasi 22 18 TOCO 22 19 LuminousObject 22 20 codongolev 22 21 albylovesscience 21 22 nepheron 21 23 The Ideanator 21 24 CrawdadMan 21 25 Zaphod Beeblebrox 18 26 DJ Radio 18 27 Gorfram 18 28 Thelonelysandwitch 18 29 led235 18 30 robots199 17 31 kevinhannan 17 32 thecookiemonster 17 33 CameronSS 17 34 Bert99 17 35 Shadow Ops 17 36 afw11 17 37 jovenhatsjr 17 38 shawnf 16 39 Yashknowsbetter 16 40 anna rox 16 41 UbuntuNinja 16 42 bowmaster 16 43 animan1 15 44 brandegor 15 45 cdubnbird 15 46 arnold54 14 47 bwpatton1 14 48 Wafflicious 14 49 KillerSafeCracker 14 50 vince 09 14 Top 50 members with answers given   member answers given 1 lemonie 4422 2 seandogue 2943 3 frollard 2573 4 Re-design 2504 5 steveastrouk 1843 6 orksecurity 1460 7 Kiteman 1451 8 NachoMahma 1095 9 kelseymh 1022 10 GuardianFox 955 11 alex-sharetskiy 889 12 NobodyInParticular 777 13 jtobako 728 14 DJ Radio 675 15 ZEROGX 665 16 11010010110 624 17 AndyGadget 517 18 Burf 494 19 RavingMadStudios 443 20 ReCreate 405 21 Gorfram 397 22 jeff-o 372 23 fwjs28 370 24 Joe Martin 344 25 kevinhannan 327 26 robotguy4 313 27 KillerSafeCracker 312 28 rickharris 278 29 Jayefuu 274 30 acidbass 267 31 mikeasaurus 263 32 sharlston 256 33 geodez 240 34 UziMonkey 239 35 Kryptonite 239 36 caitlinsdad 238 37 XOIIO 233 38 Z.. 232 39 TigerNod 218 40 drbill 210 41 Bartboy 204 42 Molten Boron 203 43 cyberpageman 200 44 I_am_Canadian 190 45 iPodGuy 189 46 MahavishnuMan 189 47 Goodhart 184 48 logic boy 181 49 Chicken2209 177 50 PKTraceur 177

Topic by fungus amungus 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Solar Power Towers Efficiently Using Brayton Cycle

I want to point out a solar to electric generation concept that has yet to be seen anywhere, even though it originated back during the Carter Administration's ERDA programs of the late 70's. I’m talking about solar power towers that convert solar energy into electricity at the hundreds of mega-watt level. While power towers do exist today, and the world currently does have a handful of them as shown in Fig-1, none use the Brayton Cycle nor can they boast an energy conversion efficiency at the mid to upper thirty percent level.  A group of engineers got together at a think tank organization called Sanders Associates in Nashua, N.H., several decades ago, and designed a unique Brayton Cycle, 100 MW solar Power Tower concept for generating electricity. This was accomplished under ERDA (Energy Research Development Administration) who gave us a phase-2 follow-up contract that took our phase-1 design and built a working scale model at the 10 KW level. This model was tested at the Georgia Tech Solar Research Facility and "registered" ~37% electric solar conversion efficiency. The system used ambient air as its working fluid, and was to be located in open-spaced desert regions. Phase-2 was lost to competition using a closed-loop liquid sodium system that boiled water into superheated steam at 900F to run a turbine that generated ~21% overall electric conversion efficiency.  Apparently, at that time ERDA would rather haul water out to the desert than use ambient air to generate electricity? The politics of their decision is beyond reason and clashes with improving the world’s development of green technology energy.  ERDA shut out our better technological performer and safely locked it away for another day! ERDA's official reason for turning us down: "this technology uses excessively high temperatures (2500F versus 900F) that are dangerous to workman maintaining the equipment". But that was back in the 70’s, maybe we’ve learned to deal with high-temp heat by now?   Solar Energy Concept Using Low Pressure Storage Our solar power tower would collect the sun’s energy by locating its ceramic heat exchanger on top of a tall tower as shown in Fig-1. The tower was located in the center of a field of active sun-searching mirrors (heliostats, Figure-2). These mirrors reflected sunlight onto our ceramic honeycomb heat exchanger, producing a concentrated flux intensity level that heated it to around 2500F. At the same time, low pressure fans generating only a few psi pressure would suck the ambient air through the honeycomb, heating it to just under the 2500F and then passing it through energy storage silos which stored the heat down to ~150F. We purposely designed the energy storage charging phase of our hot air system to work at only a few psi above ambient as a safety feature. The sun effectively acts as the combustor of our jet engine or Brayton cycle engine. Once the sun heats the air, it passes through heat exchangers consisting of a labyrinth of underground silos that are temperature segregated. These silos receive our 2300F airflow and cool it down to about 150F, transferring this heat into solid salt containers which turn to liquid once they have absorbed sufficient heat. Figure-3 is a schematic of this underground energy storage facility and shows the airflow being heated by a fully charged set of silos containing liquid salt-bricks. This airflow direction is reversed when we charge the silo’s salt-bricks. The bricks are kept in specially insulated, high pressure silos (located underground for added insulation) that store the heat energy at one atmosphere for later use. These underground silos act as our energy storage batteries, and when needed would discharge their heat energy accordingly into the moving airflow. This energy storage concept permitted the generation of electricity at night and during overcast days. Two sets of storage systems are required for continuous operation. One would be charging at low pressure while the other is discharging at high pressure through the Brayton engine to generate electricity.   