0.3mm nozzle printing speeds?

I am currently finetuning my homemade hotend and was wondering what you guys have in the speed settings for 0.3mm nozzles printing ABS? I started with the aim of reaching 120mm/s but after some hours of finetuning I am currently trying to breach the 200mm/s barrier. As I am only using a very old Mendel Prusa I am actually quite happy that I got that far. What speeds are possible with the current printer models? (not the statements on the website, real life)

Posted by Downunder35m 3 years ago

Cheap External Mix Snow Machine

*EDIT* IT WORKS!!! Hi everyone, this is a simple DIY snow machine. It utilizes external mixing which not only increases the production but also eliminates the risk of water backing down the air line and vise versa. I will not be making an instructable but possibly a video displaying its qualities. It only needs an air compressor with the standard quick connect end and a regular garden hose. It works and I may be selling a few on ebay for ~$75 each and will include a professional looking instruction manual. This produces a very large mist and i have yet to measure its snow making capabilities. I expect it to make about 2" per hour over a 200 square foot area. Please comment and rate!!

Posted by Electroinnovation 7 years ago

Propane expension

Does anyone know of an extension for a 1 lb propane tank that features a hose that ends in a pencil torch nozzle for more agile, fine work?

Posted by Plutosson 11 months ago

hobby rocket using rocket candy

Today I tested a homemade rocket engine made with r-candy and clay catlitter (for the nozzle and plug). The nozzle was made from clay catlitter with a tapered hole I used about twenty grams of r-candy then l put a thin plug of catlitter. I had placed the rocket upside down on a bamboo rod clamped to a table with a scale under the engine but when I ignited it the sound was so great that I had to step back and could not get a reading but from the looks and sound of it the small 500 gram scale would be maxed out then at the end of the 3-5 second burn the thin plug at the end popped off shooting the engine up in the air this was becouse the core was not drilled all the way to the end so when the burn was near an end it found it easier to escape threw  the thin plug then the narrow nozzle.

Posted by qwerty2008 6 years ago

MIG Soldering Iron Concept

The plan is to modify a existing soldering iron remove the tip have a small nozzle at the front (made of a thick disk of metal, drilled with a normal bit until a small hole is poked, thus making a cone nozzle)(thinner than what i put in the picture, because the taper should be 45 degrees) the area where the tip is screwed in to will be where the solder liquidfies a hole will be drilled above that for a flexible copper tube to guide solder in the tube will be heat sinked so the solder only liquidfies when it is near the chamber the solder will be feed with some sort of unreeling mechanism or something that is controlled by a button the feed will be guided to the copper tube via another sort of tubing the pressure of adding solder will force the liquid solder out the nozzle the goal is to have a tiny drop of liquid solder, small enough for average through hole soldering, come out with a press of a button. flux should be applied before. does anybody see anything wrong that could happen with my concept? does anybody have other ideas and suggestions? had this been thought of before?

Posted by frank26080115 11 years ago

homemade paint gun/ airbrush

Ok well me and a friend of mine have been experimenting with making our own paint gun. we are doing for two reasons. well we want to airbrush some things but we don't have one adn we don't have much money, and we need something to do so it occupies time. we have gone throught many trials and errors and quite a few have failed. we now have one that works acually pretty well. it composes of blowgun attached to an aircompresser, there is a "t" fitting at the other end of the blowgun, at one part of the "t" fitting is a little attachment that goes to a small water bottle, and at part of the water bottle is a little nozzle(nozzle2). than at the other part of the "t" fitting is another nozzle (nozzle1). those nozzles are really close to each other. you put the paint in the water bottle and supply air to it than it paints(sometimes) i was just wondering if anyone knew how to make it better or had another idea for a paint gun? any comment that is related to the topic is welcome and thanks for any feedback. i am sorry if that is confusing.

Posted by zipzapper859 7 years ago


When I saw the sandblaster here, I wanted to make one because well, it's cool. The only problem is that I can't find the gun. From what I can tell, It has 2 intakes and one exit nozzle. I did read the instructable, but it didn't say (as far as I could tell). Can someone help?

Posted by John Smith 10 years ago

brazing beginner

I'm making a CNC machine and I need to make a frame and I decided to use aluminum since it's surprisingly the cheapest. I need to braze the joints to gather and I'm new to brazing. Is all I need: Propane bottle Nozzle someway to ignite it brass solder If anyone here is an experience brazer than please give me some tips

Posted by guyfrom7up 10 years ago

Coanda effect in conjuction with Venturi effect !?

I am still working on my project to create relatively accurate model of a Repulsine. No, I am not one of those free energy nut balls, just curious in old tech ;) As part of my research I came across some statements in regards to lost pieces of the Repulsine. The last remaining model still exists in Austria but noone seems to have to clue what the missing parts looked like. I think the missing parts are a system of nozzles, diverters and a secondary hull - forming a similar system like the Coanda plane engine. There are lots of people still out there tinkering with Coanda lifting devices and trying to get them working. Is there anyone here doing it ??? Would like to exchange some knowledge, tipps, designs and so on. Short term goal is to make working Coand engine with enough thrust / lift to be used at a later stage for a working Coanda plane model. Long term goal to modify it all to incorporate into the Repulsine.

Posted by Downunder35m 2 years ago

help with black powder rocket

Hi i am making a black powder rocket similar to a bottle rocket just bigger scale and am having trouble with it ill give as much info as i hope someone can help me out thanx the rocket engine is 53 mm in length 1.5 mm thick wall 16 mm inside wall to wall hopefully that all sounds ok the (nozzle) in the end is 6mm thick was planing on filing it with black powder and packing it in around a core with 42 mm of powder and a further 5mm plug on the end then turn it over and put in a fuse etc... strap to a small stick or skewer and launch what i am wanting to know how big should the nozzle hole be to actually get lift off and should i just insert a fuse or a fuse and quick match or fill the core with loose black powder and make a paste of black powder and plug the end and insert a fuse onto that im probably going the complete wrong way about this if i am feel free to tell me what im doing wrong or what i need to do thanks

Posted by acid_clown 11 years ago

I need help finding a special kingd of interlocking dog toy.

My Poodle Hybrid has found this toy a challenge, the only one he has not outsmarted, or taken apart. Due to my recent fall and subsequent memory concerns, I can not for the life remember, where I bought them. Most of my Purchases are online. the balls have a nozzle on the outside, and diameter is approx. 4 inches, I included a picture of the 2 balls I have. Any advice or help is welcome. SparkySolar

Posted by SparkySolar 3 years ago

Aerosol Flamethrower

I've searched almost all words associated with "Aerosol flamethrower" on instructables, yet I see nothing of the sort. Where I come from in England, they're very common, has anyone else ever made one and would the subject be to easy to make a whole instructable out of it. (even if other ways of using them were included?)-=EDIT=-I've established it IS a bad idea, but also just to clarify:~Spray~ can flamethrowers will NOT randomly blow up unless (to my knowledge)You hold it the flame so it burn the nozzle.You pierce the valve.You douse it in and light or chuck it in a fire.

Posted by CogitoErgoSum 11 years ago

How fast can you spin your Golf Ball?

I played around with some balls placed into the airstream of a little blower. Everything light enough just "danced" in the air like being hold on invisible strings. But not so much the golf ball! You would expect those dimples are good for reducing air friction but do they also offer stability in some cases by making the ball spin? Check this video I recorded while playing - to me it looks like with a proper nozzle there is even more speed possible. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=014QkXuTL0o How fast can you make it spin?

Posted by Downunder35m 2 years ago

Compressed air can - How to make larger one, refillable?

Hello! You know those compressed air can for cleaning dust form electronics and computers. They are working well, but if you use them a lot they become pretty expensive. For heavy user's alternative is to use compressor. They are not so expensive any more, but they are loud, heavy, large and not so practical to carry with you… So, after take in consideration that written above great thing would be to make reusable, larger, compressed air can. Something simple to use, some on/off leverage and small nozzle, and also refillable - fill it with that compressor which is heavy and loud. Some manometer would be nice, just to know how much air is inside. That "can" should be larger than Do you have any idea how to make it? Please share details, ideas, plans, other help… Thank you in advance! Best to all!

Posted by davor07 6 years ago

Spider Man Web Slingers Idea

This is the first idea that I have worked up the courage to post and I would like some help getting my ducks in a row. I don't have anything written down yet so here is a verbal breakdown of its function: A retractable tape measure mechanism is attached to a length of cord. This mechanism is, in turn, placed in a sealed chamber with a barrel wide enough to accommodate smooth movement of the cord. The free end of the chord is attached to a dart/wadding that is used to block the chamber from the outside. Pressurized CO2 or equivalent gas is pumped into the chamber using a pressure nozzle with a emergency release valve. CO2 is pumped into the chamber, dart/wadding is fired, dart/wadding and cord pass through the barrel till loss of velocity or reaching the end of the chord, the mechanism pulls the cord and dart/wadding back to start and the process repeats. this is just an idea and I would like some help getting it functional, and an equation for thrust vs drag would be nice :D

Posted by mad_mechanic 5 years ago

need help newbi

Ok guy's i need a little help, or to be pointed in the right direction, backround: i want to buildd a retrofit kit for a existing automatic sandblast curtain.. reason: basically every monument company in the country own's an older automatic blast curtain, that is controlled by limit switches only, and the new ones are cnc and cost 50,000 ish, and the existing machines are screeming for a retrofit kit... i own the "hirons model j" automatic curtain, it an x,y easy as pie thing, my problem is that i can get the parts machined and the rig built, however the g-code is my problem, and i think it will be very easy for someone whom can do it, to do it.. all i need is the machine to make strait passes left to right and back while slowly progressing top to bottom and back, the nozzle will also have a "spindle" motor, that will make it make a circular pattern constantly for the duration of the job, could anyone help with the g-code, ????    i can do all testing as i own the machine,

Posted by ryanH88 3 years ago

Iconic Prototypes

Over at Wired, there is a photo set of early prototypes of iconic products. Here is the story for everyone's favorite summer toy, the super soaker:   Lonnie Johnson was trying to build a better refrigerator, based on a low-cost heat pump that circulated water instead of Freon. But when one of his custom-machined brass nozzles blasted a stream of water across his bathroom, Johnson—by day an engineer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory—realized he had the makings of something way more fun. A shotgun-style air pump and a series of check valves allowed for sniperlike range and accuracy with little exertion. Selling the idea to toy companies, though, was more of an effort. After seven years of frustration, Johnson scrapped his difficult-to-manufacture Plexiglas “pressure containment vessel” for an empty 2-liter soda bottle. It wasn’t slick, but it was easy to make. In 1990, the toy maker Larami brought the Power Drencher to store shelves; it sold roughly 2 million of them in the first year alone. Rebranded as the Super Soaker, the line has raked in sales of more than $200 million to date.

Posted by frenzy 7 years ago


I hope my mom doesn't see this, its going to be her birthday gift hopefully ;D. I was looking around instructables for good projects for my garden-loving and food-growing mom, and noticed several hydroponic systems. They all looked nice, but I noticed one thing: they all used the nutrient-film or submerged plant technique. I'm no expert, but this seemed bad for the roots. Rot, anyone? I recalled a system I had seen at Walt Disney World in the distant past (OK, 4 years ago :P), where plants roots passed through a nutrient-laden mist. This seemed a better solution to me, allowing the best nature of hydroponics to take root (no pun intended lol): supplying the roots with nutrients while allowing them to breathe and supporting them. I thought about how to create the mist and it hit me: a hose sprayer. Most sprayers nowadays come with an adjuster nozzle to change the flow, so if one were to move it to "mist" position, tape down the handle and attach it to a large submersible pump on a timer, you have a cheap aeroponics system. I'll be writing an instructable when I can, so stay tuned for updates.

Posted by Rotten194 9 years ago

Labware for Sale

Hey guys, Over the years I've collected a fair amount of glassware other junk from various institutions. Unfortunately, my preoccupations as such don't permit as much time to pursue my hobbies. However, I'm abroad now, and will be until mid-December, so I can't actually supply much more info than generalizations about the materials. If anyone's interested in hearing more, reply on this thread or message me. Also unsure about some of the fitting sizes. To my knowledge I'm pretty sure I have: 1 - Allihn Condensor 2 - 1L Round bottom boiling flasks sv. - 500ml Round bottom boiling flasks 4 - VariACs 2/3 - Cases of 15ml glass screw-top vials 2/3 - Cases of 15ml plastic screw-top vials many - Ground glass stoppers many - Ground glass neck bottles (apothecary style!) 3 - Glass retorts 1 - 5L Glass carboy with broken outlet nozzle 1 - Drying chamber with vacuum attachment 100's - 15/30 ml glass tubes They'll be shipped from New England; only domestic inquiries please.

Posted by Cat on my Lap 8 years ago

Remote Control / Wireless DPDT switch on my truck??

Sirs!I have a 12v diesel transfer pump that I use for veg oil collection. It is the very common Northern Industrial Diesel transfer pump: http://www.northerntool.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/NTEUnpublishedItem?storeId=6970&langId;=-1&rfno;=508I currently have it hard plumbed one end into the collection tank, and the other end obviously loose to allow for oil collection. I also hardwired it to the battery and grounded it to the frame. I removed the single SPST switch attached to the pump and replaced it with a polarity reversable DPDT switch. This is so after I am done collecting, I can void the contents of the pump and hoses back into the grease bin so as to avoid making a mess. I have also placed the switch on 7 foot leads so I don't have to drop the collection nozzle and go back to the pump to switch it off (Which invariably creates a mess. However, all this wire is a mess to clean up and hard to store. Can I use a DPDT relay or something and somehow make it wireless to a handheld remote? I know zip about RF, Bluetooth, IR, etc, please treat me like I'm dumb. Thanks!Alex

Posted by withalligators 9 years ago

Wetsuit for 5 year old With fins/paddles

My nephew was born with severely clubbed feet, and lobster hands. After several surgeries he has ended up with with above the knee amputations, and tri-fingers with a very strong grasp. He receives intensive therapy and support, so he gets all the recreation he needs, plus occupational therapy. Well, he was recently introduced to a swimming pool and loves it. unfortunately, because of his amputations, he buoyancy is all screwed up. I would like to take a wet suit, and modify it to include a hard silicone leg prosthesis, and swim fins, and gloves that fit his fingers, with webbing, similar to what long distance endurance swimmers and navy seals use. I figure I can use off the shelf neoprene for the wet suit, and take very good measurements for the gloves. I have made patterns for outfits before, so I can layout the pieces, and have my wife or mother stitch them together. (they are great with sewing machines) For Bouyancy, I was toying with the idea of air bags made from cordura nylon and fillable from the outside with air attachment nozzles, and stitched inside the legs. They would be surrounded by hard plastic similar to the shape of his prosthetic legs he is getting used to. The torso of the wet suit would be stitched to the legs, so when his torso grew, I would cut along the seam, replace the torso as needed. Anything you guys think I am missing? I will start posting sketches and renderings as I get started on this project...

Posted by Lightcutter 11 years ago

Jet Boat powered by High pressure Water Pump???

Hello Instructablers, I would love some input from some of the great minds in this community for slightly mad project I have been thinking about. In the spirit of "What Could Possibly Go Wrong" I am planning to try powering a small boat with an engine drive water pump. We recently got some new pumps in at work that will do up to 80m head (113 psi), or flows to about 750 litres per minute (I think that's about 164 gallons). Powered by 13HP Honda engine. It's a very impressive pump, but will it be able to power a boat? Here's my plan so far: Either obtain or build a small boat. Perhaps with a flat bottom. I will mount the pump as low and central as I can. Full of water the pump will weigh around 50-60kg. The suction hose would be connected to a tank flange that penetrates the hull at the deepest point. The discharge will penetrate the transom. Various nozzle sizes will be tried to find out the best compromise between flow and velocity. What do you think? Considering most of the jetboats I have seen have massive V8 engines in them, could my idea possibly work? Will it need to be an impossibly small boat? Will I need more than one pump? How many? What's more important; flow, pressure, velocity? Should I stick to oars? I have other pumps to choose from with greater flows if that makes a difference. Go here to see them:  http://www.pumpmaster.com.au/engine-drive-pumps.htm Here's silly video of the boys at Pumpmaster in Queensland trying out the new machine... http://youtu.be/zjYvENfr1cw

Posted by cammers 5 years ago

Instructables Podcast 003: Spring Cleaning

Would you like some advice on a project your working on? Perhaps you'd like a few ideas from a new source? You can comment here or email us at howdoi@instructables.com This week we didn't receive any questions, but that's not going to stop us. After spending several hours in the forums, I found twenty questions and let Jake pick numbers at random to see what we'd talk about. It was a lot of fun, but we prefer questions from all of you, so please don't be shy. You can listen to or download the episode below, listen over at archive.org or check it out at our homepage: download Resources: 12 - Remote Controlled LED -Field of Florescent Tubes -XBee's don't connect to the internet, they communicate with other XBee's. -An Ethernet Shield however, can do that! 04 - Automatic Electronic Cat Tail -Necomimi Brainwave Cat Ears -Shippo A cat tail that neither of us knew about when we were doing our talk. -EEG -ECG -DIY versions of EEG and ECG 18 - Gradually Brightening Alarm Clock -There's a few really good examples of this already being done. 05 - Solar Watch Winder -I found two separate videos to demonstrate how watch winders actually work. -Two homemade watch winders -A discussion on Sparkfun's forums on how to make a watch winder. 13 - Shoe Carousel -Something we didn't even think about -Perhaps you'd like to see a patent. -You could also see how other systems are made, and see if you can repurpose them for yourself. 16 - Homemade Air Brush -A couple of homemade airbrushes. -How Atomizer Nozzle's work 08 - Fireplace Soot -Creosote 17 - Ball of flame -Poofer -Flash Cotton/Nitrocellulose -Penn and Teller talking about danger in magic (link contains strong language). -Vortex Fire Ball