Electric Energy Generation at High Pressure Electricity would be created by turning an electric generator at high speed. The generator was turned by running a jet engine connected to it.  The engine’s combustor for heating the air is effectively the sun, hence the name Brayton cycle for generating our solar electricity (Figure-4). The heat from the molten salt containers would increase the energy of the high pressure air coming from the compressor, and would then force it through a typical turbine that turns this energy into high rotational speed to run the generator and make electricity. Our solar jet engine sucks in ambient air using its compressor, as all jet engines do, and blows it through a series of silos at high pressure whose stacked bricks are held at different temperature levels. We start our airflow through a silo held as low as 150F and work our way up to ~2300F as we pass through our last, hottest silo which acts to complete the effective solar combustion process. This air preheating technique dramatically improves our energy turnover capability and allowed us to convert solar energy into electricity at near 37% efficiency. During our electric energy generation phase, the silos of our Brayton system requires operating at many atmospheres of pressure just as in any jet engine combustor using petroleum-based JP-fuel.      

Topic by RT-101 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Your thoughts on "UFO's", strange things and the unknown

Don't take what comes below too serious please ;) I thought for the start of the new year it would be fun to talk about things we take for granted or that we would call nonsense. You know topis like those provided by Erich Däniken and other that think outside the conventional archiological range. Modern science has provided us with new insights into very old stuff but also a new look on things we thought to know better anyway. Here is some food for thought: 1. India... In this beautiful and old country it was discovered that hundreds if not over 2000 years ago people used lathe technology on stones. For example to make pillars with a weight over a few tons... Chains were created from molten rock and in many areas you find polished stone that even after hundreds of years still has a mirror finnish. Some of these creations are claimed to be made with hammer and chisel but how do you get a displayed accuracy that even modern technology struggles to provide? I don't want to clutter everything with video links but check Youtube and you will find temples in India showing musical granite pillars and chambers carved into solid rock with a precision that seems impossible! If that long ago human knd already knew about gear systems and lathe technology, then what else have we lost over time that we now claim as new technologies? How could anyone polish an entire granite hall and a big one that is to a mirror finnish? 2. Peru... Apart from being full of archeological wonders there is also the impossible to be found. The Nazca region shows, in aerial views, kilometer long and perfectly straight lines. In other regions, also in other continents, we can see images of strange people or artwork - again only from high above ground level. Some of the artwork is only in correct proportions and with proper contours if watched from a very specific angle to the mountain in question. The kilometer long lines are not simply on standard mountain faces but instead on top of mountain that have the top removed to be perfectly flat. And even with a lot of posible options to interpret the lines they look like any other huge, modern airport landing strips - including runways and tracks to areas we would call terminals or service bays. You can ignore all possible ways to interpret the design and possible use, what you can't ignore is the missing mountain top and level of accuracy on such a massive scale! 3. Pyramids... On all continents except Australia we find pyramid structures with very similar features in terms of proportions, angles and the way the face in a certain direction. In Egypt they just recently found another hidden chamber... Tunnels, too small for a human to fit point to stars and star signs. Some of the tools used to create were found with the help of small robots but also that some seem to be quite modern in age. Did grave robbers use them at a time were it is beleived that such tools were impossible to create? Or could they be as old as the pyramids itself? In south america we find pyramid structures looking quite similar to those in Egypt - why so similar in features and appearance if there was no contact between the two civilisations? To make things worse some of the Inca structures show tunnel and channel systems "leading" to the pyramid in question. Classic thought is that they were like tunnels to direct water or provide access in the beleive the jungle was not removed to hide the complex. Makes no sense if you see the city like areas that are now exposed and studied. I mean: how would created a city in the jungle without removing the trees?? What could make you wonder is a simulation that was performed several years ago. Based on a computer model in 3D different theories were tested. Irrigation was ruled out quickly, same for access routes or secret tunnels for the priests. One funny student got bored and decided to play god. Assuming the Inca priests would call their gods in the sky temple to provide rain he let a monsoon go down on the pyramid. The result was unexpected so he showed the results to his companions and they did the same test agin but simulated a massive airflow going down directly on the pyramid. Turned out the flow would be directed away under ground with more efficiency than systems Nasa uses today for rockets and space shuttles... Mind you the tunnels are far from straight and without this simulation it was trusted that they could not do this stuff... We now have rocket technology that uses surface direction and vector control. The square and flat designs leave a void insight that pretty much perferctly match the angles of those inca pyramids? Apart from pure coincidence, what could be the reason for this match in shape and angle with a tunnel system perfect to remove hot engine gasses? Ok, I admit, not all continents, the pyramids in Bosnia are just a hoax, so Europe is out of the race ;) Sorry Semir :) 4. Artwork... Be it here in Australia, the African desert or America - we find images of mystical people or rulers that could make you wonder. Again modern tech in the form color filtering, desitity readings and 3D scanning provided us details unseen before. If you think of gods in very ancient times and try to imagine you would be a native: What do think how many different images of their god could 100 people imagine? Let's agree it would be plenty... But if we study artwork in caves and rocks from around the world we find similarities that IMHO can't be explained. Many show features that, compared with modern technology, could be mistaken for helmets, gloves or even manual control systems. Others show things thought to be as simple as pine cones to resemble modern milling or finnishing tools. Again only possible by enhancing details the naked eye won't see. With no contact to each other and often thausand of years apart: What could the reason for having images of their gods show very similar and sometimes identical "features" ? 5. UFO technology and sightings... Some people love to post videos of secret weapons and UFO's that are simple rocket launches at a perfect time and with perfect weather conditions to attract attention. But what about the things we don't get to see? Just recently the US finally admitted to have a program to investigate what we might call "UFO activity", quite costly one too... This means a lot of leaked videos from fighter planes or spy planes you find on the net are actually the real deal. Often "enhanced" with editing tools but authentic ones have been released by the military and other organisations now too. If it happens over US ground and no US organisations admits to be flying the things we see than what it is? Right, it is a UFO - An Unidentified Flying Object! Does not mean it is alien, despite far too many people thinking an UFO must be alien :( UFO means just that! At the time of seeing it the ones seeing it can not identify the craft or "thing". And, no you are not alone! ;) Happens in all parts of the world and even commercial pilots upload what they can't explain. Oh, you are still a sceptic? Does that mean you think some of these sightings must be alien or do think someone down here uses technology we are not supposed to know of? If you are like me you might like to relax watching the live feed from the ISS. In case you are not try it anyway! Every noticed that that despite the stations own speed "forgeign" objects appear to come towards the station or even to grow in size very quickly? If so you also noticed another very strange thing... No matter what happens up there the stream keeps playing, even at times when the station is moved around a bit to avoid a possible hit with debris. But every single time something appears to move around the ISS or come close to it the feed cuts out. Ok, not every time, for well known stuff orbiting around like satellites, other stations, rocket lauchnes or supply flights they stay on. So, what are those flying objects changing course and direction or even circling the station? Why does the live feed cut out once an object is identified to be unidentified? 6. Roswell technology boom... Some think the US did take ownership of an alien craft, you know the stories and movies I mean... So called eye witness reports and some leaked documents all claim certain unknown technology in great detail. Anything from fibre optics and microchips, over "intelligent metals" to light enhancing glass lenses and seemingly indestructable fibres... Some say that if we would had the option to copy and understand the technology to copy it (without knowing anything about it of course) then the tech boom of the 60' would have been instantly. Imagine flat screen TV's and smartphones with GPS 50 years ago for everyone... ;) 7. Great land in the south - Antartica... The mysteries originating from Antartica range from Atlantis over hidden civilisations and living dinosaurs to the often claimed secret Nazi base with submarines and lost technologies. We all know that life as we know it can't really exists down there, so no strange animals, ancient creatures or a possibility to sustain a secret military base some 60 years ago. Or it there more to it?? Warm lakes containing fresh water with signs of life in them have already been discovered. Same for caves under the ice with temperatures far above freezing - constantly and again with signs of life. Ages ago the continent was still joint with other and in a warmer region so no wonder to find fossils. If we already found places that sustained life for thausands of years then what living things might be down there? Maybe even a place like the Galapagos Islands but for life thought be extinct - imagine Jurassic Park for real under the ice ;) With thriving life, vulcanos, rivers, lakes and all long before the dinosaurs it is not hard to imagine the remains under the ice and carved into the mountains. In todays times it all covered by ice and the sea level is much much higher, so again not hard to imagine that there