Posted by StumpChunkman 5 years ago

Nylon and substitutes on a cold bed

It's been some time and I made progress with Nylon. Aldi had some cheap craft glue with methanol as the solvent - this stuff works great for PLA, ABS AND Nylon. The common problem with nylon is that it has no real adhesion to anything, except cardboard and bakelite. Cardboard makes a clean up nightmare and bakelite is not always easy to find, especially not the right type. So I tried various glues, paints and primers but none was really suited for all printing needs. And the cleanup of the bed is imoprtant too as I did not want to spend hours scrubbing with acetone or similar nasty solvents. After the first great succes with the clear Aldi craft glue I checked the local 2$ shops and carft stores and found similar glueswith methanol as a solvent. Since not everyone is lucky enough to get these specials I will tell you what to look out for if you try clear craft glue: Don't buy anything that can be cleaned up with water - you want methanol or ethanol as the solvent in the glue! Do a test with the glue on something that usually does not bind well to cheap glue, like glass and blister packs. Let the glue dry and peel it off - it should be a clear film that is quite strong and barely streches when you pull it. It almost feels like hard paper. All good so far? Check if the nylon, pla or abs really sticks to it: Spread a very thin layer on a piece of cardboard and let dry. Add another, thicker layer and let dry again. Now hold it under your nozzle and extrude a bit of filament while moving the cardboard around. Let cool and check how good it sticks. In a perfect world the cool plastic should peel the papaer off with the glue. Time to prepare your print bed the same way and to start printing ;) Just use a very thin first layer and for the first layer much lower speeds than usual. I print nylon with 60mm/s and the first layer at just 25mm/s, any faster and the first layer does not look right. ABS and PLA are much more forgiving here.

Posted by Downunder35m 2 years ago

Fighting with Nylon ;)

As some might know I still use an old Gen1 Prusa but love the challenge of basically getting everything done with that oldie. One of my latest challenges of "always" printing on a cold bed includes Nylon. If you ever had troubles because you ABS or PLA filament got too moist you will already know what happens to your print... Nylon is even worse when it comes to moisture as you can't see or really feel it. I was thinking of making a complete Nylon guide as an Instructable but think I will start here to kick off some discussion first. So, we know the Nylon must be really dry for a god print as otherwise we get bubbles, bad adhesion and of course a foamy looking print. Well, not really... Let me explain: A perfectly smooth and shiny finnish is not always required, and with the right settings Nylon still forms strong bonds even with a foamy look. However, the dimensions of parts are affected as well - outside dimensions go bigger and hole diameters smaller. If that is no issue for your print then there is no real need to perfectly dry your filament ;) Speaking of drying: People use all sorts of methods to dry their filament, not just Nylon. One of the most common and most expensive seems to be the use of your oven for several hours to dry it. Another way involves food dyhydrators, bit less on the energy bill but still... Then we have the smart guys using the sun and silaca gel for the drying - good and great but so useless in cold and wet climates... My advise here: Take your time! I mean, sure you want to print right after the filament arrived in your letter box but a bit of preperation will save you filament and frustration. Usually filament comes in a sealed bag with a pack of silica gel and it should be dry and ready to use. But Nylon can become too moist within the time it takes to finnish a long print if you are in a wet climate. This means you start printing and all is good but the next day your new print looks ugly as for no real reason. Make use of these sealed storage containers. Put the filament in there with a good amount of indicating silica gel and only have a hole to feed the filament through - if in doubt use a bowden fitting and a short lenght of teflon tube to prevent friction. A piece of sticky tape over the hole when you don't use the filament and the filament is always ready to use. Reminds me to make an Ible for a suitable storage solution with spool holder... Anyway... When it finally comes to print Nylon you should know cardboard works best as a bed as Nylon sticks really well to it. I glue mine onto a layer of masking tape, this way it won't lift from the bed and I can still replace it very easy. But the most common mistake with Nylon is to print it too fast. The stuff really expands and shrinks a lot from filament to print and high speeds only too often cause the layers to seperate later on. Some people compensate with higher temperatures but I don't like the idea of fitting a filter system with activated carbon filters... Also keep in mind the intense shrinkage when setting the extrusion multiplier! If your ABS prints fine with 0.85 you can expect that the same sized Nylon prints fine somewhere in the range of 55-60! Now you also know why printing with thick layers is not such a great idea if you require all dimensions to fit. Although only outside accuracy can be done by cheating in the settings, getting outside, inside and extrusion widths settings accurate is almost rocket sience ;) Nylon is expensive or not available here in the diameter I require.... I had the same trouble and reverted to trimmer line and a modified, dedicated hotend instead. Why dedicated you wonder? Nylon can be real pain to clean as nothing dissolves and if you heat the parts hot enough to melt it you can not work easy with them. Having a decicated hotend means you won't run into the problem of burnt ABS or PLA clogging the nozzle ;) It also means you can match the hotend to the trimmer line you choice (more on that in a minute). For example, in some areas trimmer line of 2mm or 3.3mm diameter is the most popular and cheapest. Just drill out the hotend to cater for the new diameter, which I did after noticing the filament got stuck in the neck of the cold end ;) Trimmer line - does it matter which one? It does these days! Avoid everything that is not round or labeled with terms like "duracore", "dual core", "multi layer"  -basically all that indicates it is not just a single, solid stand of Nylon. Long lasting, special core line is great for your lawn trimmer but really bad for your hotend! PET, High temp nylon or even fibre re-inforced cores are in use, so in the best case you mix the nylon with overheating PET, in the worst you block your nozzle permanently. If it looks like it has a core or some sort of "mantle" around it, it means not usable.

Posted by Downunder35m 2 years ago

3D Printer Enters A New Stage Of Development

  As a new type of manufacturing process that using rapid prototyping technology,3D printers aroused widespread concern when it was published. A new product was initial pushed into the market, people concerns its functionality and price more than its shape and so on. 3D printer is no exception. Initially, people's attention focused on its cost and performance.   What way reflected cost and performance for 3D printers? I believe that there are three main areas, including printing speed, printing volume and resolution. For consumers, what level achieve these three areas and which brand is more competitive? Next, I will be based on my own experience for everyone to make a resolution.   As a Chinese brand that created independently, LXMaker won the favor of consumers from different countries by its excellent performance when it was pushed into market and sales was rising gradually. Recently, LXMaker launched a new all-metal 3D printer that was named Iron Man series.Three aspects of the machine has been greatly improved.   First is the super high printing speed:Take advantages of the cross shaft structure innovation and the unique design to separate feeding device  with extruder at both sides, instead of Makerbot's heavy printing head (loaded with 3 electric motors, illustrated as below). LXMaker's light & handy extruder guarantees high speed printing. Imagine, if you are running, unloaded or  carrying bags, which is faster? The maximum nozzle moving speed of LXMaker can reach 500 mm / sec .     The novel cross shaft structure introduced above has win the big prize of "The Best Open Source Hardware"and"The Most Precised and Fastest 3D Printer",nominated by the world-wide well-known Make Magzine.   Second is the super large printing volume:The maximum printing volume is up to 260x260x400mm, outstanding of 3D printers at the same price.    Finally is the super high resolution:LXMaker has a very precise Z axis movement, which ensures the precision in practical. The theoratical precison of Z axis is 0.01mm, while the actual test precision is only 0.02 mm, which guarantees the super high quality of the workpiece, and can effectively prevent deformation in the printing process. Ths precision of X & Y axis can also be as high as 0.125mm.   In addition to excellent performance,the price of the Iron Man is very close to the people.The machine of maximum print size that need 2199 dollars was located in moderate level in similar products, so that consumers that come from all countries were able to withstand it. Because of this,LXMaker owned today's sales.   As time goes by, the point that people focus on the 3D printer was also not limited to the cost and performance, but rather more attention appearance and stability of the machine. Because considering this change,LXMaker introduced Iron Man series.   Iron Man series used all-metal structure and the whole machine has a very high stability.In addition,it was very strong.And it didn’t produce crack or fracture because of a slight collision. So it has better adaptability for long-distance transport, consumers do not have to worry about damage of product because of long bumpy.   At appearance of the machine, Iron Man series launched black red and blue creatively.According to their preferences,consumers can customize the 3d printer that belong to themselves.And three colors of the machine is filled with the fashion sense and the modern sense.This feature meet the requirements of the product appearance that digital technology enthusiasts. The method of LXMaker is designed to meet the trend of customization.   New products always went through a process that from performance to shape after published. Eventually,the overall level of products will be improved by leaps and bounds. 3D printer reflects the development process of this law fully. Therefore, the most critical for the business is to discover consumer’s mindset changes and adjustments based on the changes in a time.It is the only way that owned good yields and returns. The only constant is change.

Posted by LXMaker 4 years ago

Can Non-Hybrid Cars Get 100+ MPG Today?

  We're not talking about hybrids here; our topic is cars powered by the basic IC-engine that relies on gasoline and not electric motors. Today's gasoline engines are not designed to combust/burn gasoline efficiently. Even with the advent of using high pressure fuel injection techniques that are computer controlled, we still fall short of the mark. Partly because liquid gasoline can't burn, only gasoline vapors burn, and there lies our problem. The same goes for injecting the high pressure droplets of fine-mist liquid gasoline that enters the engine cylinder using our current nozzle ejector technology, it doesn't all burn at the same time! Engine designers assume that these droplets are instantly vaporized by the engine's hot cylinder walls, and then instantly explode/combust when ignited by the sparkplug. Not true, up to 2/3 of the fuel isn't vaporized and doesn't combust until later on in the cycle. The 1/3 that gets almost-instantly vaporized and burns will do so within the several thousandths of a second (Fig-1) it has before the piston moves down its 1/2-stroke (out of today's 4-stroke cycle) completing the engine power-portion of its cycle. This releases power and tremendous heat which indeed vaporizes the remaining ~2/3 of our fuel from its liquid droplet form, but too late. It essentially does so when the power stroke is almost over or the piston is just about ready to move into its up-stroke (2nd stroke of our four stroke cycle) phase. So, because of poor vapo-timing we have 2/3 of our fuel virtually wasted by exploding at near the bottom of the power stroke. This incorrect explosive timing, which happens to most of our fuel, imparts very little energy into the crankshaft because its effective "moment" (a product of explosive force and radial-component distance from crankshaft center) is insignificant by then. Various attempts at adjusting the combustion timing spark hasn't made a significant difference. Even though ~2/3 of the fuel is now exploding and providing a huge force, its small "influence" arm distance is rapidly diminishing to zero, and any huge downward force times near zero arm-length is still zero. Some clarification here, technically thermal-efficiency is not improved, pretty much all of the gasoline gets combusted today. That means the energy of the fuel is almost totally released, but not effectively used. The problem is the timing it takes to convert fuel-injected gasoline droplets into vapor to combust at the correct engine rotational time and extract that expended energy. If you did the math for any size engine rotating at say 3200 RPM, you would find that a 4-stroke engine can only extract that energy from combustion during one of the four strokes. And the time it takes to make that stroke happen is only about 9.4 thousandths of a second or 9.4 milisecs (msecs). Now picture the piston just below TDC, all its valves closed, under pressure and containing all the fuel and air it needs to combust. At this point our deadly cocktail has about half of the 9.4 or about 5 msecs to complete combust after the timed sparkplug ignites it. The half factor exists because the max portion of our power stroke (moment arm) occurs at the mid-stroke of the piston sliding down and turning the crankshaft. If all of our fuel isn't combusted by then, the moment-arm or distance from the piston-center to the crankshaft quickly reduces to zero. Again, only vapors combust within a healthy 2 msecs (Fig-1), while fuel droplets take a relatively long time (>5 msecs) to vaporize before it can combust. Unfortunately nature is stubborn and vaporizes ~2/3 of our injected fuel droplets only during roughly the second half of the power stroke. So this huge amount of energy gets wasted because even though the forces of combustion are huge, its moment arm is rapidly approaching zero. Infinity times zero is still zero! Engine designers/engineers have been plagued by this phenomenon ever since the creation of the 4-stroke gasoline or Otto cycle engine. We need to improve this intermittent combustion/explosion process by combusting all of our injected fuel at the correct timing sequence. This is accomplished by injecting only vaporous fuel which will produce ~3X the power we now get. Another way to state this is, for the same power that we now get from a gasoline engine, if we burned the fuel correctly, we would only need 1/3 the fuel consumption to get 3X the current MPG.

Posted by RT-101 6 years ago

Oil Spill Water Cleanups As Fast As They Happen

We live and survive on oil today. That dependence won’t go away for at least a few more generations. Today’s technology allows us to drill oil just about anywhere in the world, and then move it to anywhere we want using behemoth water vessels. Unfortunately, there’s a dark side to all this and it happens when our technology fails us, as periodically demonstrated by mankind’s great oil spill disasters. The most recent being the Gulf Oil Spill of 2010. The amount of oil actually dumped upon our ecosphere and contaminating the environment was mind boggling. The numbing numbers are so large that we can’t even get our minds around it. And we all know that the responsible drilling company won’t fess up to how much was really spilled because even they don’t know, don’t want to know and furthermore want to forget about it. Is there some way to tackle this oil spill problem through the use of the very culprit that created it, namely technology? Of course there is, but it will cost the billions they used to clean up the mess they created in the first place.  We want to develop a technological process to be used worldwide that borrows from what we currently know, and clean up these oil spills almost as quickly as they happen upon our seascape. Did we finally clean up the Gulf oil spill?  Yes, maybe? But it took too long and we either didn’t use the right equipment or not enough prepared and available equipment to check the problem. Time is probably the most critical factor involved in mitigating oil spill disasters. While Nature obviously works to clean up ecological disasters, she takes perhaps a decade or more to make a region whole again. We need to help nature accelerate her time schedule to a few weeks not decades! Oil cleanup equipment exists that is too painstakingly slow and inefficient to get the job done quickly and effectively, and to recapture ~99% of the oil spilled. Today’s processes are makeshift, disjointed, and not organized nor designed to tackle today’s mega-proportion oil spill problems.  We need a cohesive mega-solution to handle mega-problem oil spills. A virtual army of specialists with proper equipment to attack, gather up and capture, then deliver the spilled oil to vessel staging platforms. These huge platforms will separate 99.9% of the captured oil/water, dumping the water back.  Oil tankers on standby then take this recaptured crude oil to refineries. This process must be set up with the proper equipment to dynamically proceed in real time. Only high sea states should be capable of halting its operation. The process of oil/water cleanup requires the serial use of various sequential operations where each performs a key stage of the operatic procedure. The orchestration starts with techniques that initially yield the biggest volumetric punch first, then refines this processing by using less volumetric cleaning ability but greater oil separation capability. All the while we have deployed an improved form of today’s containment apron, capable of hundreds of miles of coverage to prevent spreading the spilled oil slick to shore. Having researched today’s available oil spill removal systems, their usefulness has been categorized according to volumetric processing capability per time. Fast surface skimming techniques plus “huge”, constant flowing centrifugal separators clearly win, but are not 100% effective. Sponge-type, oil absorbent techniques then come to play as they are useful in nearly recapturing the remaining 0.1% oil from the water, but are slow and will be used solely on the remaining 99.99% pure water expelled from our centrifugal oil separators. Today we literally use these absorbers like sponges, dunking them into the oil slick, waiting awhile and pulling them out after they’ve absorbed some oil. Such prolonged processing times are unacceptable. Absorbers are to be used differently than today, their performance is vastly accelerated as they now act as 0.1% oil filters to process the pressurized water expelled from the centrifugal separators. The final residuals of perhaps 0.01% that the high pressure absorber filtration misses will require oil break down chemistry whose end products are environmentally friendly and allows Nature to restore balance. So the actual water dumped back will be better than 99.99% pure. Now let’s break this process down a bit and address the pieces of equipment involved. Our attack vessels are special, high speed catamarans that ferry cars between different ports today. They use water-jet propulsion, are extremely fast, maneuverable, and will be equipped with a special front-end water scoop to pick up the oil/water slick in real time while propelled forward. Their scoop or nozzle articulates, performing real time adjustments responding to oil slick depths thereby avoiding too much water pickup. Once their holding tanks are full, they reconnoiter with waiting intermediate-sized tankers to quickly dump their oil/water cargo. When these tankers are full, they deposit their load to one of the huge vessel platforms. These staging platforms use centrifugal systems to quickly and efficiently separate huge quantities of the oil and water, and dump the 99.9% cleaned water overboard (Nature effectively handles the remaining 0.1% of oil). When their tanks are full of oil, they start emptying themselves into the large standby oil tankers for delivery to refineries. QED. For you science fiction/fact fans, this concept requires enormous equipment, is on a huge scale and if viewed as one harmonious system may be the first Oil-Terra-Forming machine to be used on our planet.  

Posted by RT-101 6 years ago

Hydrogen Peroxide at home and in the Garden

Although the topic is quite old for some of us and mostly because I am too lazy today to make an Instructable: Hydrogen Peroxide ! Back in the day Hydrogen Peroxide was mainly known for the ability to bleech your hair, later it replaced chlorine based products for the preparation of paper and organic fibres. For me it is a good opportunity to go back in time and to pull out some of the remedies my grandparents already used. Who knows, there might be something that helps you or you might know other good uses that I failed to mention here, so feel free to comment. First off: What actually is hydrogen peroxide? We could check Wikipedia but I think it is enough to say that it basically water with an added oxgen mulecule which turn the stuff into a quite powerfull oxidizer. When hydrogen peroxide reacts the added oxygen is released and the normal water remains. Precausions and health risks. In the normal supermarket form hydrogen peroxide comes at a strenght of just 3%. This is just enough for wound treatment or cleaning off a fresh and small stain. The stuff you can buy at your hair dresser comes in concentrations of 5-15%, above that it is of little use to them. Pool grade peroxide however can come as high as 50%. It often requires a permit of at least leaving a copy of your drivers license to buy such high concentration but well worth it price wise. The downside of anything above 5% is a risk for your skin, eyes and airways. So when handling hydrogen peroxide you should waer long sleeve rubber gloves, safety or better swimming goggles and make sure that you don't create vapour by spraying it against the wind direction. Having water at hand to dilute and spillage on your skin is always good. What happens to me if things go wrong? Well, if handled correctly nothing should go wrong but of cause the worst would be eye contact. Getting concentrated hydrogen peroxide in your eyes means extreme pain and even with rinsing it out asap eye damage is more than just possible. Again: wear proper eye protection and if spraying use a filter mask, the paper type is enough!!! Nothing immediate happens on sking contact but a few minutes after contact the skin will turn slightly brown or goes white. This is caused by the oxygen release into your skin cells, if washed off quickly after noticing the discoloration will fade after a few hours. Prolonged exposure of the skin can cause skin cells to fully discolor and living cells might get damaged - a burning sensation is usually the sign that you need to wash the area now ;) Enough bad stuff said, let's see what we can do in the garden.... Fungal infection of your old roses or on your fruit trees? Sometimes the weather does not like our plants and by the time we discover a fungal infestation it is usually pruning time. There are commercial producta available that work quite well but especially the copper based ones tend to do more harm than good in th long run. An alternative is a solution of 10-20% hydrogen peroxide. Spray generously over all affected parts of the plant, leaves, twigs, stem and all. Make sure everything is properly wet! In some cases the fungus can act as a water replellent and it seems impossible to get any of the solution to wet these areas - a drop of dish washing liquid into the bottle will fix this! Watever runs off can be left as it only helps to get oxygen into the soil but of course you should not soak the area... Leave it on for about an hour, around 20 minutes if it quite warm. Rinse all off with clear water and repeat every 2 days for 5 treatments all up. After this time wait 2 or 3 weeks and check if the fungus still gows in some hard to reach areas. If so then repeat the treatment there until satisfied but wait another 2 weeks every 5 single treatments. In some areas of the world certain types of fungus on roses are refered to as "rust". ----- Moved into a new home and the garden beds smell really bad? The last house I moved into had a previous occupant with a big dog but no time to clean after his pet. The garden beds looked dead and I mean so dead that I could not even find weeds in them. And the smell was a distinct mix of old dog poo with lots of fresh cat poo mixed in it - the perfect outdoor pet toilet :( Trying to dig it all under made me recover that the top soil was more §$&*# than soil. I had to get rid of the bacteria of all the poo and somehow neutralize a lot of the unwanted "nutrients". The solution was to first loosen all the soil as deep as I could go. Then I added rice straw (but anything straw like or dry grass will do) to mix it through. At this stage I wished I had a gas mask LOL All up the contaminated garden beds covered about 20square meters. I got a 10 liter canister of pool grade hydrogen peroxide, from this I diluted down with 20 liters of water and a few drops of dishwashing liquid to help with the soil wetting. All was applied as evenly as I good with a watering can and then the area was covered with some tarp to try keeping as much oxygen on and in the soil as possible. A day later the tarp was removed and all beds watered with hose to drowning point. This watering was repeated every 3 days for 3 weeks to drive out all the excess and unwanted nutrients from the poo. The smell was already gone except for some cat urine residue which disappeared after some rounds of watering. Three months after the initial treatment I did some soil tests, added nutrients were required and the next season I had vegetables growing :) ----- Planting? Whether from seeds or seedlings, give hydrogen peroxide a try! I use a 5% solution to soak the potting mix I use before putting my seeds in it. Not only does it kill a few of the unwanted things that might still be in there but it adds a lot of oxygen into the soil, which gives the seeds a much better start. For seeds I use a 5% solution as well but only leave them in for about an hour before placing them between some wet paper towels until they start germinating. This way I can be sure all harmful bacteria and fungal spores are dead and I can use a sterile seed to keep going. Might just be my opinion but I think the germination rate is better and seedling in comparison start growing faster and stronger. Home uses.... As we learned before hydrogen peroxide, at least in higher concentrations is a powerful way to remove fungus. In our bathrooms we often have the problem that the ceiling starts to develop black spots as in the colder times water condenses here and takes a long time to dry off. If you now go to your favorite hardware store they will recommend the use of a chlorine based product, basically bleach... And although it does the job it also means your house will stink for days and if you scrub the ceiling you will get it on your sking and stink too. Hydrogen peroxide at 20% or higher concentrations can be sprayed onto the cleiling :) Of course you will need good protection for this and all things color should be removed, like towels or floor mats. By protection I mean a minimum of swimming goggles, a tyvek suit or similar to cover all exposed skin areas and at least a paper dust mask, better a filtered respirator like you use for spray painting or using insecticides. If you have a spray bottle with an adjustable nozzle then a stream is far better than a spray mist!! Not only is your exposure far lower but it much easier to wet the ceiling quickly. Wet all affected areas, then leave and the room, close the door and take off all clothes you used t protect you. The clothes can be left out to dry but double check that you had no soaked spot where your sking might have been in contact - if so rinse the skin with plenty of water! It will take some time to work and then dry, so best to do this in the summer time or if during the colder times you need to make sure the room is porperly heated and aired out to dry! Repeat until all black spots are gone, really bad areas will leave a permanent discoloration looking like a slight brwonish color is the ligh it right otherwise you won't see it. Once fully dry it is best to scrape off all lose paint and then to use a acrylic based sealer before giving the ceiling a fresh coat of white. The sealer will prevent the water to penetrate more than the paint level and if you get the fungus back on the paint it is far easier to clean ;) ----- Carpet cleaning.... When moving into a new rental with carpet on the floor you often are left with areas indicating the carpet might be "clean" but the underlay certainly is not. You can fix the underlay but you certainly can make sure all harmful stuff is gone from the carpet. Carpet cleaning machines can be hired but often much cheaper if you buy the "recommended" cleaning product with it. Rent is usually based on a daily base and price depends on how much cleaner you need. If you only want to desinfect the carpet which otherwise looks mostly fine than go for the smallest pack available and use it to spot clean areas you want cleaner first. For the desinfecting part I recommend to test how high you can go with the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide before using it on a big scale - keep in mind the carpet will never be fully dry and the remaining peroxide will continue to act! Test a 10% solution first before you go higher as you don't want to buy 30 liters or more of pool grade peroxide - just trust me on that one and only try to buy this much you do want to get into trouble a few days later! If 10 percent solution left on the carpet does not cause any bleaching of the fabric (unwanted bleaching that is) you can try higher for spot cleaning in demanding areas. A good spot to try the solution is under the cover or duct outlets, under these joining bars where carpet changes to tiles (if you can lift them off) or in wardrobes if the carpet goes inside. There are two way to treat your carpet once the general cleaning is done. a) use a garden sprayer or similar to wet the carpet This is good for single room treatment like for the baby room but especially on thicker carpets it requires a lot of solution and can become costly. Once wet leave for at least 30 minutes so the peroxide can do its thing, then use the machine with either the solution filled or just to dry off the carpet. I recommend to use the peroxide solution in the machine as it allows for better penetration and it will remove more soiled solution this way. If your catching container starts bubbling like mad it means you have a lot of §$%&#+ in the carpet and it might be best to first clean it all with the normal carpet cleaning agent before using the peroxide again - again tesing on smaller areas can help wasting the peroxide. If you need to store prepared solutions than it is best in a cold place. It will take several hours on an otherwise clean carpet for the peroxide to fully disappear so it best to use shoes and prevent skin contact during that time - especially if a baby crawls around ;) ----- Toilet.... We don't want to talk about it but everyone needs to clean their toilet sooner or later. For most things in there using the toilet brush when it happens will keep things clean and healthy. But what if someone in the house is sick or with a weak immune system? You could use all sorts of commercial cleaners and desinfectants but a wipe with wet towel or cloth soaked in a 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide will quickly eliminate all harmfull things on your seat, lid or bowl, including the buttons to press and the door handles ;) Just wipe and leave it wet for a minute or two then wipe again and ry - done! Personal use I always pack a small bottle of supermarket grade peroxide when going off road or camping trips. Although we now have modern desinfectants that won't stink or otherwise harm you I still prefer the old stuff ;) If you are far from civilisation than the last thing you want to need is medical attention for something that started as small as a scratch or graze.... Out in the unkown wilderness you will never know if the rockk you just crash landed on was used as a urinal by a fox the night before... A bit of gravel left in your skin might contain harmful bacteria... A cut with your own knife?? - What did you all cut since the last proper cleaning of the blade? You see where I am going here, a small thing might turn into something really nasty a day or two later. If you clean a freash and minor wound properly and then rinsie it with hydrogen perodixe most if not all harmful leftovers will be killed by the releasing oxygen. Of course this pretty much useless on bleeding wounds or where it is obvious that you won't be able to remove all debris from the wound - here it means you trip is still over in favour for proper medical treatment. The thing is that hydrogen peroxide was basically abandoned for all wound treatment once the modern "cleaning aids" became available as the peroxide will not only attack harmful things but also living tissue. The claims goes as far as causing bad scar tissue, damage to blood vessels and even "burning" of the tissue. One big problem I have with all these claims is that they were never really mentioned until the new meds came out. IMHO exposure time and how you use it it the key - common sense if you ask me. Noone should ever soak a wound in peroxide, if it is that big that you need to soak it you need medical attention anyway. And as said you should rinse the wound, that means all remaining liquid should be allowed to flow off - this will only leave a minor amount of peroxide in the wound and the exposure time will end with once all oxygen is released. For minor wounds I only use a paper tissue or cotton bud soaked in peroxide and wipe the wound.... ----- Smelly feet? Ok, maybe not the best way to start a conversation but we all know what sneakers do to our feet in the summer... Insoles with copper and activated carbon will help a lot and at least "cure" your sneakers while they are off your feet and have time to dry. But the smell is actually cause by bacteria growing from everywherey in your sneaker to your sking, actuall starting at your sking... If you wear your sneakers for long periods of time time or even whenever possible and also suffer from a bad smell hydrogen peroxide might be able to help you. Most sneakers will tolerate a machine wash and should come out germ free, if that is no option pack them in a sealed back and leaven them in the freezer over night - this will kill all bacteria and remove the smell. Now to break the endless cycle you need to remove the bacteria from inside your skin. So daily sock changes, freezing shoes and washing feet is a must! Your feet will really benefit from a foot bath in a 5% solution of hydrogen peroxide. To keep costs at a minimum use a container that is just the right size for your feet and prepare the solution from pool grade peroxide. I an ideal case you should not need more than 2 liters but all used product can be stored cool and re-used the next day, after that you need to make a new batch. Keep your feet submerged for at least 10 minutes. This will allow a deep penetration of the skin but might result in some white spots that will disappear after a few hours. Consenquent foot baths can be reduced to 5 minutes. After about a week you should notice that wearing your sneakes no longer causes and bad smell and you can stop the treatment. Freezing the sneakers over night, dialy (or more) sock changes and daily, proper cleaning of your feet should prevent any further bad smells :) ----- Bleaching your hair Althoug it was done for many years I really can't recommend using hydron peroxide for this purpose! Any concentration strong enough to have a proper effect in a reasonable time will at least cuase skin irritation. Back in the days they said your burning scalp is what you need to endure to get blonde hair :( And as said already you really don't want to get that stuff into your eyes... General uses If you have a fruit based stain then cahnces are hydrogen peroxide will remove it, especially if fresh. Even at supermarket concentration repeated application and proper drying off with a paper towel or similar will remove even red wine or beetroot stains. ------ Blood... On you skin blood is easy removed with cold water, same on other surfaces but washing off is no option a wet cloth or cotton piece will work fine. Hydrogen peroxide is good if things need to go fst or if the surface is porous, here the releasing oxigen will drive out the blood with the bubbles. ----- Fish tanks... If you love your tank then you really hate to medicate or even worse have a bad algea infestion, especially the stuff of the black kind. A change to activated carbon filter material is always recommended after a medical treatment to remove all leftovers from the system. However, certain medication simply won't be affected by a carbon filter and stay in the system until fully used or broken down otherwise. Especially in bigger tanks a partial water change is often out of the question as it would cause too much additional stress to the fish and plants. Hydrogen peroxide can help to break down most if not all remains of the used medication while at the same time adding more oxygen to the water. To be sensitive and safe in all enviroments I recomment to calculate the concentration based on the volume of your tank and to add the required amount of peroxide very slowly into the outgoing water stream from your pump. By slowly I mean in terms of a slow drip if using solutions over 10% to be added to the tank. If in doubt remove a suitable amount of tank water into a bucket and add the concentrated peroxide to reach the final tank limit. I strongly recommend to stay below 2% in favour over additional treatments a few days later if required. That means the diluted solution you add should be entered into the tank slowly if in doubt add a glass full every few minutes. For the treatment of the dreaded black algea you do the same 2% solution but be prepared that it will take several treatment until you see them die off. If you can then it is best relocate the fish for a few days so you can use a stronger solution of 5-8% just with the plants left in the tank. When transporting fish in a bag it can pay off to add a little bit of 3% peroxide to the bag to give additional oxygen for transport. I do this maually for every fish I buy from a store so I can be sure all fungus and bacteris is killed of before I introduce it to my tank. Really helps to prevent loosing a lot of fish just because you added one or two more to your tank ;) For the normal sized transport bags I use a good shot glass full of 3% peroxide in case you wondered. ----- Fridge and freezer Be it after long use or because you bought one second hand - once empty and warm some of our colling gadget just smell bad. A good clean with a hot water and your favourite cleaning agent is a good start, no need for aggressive stuff ;) If clean but still smelly, like after a power failure with fish in it you might want to go one step further. Best option is to use a spray bottle and a peroxide solution of at least 15% here. Use proper protection as mentioned above and spray all surface with the solution until soaked. What you can take out you take you take out, clean properly and then wipe or brush with the same peroxide solution. Bare aluminium should be handled with caution as in some cases it can oxidise badly, leaving a white and not removable crust behind. Here it is best to wipe and then wipe again with a cloth soaked in clear water to limit exposure time. No need to dry out - wipe out and check if it still smells, if so repeat and wiped off all areas as good as you can with a solution soaked cloth. Once the smell is gone dry out and enjoy smell free use from now on :) ----- Fruit and vegetables Unless you know exactly what happened to it you might want to clean your vegies and fruits properly before using them. Pesticides, herbicites, fungicites.... Not mention normal fungus and bacteria on the product.... On a commercial base hydron peroxide baths are often used to clean products for sensible people, hospital use or long term storage. For a personal use this only makes sense if you have free and unlimited access to the peroxide. An alternative are ozone bubblers. Expensive models can eb bought in shops or online, complete with timers or even a gauge showing the concentration in a room. On a hobby level for the kitchen sink we can use an ozone generator, air pump and bubble stone from the aquarium store ;) Let the pump bubble out the ozone for a minute or two, fill the sink with the fruit and veggies and move them around every few minutes. Best of course with an open window to limit you exposure to the ozone! Rule of thumb: If you can smell it is already too much in the air! The ozone in the water does the same as the peroxide: It breaks down harmful things with pure oxygen. The downside is that it is very harmful for your airways and body in general, so against all what youtube can offer I actually prefer to treat my fruit and veggie in a sealed bag. Place them inside, push out as much air as you can and then fill up with the ozone from the generator. Once the bag is full leave for about 30 minutes then wash and use or place the things in the fridge.

Posted by Downunder35m 10 months ago

Looking for a cheap compressor with a high pressure rating or for airbrush use?

Today a friend of mine asked me if I know a way to reduce the noise level of his compressor in the work shed. With the current heat he prefers to work in the evening and nights, which does not make his neighbours too happy. His main use for several airbrush guns and sometimes for mormal airtools or the big spray gun for an undercoat or similar. So his main concern is oil in the airline and the actual flow rate is of second concern as he has an old 25kg propane cyclinder as an additional air tank. For relative low air volumes I would suggest an old fridge compressor. With a thicker pipe at the outlet that is filled with stainless steel wool most of the oil stays in the compressor. That is if this pipe is a) long enough b) upright c) of sufficient diameter so there is enough for the oil to avoid it being pushed up A second, standard oil seperator will be enough for the oil level required for airbrush stuff - and most other things too. If there is no pressure regulator on the airbrush system it is best to add a small air tank and shut off valve for it. In our case however a fridge compressor would be just enough to keep the bigger airbrush gun running but not to fill the tank at the same time. Not to mention the problem of fluctuating pressure levels. Since we already had a tank and pressure shut off connected to the loud compressor it was only a matter of finding something that keeps the neighbours happy. The first thing we did was to check how often the compressor comes on and how long it runs till the tank is back to pressure. With that and the stated air volume on the compressor we guesstimated that something a bit bigger than the compressor of a window airconditioner should be sufficient. The search begins.... If you don't know what to look for I give you a few hints: Older airconditioners often run on R22 or R12 - both use quite high system pressures which is a bonus, but more on that later. As a rule of thumb for these compressors you cans say: the bigger the higher the flow rate. At the local wreckers and scrap yards we found a few units but noticed the bigger ones often used three phases and not just one :( So we opted for the R22 compressor of a 4.5kW unit. Keep in mind the 4.5kW is for the entire system, so the quite massive fans can be removed from the sum. Usually the compressor alone is the 2.5 - 3kW range. Ok, we found the big thing but how does this help us? First things first ;) The oil was removed as the housing stating the original oil amount. This allowed us to use an oil rated for air use that has little to no water absorption qualities - you don't want water in your compressor. With the usual heat the water should be no problem anyway. Next was a pressure test to make sure the thing actually still works, so we added some plumping in the form of standard connectors to the inlet and outlet. We got well above 200PSI and abondoned the test at this stage as it was more than enough already. The air volume seemd to be well more than expected too so let'S move to the next stage. A fridge or aircon compressor always needs to have a certain amount of oil in it as it will otherwise seize and overheat quickly. But they are also designed so that the oil mixes with the refrigerant to cool all moving parts. So the biggest hurdle is to make sure the oil stays where it should stay and won't enter or get lost in the tank. Only real option for this to use something to catch the oil that is capable of releasing it into the compressor once it shuts off. Now there are several options for this so I start with the most basic: A "catch can" will get most of the oil, especially if filled with stainless steel wool or similar. Downside is that you have to find a way to get it back into the compressor. A step better is a thicker pipe filled with stainless steel wool to catch the oil. If placed upright and the outgoing pipe can be bend a bit upwards you have a good chance that most of the oil will sweep through the valves and get back down into the compressor housing. But only too often the cheap or even free compressor is better than expected and the oil won't get back into the housing as the vlaves are just too good. The last and IMHO best option is a pressurised return system. Most compressors for bigger aircons have a seperate filling port or sealed off piece of pipe. In this case you can do a simple check to see if they are usable for our purposes. Open the port of pipe and use a simple bike bump or similar to get some pressure in it. With a dedicated oil filling port you are best off but they are hard to find. The air you pump in should come out of the high pressure side - you might need a little pressure to overcome the valves. If you hear any bubbling in the housing (use a pipe on your ear or a sensitive microphone) it means you are going through the oil inside the compressor - perfect! You might not hear any bubbling but the port or pipe is still usable. Get ready with your fingers and start the compressor. The fill pipe should be sucking air in, same for the service port if there is one. A dedicated oil port should not suck but instead force some oil up if you cover the high pressure outlet. I assume all is good and no oil is splashing out of the open pipe or port. Add a small amount of oil with a syringe or similar into the port/pipe. If you see an oil mist coming out of the high side it is bad news. Clean outlet air is good. To get the oil back from the catch pipe or can we have to add a hose or pipe with a needle valve. It needs to be adjusted so that there is only a very little airflow (or oil mist) coming out. This regulated outlet is now being connect to the port/pipe with a bit of suction that we found earlier. Now every time the compressor runs the collected oil is forced back into the compressor :) Please double check the port/pipe used is not directly connected to the intake port! The last thing you want is a puddle of oil going into the cylinder and damaging it! They are designed to move gas but not liquid! If in doubt use a hardened sttel nail or similar to create a small puncture in the top of the compressor housing if there is nothing else to use. Check first if the material sound very thick, if so it might help to drill with a 5 or 6mm drill first - only about 1mm to make sure you won't enter the housing and conimate it with metal shavings! Once you have a small puncture hole of about 2mm in diameter get some 2 component metal repair glue mix and add a suitable connection for the collecting pipe/can. If you feel up to it you can of course use a blow torch and solder the connection on. Now we have the compressor working with a oil return system that also gives up very little to no oil at all in our system. You might now think you are good to go but you should at least add a decent and fine filter to the air inlet ;) The compressor noise of a bigger system can still be an issue if thicker pipes are used that allow the noise to travel out. Keep in mind they usually run in a fully closed system.... As we only need to match the noise level of the compressor itself a solid steel can like an old fire extinguisher in the 1kg rage is a good way out. Fill it with filter wool and a fine filter pad after adding some hose connectors either end. You can misuse the trigger nozzle and keep it to seal the top if you braze a connector on it. If the intake here is about 5 times larger than the pipe connection to the compressor itself the air flow going into the thing is low enough for a cheap paper air filter can or box if you have a quite dusty enviroment to work with. The real trick is to have a hose or pipe on the inside of the fire extinguisher connected to the compressor pipe connection. A garden hose is great here as is reduces the noise quite good and is dirt cheap. Make a lot of about 2mm sized holes in this pipe and close the other end of it off. Now the compressor will suck it through the small holes and the soft garden hose reduces the noise, the surrounding padding brings it down to basically nothing. The special case of clean air for airbrush.... If you read this for the sole purpose of airbrush use then this chapter is just for you, all other might want to skip it. The two things you don't want to enter your gun is oil or water. Both are a common thing in normal compressors due to lubrication and pressure difference resulting in condensation of the humidity in the intake air. Oil free compressors of good quality can cost quite a few bucks and often require ongoing replacement of membranes or piston seals. A refrigeration compressor with the above modifications already provides clean enough air for most airbrush users if a proper tank is used to store enough of the compressed air. So you might just want to add a basic oil filter or very fine paper filter close to the regulator. For very detailed work with very sensitive paints you might want to build a filter box containing of several layers of oil absorbent paper. This stuff is often used in the industry to clean up minor oil spills and bind oil very well. A PVC pipe (pressure rated please) with 5-8 layers of filter screens should last about a lifetime before the filters need changing if the diameter is in the 10-15cm range. That leaves us with the dreaded problem of condensation and water contamination. Depending on the type of paint and gun used a small amount of water vapour is usually no problem. Solvent based paints usally show their disliking by unwanted drops or run offs caused by water droplets. Of course you just go and buy a professional dehumidifier and accept the ongoing replacement costs for the cartridges... But if you are in a climated that has above 30% humidity for most of the year than you will have to remove the water one way or the other. A big enough storage tank for the air that is upright usually helps to release any condensated water prior to usage. But if you use a homemade tank you might want to avoid this problem completely and forget about water in the system altogehter. Silaca gel is the answer here, specifically the indicating variety that changes color once "full". A spaghetti glas or similar should be big enough unless you are in a very humid climate - is so just use multiple in a row. The air intake side for the compressor has to go through the silica gel to be effictive. This mean we need two holes in the lid. One with a pipe or hose going all the way to the botom - that is the air intake side. The other right on the lid - this is the air outlet side which continues to the compressor intake. With the color change in the silica gel we can estimate how much usage we have left until we have to heat it up to remove the water. If this color change happens quite fast from the bottom to the top, let's say within three days or less than you really need to use more jars with silica gel in a row or a longer one - like using a long and clear acrylic pipe instead. Of course you can always just cut holes and "viewing glasses" along the length to a PVC pipe.... No matter how wet your climate is you want to get at least 100 hours of compressor run time before you need to recharge the silica gel. This brings us to the recharging.... Once the color changes and you only have about one quarter left to the top you want to get the water out of the gel and re-use it. To do this you simply heat it up in your oven to around 120-150°C - the supplier should state the max temp for this. If you use a gas oven or one with limited accuracy here it is best to stay within the 120° range. You need to stir and mix the gel or use something big enough like an oven tray. But be aware that these little balls are like glass! The roll and bounce like no tomorrow! IMHO it best to use an old cooking pot that has no plastic handles for this and not to overfill it. This allows for easy mixing without making a mess that might cause a bad trpping hazard on your kitchen floor tiles! Once the gel is back to original colr it is time to let it cool of to a safe temperature and to fill it back into our canister or pipe. Tanks and shut off systems.... We have a refrigeration compressor working for us, and since it was for R22 we can use much higher pressures as a simple compressor from the hardware store. The low pressure side is used to 70PSI or around 5Bar of pressure in normal working conditions. The high side often works at pressure in the range of 200-300PSI or 14-20Bar! The tank we used is a big propane tank that was restamped at some stage in his life for the use of LPG - so it was tested to quite high pressures. The lower pressure limit is what keeps the stored gas liquid at the given temperature. For Propane at an imaginary 30°C this would around 155PSI or 10Bar. The stamped test pressure, although outdated, showed 600PSI or around 40Bar of pressure with no problems - and the thing was thick in the walls... The old shut off switch from an old air compressor was adjustable after removing the safety cap with a bit of force and the help of few cold beer. With a little tank attached we adjusted it to turn the compressor off at 250PSI or around 17Bar of pressure. If your tank is old or has no test pressure stamped on do your own test in a safe location. Make sure the area is secured so there is no chance of debris from a brusting tank can go anywhere - this includes to chain down the tank itself ;) Use the aircon compressor to fill it up to 300PSI or 20Bar of pressure - this should be tolerated with ease by any propane or LPG tank. Shut the valves and let it rest for a day or so. It is best to do this in the early morning so the heat from the day will slightly increase the pressure. At the end you still want to have a working tank and no major pressure losses. All of our mods on this tank were done without actually harming the tank. This was possible as the original valve had a release port for filling purposes - as it standard on most refillable ones. Here we removed the valve and added a pressure guage instead - better to know what is happening than to assume things. As this "port" had a seperate connection to the bottom of the brass valve we added as T-connection to allow for the connection to the compressor. Just be be really sure a thin piece of copper tubing was brazed to the exit hole of this port so all incoming air will be going down and away from the outlet connection with the big shut off valve on top - which we use to actually isolate and close the tank when not it use. Last thing required was something to connect the pressure shut off switch and regulator to. That was the only major expense on this project as we had no old BBQ hose or similar to get a suitable connector to the tank. We bought a simple adapter for the use of smaller hoses and cut the unwanted bits off we there was only the bottle conntector with the nut left. After removing the rubber ring we brazed piece of copper pipe onto it. Here we drilled holes and fitted severy connectors. First for the pressure switch, then for the connection to the pressure regulator and two standard ones with a ball valve for air hose connections. One air hose connection female, the other male so a standard compressor can be connected as well or "backfilled" for additional and mobile storage use. As we wanted to avoid any reduction in the safety and burst pressure no release valve was added at the bottom on the tank. The added silica gel filter stage was used instead so no water will get into the system to begin with. Additionally, and painfully for me and me friend, the inside of the tank was coated with a layer of acrylic paint to prevent and rust as it was free from it when we checked it at the beginning. This involved filling a suitable amount of paint into it, closing the top while keeping the thread clean and then to move the tank around to cover the inside evenly. If you do this be prepared for some weird movements with your friends LOL Once we were sure all ust be covered by paint at least three times we released the exxess paint and allowed the inside to dry with the assistance of some air forced to go in with a length of pipe. This was repeated 3 times... Then another two just for the bottom third of it where there might be some moisture after all... Now you don't want to remove the brass valve with everything connected to it just to turn the tank over to releae the collected water. Instead we made sure the added pipe on the former relese port would go all the way to the bottom of the tank. If any water collection is suspected only the connection to the compressor needs an additional valve for the disconnection so the water will be force back out here. To make this easy and fast we used standard quick connectors and a piece of flexible airhose rated to 20bar of pressure for the connection to the compressor. We checked the performance of the moisture removal and oil removal only for a few hours of running time while priming some surface for later use. The compressor oil used was very smelly to say it nice but nothing coul be smelled in the first paper filter after the pressure regulator. To check for remaining moisture levels (65% humidity in the house) we used a 10m length of clear PVC tubing going through an ice bath. After 30 minutes of moderate air release there was no condensation on the inside of the tubing visible. Of course if you only need it for air supply and don't care about a bit of moisture and oil you can keep it simple ;) Benefits of doing such a stupid thing: For starters noise and the peace of mind that you can do a lot of airbrushing until the compressor needs to kick in again. Then of course the benefit of an almost silent system compared to a standard compressor - something you can actually tolerate while doing art. But the real deal is knowing YOU did it and you did it for cheap. Warnings and some advise... I know, it should be at the very beginning but I just hope you read till the end ;) If the compressor fails from overheating you are up for a new one. This means the tan size should be within the limits of what the compressor can handle - same for what you actually use on air. You want an empty tank to be filled before the compressor feels hot to touch - quite warm is fine but if you can't leave your hand on it then it is too hot. Same story for the usage. There is no point in using a tiny 10 liter storage tank if you need that capacity every few minutes. The compressor would only have little pauses and overheat quickly. You want a good balance of usage time before the tank goes below supply pressure and running time of the compressor to get it to full pressure again. This brings us to the safety of high pressures. Where possible only copper tubing or sufficiently rate hoses should be used, the later as short as possible to avoid them acting like a whip if something goes wrong. When it comes to the safety of the tank you want to make sure to stay withing it's rated limits. All benefits of a compressor capable of producing over 500PSI otr close to 35Bar is wasted if your tank and pressure regulator can't handle it. This must not mean that you try to use a gas cylinder of unknow age and pressure rating and assume it will work! If in doubt use a lower shut off pressure and stay within the limits of normal air compressors - which is around 120PSI or 8Bar. Never, ever use a tank that is compromised by inside rust or bad corrosion on the outside! If you don't know how to braze copper tubing, pipes and connectors then check out some of the great Instructables about it! Whenever you know you won't use any compressed air for more than a few hours close all valves especially the ones going back to the compressor on the high pressure side! Some compressors really don't like a huge pressure difference constantly pushing on the reed valves. If your tank is big enough to allow for more than one hour of operation before the compressor has to top it up you might want to consider a one way valve right on the compressor outlet. This will prevent any massive pressures going onto the valves - especially helpful for modern compressors that only rely on the sealing capabilities of the clyinders or rotary system used. One thing you should always consider is a pressure relief valve rated for about 50PSI more than your tank pressure - it can be added to the pipe ;) If the shut off valve ever fails the relief valve gives you the ease of mind that it will blow before your tank does. Maintenance... If modded correctly the compressor should stay in the compressor and the compressor itself should not overheat from use. Having said that your compressor might force out a little more than your best catch system can handle. If that becomes a problem it might help to use an oil with a lower viscosity. If all fails it just means you need to top up oil once the last last paper filter is filthy or use slightly more to begin with so the intervals are longer. The silica gel, if used should be recharged before all of it is wasted - no point in adding it if you use it once full of water. If no gel is used there will be water in the storage tank. Even with the added paint and a good air filter it is possible that nasty things grow in there. Making sure the tank is emptied of any water after long uses and again before the next use is good practise. If no pressure gauge is used on the tank you must make sure the shut off valve is always working fine and within set parameters. I strongly recommend using a gauge and if not to perform a pressure check of the system every now and then to confirm all is within parameters of normal operation. A compressor constantly running means you either use far too much air or you have a leak - same story if the compressos kicks in after some of forgetting to shut it off and close the valves. If you keep the above in mind the salvaged compressor should work just fine for many years to come. Troubleshooting and alternatives.... You put everything together the right way, double checked and something is till not right? Maybe my crystal ball helps me to find something... 1. Always oil coming through the catch system. It usually means you use too much of it. A salvaged compressor, if the refrigent was removed legally from the system should still have a "correct" level of oil inside. Too much oil would mean is being pumped through the system at an excessive rate. Very thin compressor oils tend to do that in the compressor is misude like we do. Changing to standard mineral oil can help here. As a last resort you can use a pressure gauge or good judgement to allow more flow through the needle valve from the catch system back to the compressor. Too much backflow here would mean we loose system pressure to the set level of this needle valve! 2. The R22 rated compressor seems to be unable to produce enough pressure. First do a leak test using soapy water to rule out any leaks. Do a back pressure test on the ports. If you can push air through them in the reverse way with ease it means the valves are damaged making the compressor useless. You need to replace it. A regular cause with our type of usage is a constand back pressure from the storage tank to the compressor. To prevent this it might help to mount an electric solenoid between the compressor and storage tank. Such valve should be off when the pressure switch is engaged and on when the pressure switch is disengaged. This prevents the coil from overheating but requires a "normally off" type of valve. A good source at the wreckers are cars with LPG systems installed, they usually have suitable 12V valves somewhere on or near the tank and filler cap. 3. I am using several kg of silica gel but still get a lot of water in my storage tank. Going overboard in a humid climate can be a good thing here but if moisture makes it into the tank even with great amounts of silica gel there are only two causes: a) the tube or cylinder used is not long enough or not wide enough to allow the absorption of all the moisture going through. b) the flow rate is too high and the temperatures are too. For the first the solution is obvious enough. The second is related to the first for the diameter and lenght but temperatures constantly above the 30°C while operating somehow limits what the gel can do. Using a cooling coil on the intake side or simply putting the gel containers in icy water will help to a great deal here. If that is not an option than I suggest to layer the gel and to seperate it with fine paper filter screens. This will slow and even out the airflow allowing for more contact time with the gel. 4. The compressor gets very noisy after some time. If "some time" means more than 30-45 minutes you simply have it running too much and it overheats. If the noise increases too much when reaching the shut off pressure it can mean the pressure is too high for it. 5. Can I use multiple compressors from smaller units or refrigerators to get enough air volume? Of course you can but it might mean you have to lower your pressure expectations. Consider that each individual compressor would get the back pressure from all other compressors running while it's outlet valve is closed. To avoid premature failure you want to make sure the compressors are shut off at a lowver pressure. 6. I don't want to use a big tank but require a good airflow for airbrush. Two or three fridge compressors working one after the other with a small tank to keep the output pressure even can allow for about 30 minutes runtime per compressor. With three it gives one hour for the the first to cool off and should be enough for ongoing work. Downside is you need to make some sort of automatic switch to "rotate" to compressor working. Last words.... Is you find any spelling mistakes you can keep them. However, if you use them in any way to make a profit with them I kindly ask for 10% of your earning from it ;) Why did I not make an Instructable out of all this? Well the day was very hot, the beer very cold and my mobile phone at home, so I did not take any pics. To top it up the whole thing is now in a seperate box for additional noise reduction so it can be used in the same room where the guy is working. Of course he just used a nailgun for the job without any regard of access or at least easy view of the two pressure gauges. Typical if you have a great idea and the cold beer tells you to forget all about screws or hinges ROFL Only comment was: You created it and it works fine, why would need more than the pipe connections for the gel and regulator? Maybe he will reconsider when the service is due....

Posted by Downunder35m 1 year ago