might be rivers running off under the ice and into the ocean. Some maybe even connected to lakes in a hot spot sustaining life. A secret base from some secret part of the Nazi regime over 60 years ago?? Well, with all we know today about Antartica and is also known about the technological options available at that time it is possible. A submarine could have operated for days or even a few weeks under the ice with support ships available. Not just with so called secret tech but simply with a big sub on a minimum crew and the support of crude ways to reclaim and produce oxygen. If an entrance to a river leading to a suistainable area exists or existed at that time it would have been just a matter of time and endurance to find it. Of course we can't know if it was already found and removed or used since those with capable submarines and technology these days would not talk about it ;) But private or non government explorations map and drill more than ever, so once they hit "restricted areas" or create their own base and research station under the ice we will know ;) What to do if you actually see (or think you do) a real UFO?? Grab the oldest and dirtiest camera aou can find, mount it on the end of your longest fishing pole and create the shakiest video possible. And please make no references at all that would allow to get on the loctation, time or date. Jokes aside there is a good option these days, your modern smartphone, telescope, GoPro or favourite drone. A fake is often uploaded in very bad resolution often so low you might think an old webcam was used. Good fakes are often just a rocket launch, so check for this before you claim it is of unknown origins. Modern tech allows us to record a video in 4K at 60 or even 120FPS , so no excuse for a 320x240 AVI video LOL Optical zoom causes bad results so try to avoid it if possible. Image stabilisation can do wonders for free hand shots of moving objects, so crank it to the max even if the resulting video is a bit smaller in resolution. Geotagging is also a good thing as it allows an easy reference. You might see much more with you eye than what the video show, or in the best case the other way around. That means before you upload take a step back and try too see the video like someone who was not there when it happened! Are the movements reall that impossible? Is it really not just a plane, rocket flares? What sounds did you hear at the time or shortly after that might not be audible in the video? Sometimes a plane in the distance still is in the sunlight while you already stand in the dark - keep elevation in mind ;) Compare with other videos online that claim to be taken around the same time and area - sure you did not film a rocket launch? But if your video is crystal clear and shows the impossible in great detail you might want to check for the usual markings on military aircrafts or flashing lights in green and red. Still all good and impossible to explain? Then what are you waiting for? Tell us where, when and with what type of gear and upload the video so we get evidence of unknown technologies in the use/testing or an actual UFO - Unidentified flying object, until we know better. ;) Again don't take me too serious today but enjoy some of the thoughts and let your imagination wander off a bit. Lost technologies and knowlege exists, existed, is found again - whatever you want to call it. If humans could move stone blocks the size of a small house and create them with an accuracy down to the mm then they might have known more than we think they did. If we could melt granite to form new things, manipulate its sound or carve hollow heads of just a few mm in size then again we lost something well worth knowing. If in ancient times people had no way of seeing really distant and dim stars then how were they able to accurately map them and predict their movement? If milling and lathe technology was known and used when in other parts of the world we were happy to create simple and weak tools: How was it possible to create gears and know about planetary gear systems? If the evidence of the work clearly shows advance technologies used then where are the tools used and why can we find any written records or images of it being used? If even the all mighty US military, secret agencies and space programs fail to explain what they encounter quite often since we fly around: What is really that seems to try to hide from us while appearing to watch how we evolve, explore and fight wars? Since you still bother to read all this nonsense: If it appears we have "evidence" of the existance of beings capable of flying or even space travel since the dawn of time and add all the modern evidence: Is it possible someone or something has been watching us since humans came to be? Did "they" guide some cultures at some stage during their evolution to show us modern ways of creating alloys, machine stuff or understand what was magic or the gods at that time? And if they did help our evolution in some parts then why did this greatly improved society disappear with no more trace than their stone remains? How would we react if they dare to help us again? Is there a reason that even after countless encounters noone tried to shoot one of the UFO's down? I mean, not even a claim for trying since Rosswell..... Not any evidence of a recent landing either..... Or are we just watched so closely because they want something back we too from them??? ;) I blame all spelling mistakes on my annoyingly unresponsive keyboard. But if you still find some then feel free to keep them! I still demand a fee if use them to make money from them ;)

Topic by Downunder35m 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago