Workshop Topics


Retiring the Forums

After more than a decade, Instructables has decided to retire our forums. This exclusively pertains to the "Community" section of this website where this topic is posted. Step-by-step instructable tutorials will not be affected in any way by this change.Starting in October we will no longer allow site members to post new forum topics in the Community section. The existing content will remain online and accessible through 2020 to provide everyone the opportunity to save any relevant information. In the spring of 2021, we plan to take the Community forums offline entirely.This decision was not made lightly. For many years we considered these pages the heart of the community. However, times have changed. It’s with some sadness that we need to acknowledge this and adapt.Our biggest clue that it was time to retire the forums came as our site traffic more-than-doubled over the last few months. We observed that the number of Instructables being published increased, the number of comments increased, the amount of favoriting increased, and just about every other measurable form of participation on this website also increased. The one notable thing that did not increase was the number of forum topics being published. We continued to receive, on average, about one a day.This forced us to look at some hard truths. The first is that the world has changed. In 2005 our forums offered a big tent to the maker community at a time when there were few places to go and interact socially with a cross-section of like-minded individuals. However, most of the conversations that used to happen here have now moved to either social media, Reddit, or niche forums elsewhere on the internet. No one builds general discussion forums like ours anymore, and most others have gone extinct a long time ago. The other hard truth we had to reconcile with is that fundamentally our core business is not running a forum. Nevertheless, we spend a lot of time keeping them up and running. For every valid forum topic that gets posted on the site, we get about 50 forum topics that get caught by our spam filter and end up having to be reviewed and deleted. In addition, the forums are based on some of the oldest code on our website, which means they tend to break often. Keeping them up and running distracts energy from our very small team that could be better used elsewhere. That said, there are now more places than ever that you can go to discuss making online. For starters, you could connect with us on Twitter or Instagram where we have a thriving community. You should also check out some of these awesome staff-recommended channels and sites: https://www.reddit.com/r/DIY/https://www.reddit.com/r/somethingimade/https://www.facebook.com/groups/iliketomakestuffhttps://www.reddit.com/r/woodworking/https://www.reddit.com/r/turning/https://www.facebook.com/groups/1470897969674485/https://www.reddit.com/r/3Dprinting/https://www.facebook.com/groups/FunctionalUseful3D...https://forum.arduino.cc/https://www.reddit.com/r/arduino/https://forums.adafruit.com/https://www.therpf.com/forums/https://www.ravelry.com/discusshttps://www.reddit.com/r/instructables/We thank everyone for all of their contributions to these forums over the years and the community you helped make flourish. We welcome everyone to share your thoughts, feelings, or memories below.

Topic by randofo    |  last reply


Welcome to Instructables

On this page you can find links to some of our most frequently asked questions. What is this site? Instructables is a community for people who like to make things. Our community shares what they make in a step-by-step format that we call an Instructable.How do I post an Instructable? We offer a free and easy online class to coach you through posting your first Instructable or you can just wing it and start a new one today. How do I get help improving my Instructable?Ask the community for help in The Clinic. How does my Instructable get featured? The best way to get your projects featured is by following the Featuring Guidelines. Where can I learn more about contests? Our Contest FAQ has all of the information that you need to know about contests. What contests are launching soon? Check out our list of upcoming contests. Are you on social media? Yes! Follow us on Pinterest, Instagram and Twitter. How do I contact Instructables directly? The best way to contact us is through our Contact Page.

Topic by randofo    |  last reply


RSS Feed don't work.

Instructables.com -> RSS Feed don't work.Check please.

Topic by megonal    |  last reply


What is this made in Germany

Made in Germany

Question by upeniece.liiga1990    |  last reply


what is this? identify my tool!? Answered

I had this for years, anybody got a clue what it is? most amusing answer gets a patch:-)

Question by crazyg    |  last reply


That didn't just happen, did my oscilloscope die!?!? How??? Repairable????

I went to my workbench today to discover that my BK Precision 30MHz analog scope has stopped working. Symptoms: ❶  Still shows a trace ❷  The trace does draw across the screen*  ❸  The horizontal time base seems to work ❹  10x horizontal magnification seems to work ❻  XY mode only draws in the X direction ❼  Waveforms do not show up, for either chA or chB ❽  Triggering seems to work (it causes the trace to draw more/less frequently. No vertical deflection)  ❾   Vertical controls for both channels have stopped working ❿   Dual trace shows only one trace ⓫   I have not been able to do anything to make the trace move up and down, vertical deflection is definitely shot. ⓬   * When changing the timebase, I noticed that the length of the trace horizontally gets shorter, and when a signal is present, or the vertical position for the appropriate channel is twiddled, it becomes the right length, within certain ranges. ⓭    When I was reaching for a powerstrip to turn off power to the lab the previous night, I heard a loud buzz, similar to that of the degaussing on a old computer monitor, but louder. no sparks or anything were visible as I recall. scared the crap outta-me, and I could not figure out what had happened. First thought was that maybe somewhere there was a live mains exposed somewhere that had shorted to ground or neutral. That was quickly dismissed since nothing was exposed like that, and also it would have popped the circuit breaker, and instead would have sounded like a firecracker. This sounded more like a small transformer failing. Also the same day, I have been messing with a tesla coil circuit (my beefed up slayer exciter) and the probes were sitting here by not connected picking up interference. They were in 10X mode, I do not remember the volts per division, however. I do recall a trace being shown on the display the previous day. With these symptoms, I think the issue has to do with the vertical control on the CRT, and perhaps another, separate issue with the horizontal time base control, or possibly triggering. I think I might do a teardown on it to see if there is anything obvious that has failed, such as a charred coil. Then I will need to figure out what had caused the issue. It is obviously something gone horribly, horribly wrong with vertical deflection or something of the like. I will have a look at the schematic and see what I can learn about the operation of the scope. I am glad I do have the user manual and schematics, so it should be straightforward, it is a nearly 100% BJT design. The scope was used and old, and lacked a lot of features, such as cursors and frequincy counters. Perhaps it is time for a digital upgrade anyway... http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00N222I6C/ref=s9_simh_gw_p504_d15_i1?pf_rd_m=ATVPDKIKX0DER&pf;_rd_s=desktop-1&pf;_rd_r=1VEC8M45MB2T9REXCR7N&pf;_rd_t=36701&pf;_rd_p=2079475242&pf;_rd_i=desktop

Question by -max-    |  last reply


LED flourescent tube replacements

Hey all.I scored some cheap LED drop-in replacement tubes and intended to get some old fluorescent light fixtures up and working again.Unfortunately the fixtures' ballasts seem to be bad -- which I suppose is no great surprise since they were taken out of service for a reason.My question is, even though the LED's I've got are intended to be used with a ballast, can I simply wire them directly?I don't see that a ballast does anything to the frequency/voltage, and according to Wikipedia its purpose is "to stabilize the current through the lamp, and to provide the initial striking voltage required to start the arc discharge". LED's shouldn't care about any of this.Or is there something I'm overlooking?

Question by PS118    |  last reply


Is this DC motor suitable for a wind turbine/bike generator?

Hi, so I have recently salvaged an old garage door motor, I have managed to a separate the DC motor from the casing and now I am converting it into a generator (by removing the metal core and replacing it with permanent magnets.) The motor's label says 120v, what can I make with a motor this size? Will this motor be acceptable to convert and make into a generator for wind turbine or bike? Label: THE CHAMBERLAIN GROUP INC. MOTOR No. 123D67 120V 60 Hz 4.5A 70 degrees C INT. DUTY THERM-PROTECTED  TYPE T. (CL. B (Odd symbol) OBJY2 188B72) ASSEMBLED IN MEXICO Thanks guys!

Question by Exploitation    |  last reply


In need of some IKEA Akurum suspension rail. There’s got to be some out there!

We bought an IKEA AKURUM kitchen shortly before it was discontinued. 9I was never told it was going to be discontinued of course). Because of some health issues we are just starting to install it now and I cannot get any of the parts from IKEA . They did not sell us enough suspension rail and we need some more. Bueller? Bueller?

Question by Susanmellett    |  last reply


Homemade Electromagnetic Drill Stand

Hi every body In this video I make an electromagnetic drill standFor this project I’m using two microwave transformers one psu 350 watt from old pc, epoxy resin. Aluminium swarfs, some pieces from steel and one piece of bronse. I hope you enjoy the video !https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=123&v;=J9I3FJ8dROk&feature;=emb_logo

Topic by versam    |  last reply


Tesla's "Earthquake" machine - revisited!

Lockdown sucks, so what bett to do than to check on some old inventions :)It is claimed that, although the earthquaked that happened was unrelated, that Tesla's little machine indeed was able to do some damage.Today however we focus on what is actually possible in terms of an oscillating apparatus causing other things to swing in resonance.If you look at the patent than there is terms used (intentionally) that neither make sense, nor find any explanation inside the patent - like "airsprings" ...Knowing Tesla's way of thinking a little allowed me to come up with some conclusions of my own.Using some surface transducers to get going also helped a lot.Using more or less modern stuff that anyone can access, we will try to build our own little quake machine.At least in theory, I leave it up to you if you want to build something just to confirm or rip apart what I might claim in here ;)How does this resonance thing work?If you check "Londong bridge swing" you see what I mean ;)Like soldiers won't cross a bridge in step for good reasons, a lot of little inputs quickly accumulated and syncronise themself- the bridge swings.You try it in small scale with a bunch of Metronoms (is that right for many of them? LOL) on a board supported by rollers.Set them all to the same timing, start them and release the board.One after the other will fall in sync until they all swing the same.Check how much the board moves in relation, especially if you place some added weights on it ;)For machines we often have the problem that something unbalanced and rotating causes all sorts of vibrations in other parts - we know that from our cars as well when a wheel is unbalanced.Not always is the part causing the resoance somewhere near where it resonates ;)What Tesla claimed to have built was a machine that had a freely moving weight, some electromagnets, "airsprings" and somehing to make it all able to find the resonance by magic....I can recreate some of it, but not all (yet).We need a way to move a weight with as little friction as possible while also providing some sort of dampening effect - otherwise the weight would just swing to the max.I thought a lot about this and how to do in the most basic form.For sake of simplicity I opted for a vertical approach.Ideally you would have big and heavy cylindrical magnet, about 3cm in diameter and at leat 6cm long.But you can cheat by stacking disk magnets or putting suare ones into a round tube.You need two cylinders, one to hold the magnets, the other just a bit wider to allow for a TINY air gap.Put together the magnet cylinder should freely boune around when you shake it but show good resistance if you close both ends of the outer tube.How to make "airsprings"....I found the easiest way out is to use "bouncers" on either end of the outer tube - with consideration that the inner tube needs to movable ;)The inner magnet has some good weight, so using stacks of small magnets allows us to compensate the different movement.Start with a bottom stack so the inner magnet has a good distance (gap).Now you need a sensitive scale or use a balanced weighbridge.Check how much extra weight on the inner magnets is required to push it down by, let's say 5mm.Note that weight somewhere.Place a smaller stack on the top end of the tubes.You want the distance so the inner magnet just start to be pushed down a tiny bit.You might need a slotted outer tube to allow you to push it up as well down now - hence the weighbridge idea.Adjust the distance and amount/type of magnets on the top stack until the inner magnet travels an equal amount up and down with the force (weight) applied.It is now "balanced" to be weightless in terms being suspended while free to travel a limited amount.Ideally the force you need for up and down should stay equal (more or less) throughout the indended range of motion.I found two ways that work well to actuate the magnet by extrenal means while having a good control.One uses a center coil around the tube, the other a split coil.Key is wind it so it is usable with something simple.Like creating a coil with a resistance if 4 Ohm so a normal audio amplifier can be used.Tricky bit here is to find the right balance in terms of the inductivity.For a strong magnet you wants of turns and lots of layers - your amp does not like this too much.I found that many layers and many turns require a capacitor to compensate but also that this brings additional problems.I suggest to stick with reall cheap amps in the 25 to 50W range for your testing.They seem to be more forgiving if you use multiple layers on a coil.Using a split coil with reversed polarities allows to use both channels on a stereo amp.In this configuration you can have a lot of fun in the lower frequencies, which are usually the ones we want anyway.The resonance finding though it a fully manually thing and you need to make sure the machine is secured properly to the surface you want to use it on.I found it best to start at about 1kHz and then to work my way down until something happens somewhere.Once you go below the 200hz region you will need to crank the amp up a bit.What is actually happening and why once it starts moving things around?Figuring that one out took me quite a while.It is not the moving magnet causing a change of things.It is the forces it transfers when it changes directions.When the magnet is down and the coil changes polarity it is "pulled" up.Wich means the mounted machine is applying downforces onto the surface.Opposite for the way down.Interesting about this how both the surcare and the machine interact.Out of sync not much at happens anywhere, but the closer you get to a resonant frequency the easier the magnet can move around - the amplitude increases while the input level is the same.Hence the need for the dampening magnet stacks ;)These stop the motion in a smooth and even way while transfering the excess to the machine in the form of vertical forces.Together this works rather well and surprisingly simple.You just need the right balance between weight of the magnet inside and magnetic field your coil can generate - it does not have to be huge magnet to have some fun...No clue, or least no usuable, how Tesla simplified the resonance finding and keeping - if he did not do it manually after all.In terms of electronic means it should be possible fairly easy to get the same output force no matter the conditions.Thinking of a controlled feedback loop here.The required power from the amp is lowest in resonance and higest when totally out of sync.This out of sync motion is to a small degree transfered onto the coil through the moving magnet.A clear sine wave gets "distortions" from the overlaying frequencies transfered from the surface.You can "filter" the required power level and the detected "distortions".If both filters indicate a minimum it means resonace is found.From there only the power levels are monitored.Every time they spike the frequency is adjusted so the spike is in sync again with the max amplitude of the frequency.The power levels will then level out while the external movement maxes out sooner or later.Will it actually make a building shake?If it is an old, wooden construction like mine it will rattle here and there ;)A solid brick or concrete one however won't be too impressed.A big barn with a sheet metal roof might get noisy but won't collapse.The frequencies to actually make big things swing are rather low, often below the 60Hz range.With that comes the energy requirements - you have maybe 200g moving around at max in your machine?Try pushing over some dead pine tree by making it swing until it breaks - same thing.If you manage to keep the correct swing you need a long, long time to make swing far enough to snap.For a big bridge you might need a centimeter or more of swing before anything can be noticed.You machine might be able to add a µm with every hundred swings it makes....Moving traffic constantly changes things so after a few weeks of trying the bridge might not even vibrate a little.Huge fun though to make friends cars shake apart with no sound at all LOLJust screw in the boot and crank it up once you notice something vibrates somewhere ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Is it possible to upgrade an old LED grow light by simply upgrading the chips/diodes in the light?

I have a couple of old cheap LED grow lights I don't use anymore as I've upgraded to more modern lights however I don't want to toss them out as they could come in handy as a spare or useful should I require a new grow space.I was wondering if I could upgrade these old lights by purchasing new full spectrum (or whatever) chips/diodes (about .80c per Epistar from China) and simply solder out the old cheap 3 watt diodes from these old grow lights and solder in new 3 watt chips to make a 'new' and better grow light for around $40 (as I'd be using the fans and all electrics of the original grow light).I have no electrical knowledge so is this even 'doable' or just a thought bubble?

Question by PYak    |  last reply


What to do with old window counter weights?

My house was built in 1915 and we are replacing the windows to get better efficiency. Now I have all these weights. I can have them thrown into a landfill but that seems like a bad idea. I've seen people doing things with homemade forges but I don't have one. Would these be useful? Could they be melted down? Or could they be toxic?

Question by Bitter73    |  last reply



FoodSaver Vac 500 pump parts?

I took apart my slowly sucking Vac 500 and discovered the plastic ring around the piston on the pump is broken and I'd like to replace the part.  Any leads?

Question by accelv    |  last reply


Rock tumbling, is there an economical substitution for grit & polish? .

I have vibrating & rotary tumblers. The commercial grit & polish I've been using, comes in a 4 step process. Is there a homemade grit or other options for tumbling rocks & gems?    Thank you

Question by Jolieblnde    |  last reply


Maker Resources for High School Students

Hello! My name is Anthony Tan and I am the Founder of the Maker Hub Club Initiative, a non profit project that supports communities of high school student makers in the U.S. https://www.makerhubclub.org/ If you are a high school student in the U.S., I would love to help you make projects by providing resources and funding. Please let me know if you are interested. You can reach me at makerhubclub@gmail.com

Topic by rockcacti  


Alloys with a low melting point - not just for fun and magic tricks!

Be it real scientific need or just curiousity, we invented alloys with really low melting points quite early.Even some mercury based ones staying liquid at below minus 60°C.Usages are plentyful once you get a hang of it ;)On a big scale in reactors as a cooling medium for example.On a much smaller scle as a perfect heat transfer medium if water or oil are out of the wuestion due to the temperatures required.A bath for liquid salt works much better if it is sitting in another, heated container with a low melting alloy like Wood's Metal.Good thing here is that you don't need much if the containers match with just a little gap.Unlike oil or water nothing evaporates, nothing boils, nothing smokes ...Plus it does not wear out, you can use the low melting alloy for years if you keep it sealed and oxygen away.If in doubt just seal it and be done.Ever had the problem that you needed to work on a small piece that just wouldn't stay in you vice or clamp due to the shape?Or that it just a bit too fragile to get clamped into something?Get a small plastic box, melt some Wood's or field's Metal, place your part in the box and fill the molten metal in.Once hard you can clamp the new block any way you like and once done run some hot water over it to free you part.The railroad enthusiast like the stuff as well.Make you small lokomotive much heavier by filling voids with a low melting alloy - after sealing all possible holes with modelling clay or similar.Recently these low melting alloys found their way in wood and resin art as well.You can just fill a crack on wood with these metals and sand or machine them down with the wood for a perferct finnish - proper PPE and vacuum removal of the produced dust recommended for those metals containing Lead or Cadmium!But are there other uses we don't really think about that much?If they wouldn't be rather costly you could use them for mdel making and prototyping.Bending metal tubing into otherwise impossible coils and shapes is a nice use too - just fill them up and let the metal go solid.I quite like the fact that these metals are strong and can be used to cheat with magnets.Not affecting the magnetic field you can create arrays that you force together with a thin acrylic frame.Make a suitable mold, fill to the acrylic with metal, remove the acrylic once cooled enough and fill completely.You just created an impossible magnet array the dirt simple way.Not to mention that it is rather easy to include metal strips for field directing ;)If you don't mind the money for the low melting metal in bulk you can even use it to replicate body parts for old cars with no spares available anymore.Just create a mold capable of holding the original part.Create a wall around the original.Meaning you want a vertical wall to prevent the molten metal to flood over the part - you only need one side ;)And holes or missing bits will have an excess of metal once cooled.This can removed, machined and polished if required to create the perfect match for a replacement.Then you can use this block and a piece of sheet metal to re-create your part.Best thing is that for the block itself you can use wood as the metal won't harm it when you fill it up.Some added fun with Gallium!Gallium is rather special as it not only melts in your hand but mainly because it is able to "wet" almost any surface!Wetting means that a metal can stick to a surface, when soldering or brazing we usually have to use a flux for this to happen properly.If you have a low melting alloy with enough gallium in it you can do crazy things.Like melting it and then using a fine brush to paint circuit traces onto glass or acrylic.Simply place or electrics and elecronics with some super glue onto the surface and then use the molten metal to create the electrical connections.The resistance is low enough for most applications and if in doub you can always add a few layers for power hungry connections.Ok, I see you want to make an Ible for it....Then do it properly...Get some gallium metal and some plumbers solder, preferably the lead free type.Melt the solder in a small pot and use a tiny amount of rosin flux to prevent oxidation.Add a little bit of gallium, mix it for a while and do a quick check if the mix is able to wet steel or wood.If not, use a little bit more gallium until it does - don't forget the mixing, it will take about 20 minutes for 250g of solder to complete the reaction and alloy forming.Create a stencil to match your circuit.Don't forget to include the ares for solder pads!Heat your piece to about 80°C with the stecil in place.Fill the stencil with the molten metal - once it cooled down the new melting point should be significantly lower than the original solder.Wipe off all excess before it hardens.Once cooled down remove stencil and solder on the parts.Fill in some text and pics please beofre you publish ;)I do not recommend this for flexible materials as these alloys tend to be rather brittle.And well, obviously not for temperature near or even above the melting point of the alloy - like in your car on a hot summer day...Is there anything really unusual we could try out?Sure, quite a lot actually once you start wondering about things....For example what would would happen if you subject a liquid metal to an electromagnetic field.Copper isn't magnetic but creates a current if use as a conductor in a varying electromognetic field.Otherwise we wouldn't have transformers, motors, generators and much more.We know the current "flows" through the conductor, but what do we know how it works if the conductor is liquid.... ;)You might be surpised to see what happens if you use some flexible PVC tubing filled with a liquid metal that is used as a transformer coil.....Or if you have a liquid core inside your core....Something that wasn't already tried againsince WW2 is Mercury based propulsion.The knowledge about this facinating technology went itno allied hands after the war and never made it out into the public in any usable way.I talked about this a bit in my series on ancient technologies.Mercury or liquid metal propulsion systems are "banned" if you like.Officially declared a myth.Doesn't explain though why since WW2 it became harder and harder to obtain mercury as a private person.Nor why the demand for it sky rocketed in the US with no real indication that it was used for anything.Why is that?Mercury based propulsion systems use quantum effects and bend the space time continium.In some cases and with enough energy output they can basically create a bubble around any craft that excludes it from the effects around it - no gravity, no mass, no nothing, not even time itself.Try it out yourself if you are still able to obtain mercury and can make sure it is handled and used in the safest way possible.The more you mess around with magnets and electromagnetic fields the more you realise how special this metal really is.

Topic by Downunder35m  


Does the magnet motor really work and keep spinning?

See it as a last hurray before the forum here disappears ;)For ages we have people claiming that they managed to build a working magnet motor.Basically not even a perpetual motion engine but something with enough energy output to spare.As soon as they surfaced to make it all public the vanished.Most say they only vanished because it was just another fraud as those things simply can't work - physiscs won't allow it.If that was really always the case then why did some of these people AND their families disappear after till publishing details and being active in their communities?Either way: If there is a will then there is a backseat - or so they said in the 70's ;)People are still willing to fall for every foolish plan they can find on the net, waste their money and find out that, well, it just won't work.If you dig long and deep enough though you get a glimpse of what really is possible without violating our laws of physics.And yes, done and applied properly even a magnet motor is possible.The do's and don'ts of trying to build a magnet motor:Once you got hooked you have to start somewhere.Usually some V-gate or similar that ALMOST worked for you already.Anyway, you will have to encounter the appearently only reason why these motors won't work rather quickly.It seems impossible to provide accelleration without having at least point in the cycle where the binding can't be overcome through inertia or mechanical trickery.So the first thing you really need to learn is to forget what you already know!Treat magnets like a think you never knew at all, something rare and very special.Don't use your schoolbook knowldege or what you learnt at university - only use what you discover yourself!!!Make your conclusions no matter how wrong they seem - you will find out soon enough if something was flawed.I, for example, "wasted" endless hours when there was nothing on TV.Just some good music running and playing around with my magnets.Adding metal strips, filing them down, seeing how they react at different angles and distances to each other.Once you are at the stage of getting over this last bit of forces that ruins it all you need to learn how to think totally out of the box!You can't see the magnetic field lines, can't really use magntic viewer foils on the running thing - you have to try things!Take 5 magnets and create and array with a very strong pole on one side and a very weak on the other - realise that the manetic field lines don't care whether or not they go back to their own magnet!See for yourself how strips of metel from some old transformer core will provide a pathway for those field lines.See for yourself where the "threshold" is from just "shielding" a part of the magnet to "re-shaping" the field itself.See for yourself how a magnet that you bring close to one pole also affects the opposite pole of the "attacked" magnet ;)And did I already say you should try to forget what you think you know until you could actually check it and all possible variations yourself? ;)Butter on the toast....For mostly the reason to keep it shorter I just assume you tried to build something based on the classic V-gate motor and that you found this topic somehow...For other motors most of what comes now still aplies in one way or another though.Binding:I speak of binding if a motor has one or more points during a full cycle where it gets stuck.Not just a bit of attraction, enough to ruin the entire motion.There are two forms of binding forces that I identified as important.1. Opposite poles.2. Equal poles.Just means your binding is either caused by too much attraction to move further or that the next (set of) magnet(s) repells too much.Either is bad ;)Redirected forces:It is a bit impossible to only provide a force in the exactly needed direction.For example when it is more displacement forces driving the wheel - going more sideways than in a true rotional motion.Means nothing more than that a lot of potential energy is literally wasted.Shielding:You can't shoild magnetic fields!I still use the term to indicate that I am "wasting" a part of the magetic field - I don't want this bit to interfere with operations.Flux directing:Or fluxing...I use this whenever I want to affect the shape or reach of a magnets field.E.g.: by adding a rod to "extend" one pole or by providing a "shunt" strip between two magnets.A way to get field lines where they are needed most.So much for the basic terms that might pop up from now on ;)Before you can worry about lost energy from redirected forces you need to overcome your binding points.This is only possible through shielding and flux directing!Of course it also includes the possibe use of arrays to create a field with a specific shape.Let me try with some classic examples you might have faced already:Where your V changes from wide to slim you always get stuck, so you did it again by using two V's in line.Hoping that you could use what one V has in excess to overcome the binding on the ther side.Nice thinking only you forgot that your max power output is about half way through the V ;)So you realised this and added two more V's on your roll with a 120° phase shift.Does much better now but still prefers to bind no matter what you try.So what went wrong?The approach did ;)You compensated for a binding force by wasting what you have in rotational energy - to say it simple.You might have tried some mechanical lifting and flipping as well to get closer but never close enough.Our first array....By now you realised that the junction between wide open and really narrow ruins your motor.Check where the thing stops without the next magnets in line.Then check the opposite arrangement and see where the next bit would stop the thing.This is your binding area.Mark this area.Now test where your machine creates the most pull or push to get it going.Do this by finding the strongest starting point.Mark this again.Now take a look at your markings!You will see a angular relation.E.g.: You max push/pull is 50° away from your max binding point.This angle defines how many parallel V-gates you need on your drum.You want then arranged so that whenever you have a max binding point you also have a max push/pull point at the same time.This is you basic V-Gate array allowing you compensate for a lot just by using a better design.Or second array....We now need a way to compensate at least a little bit of the binding forces by redirecting and shielding some field lines.If you like fairy floss then grab some ;)We face the problem that we use a displacemnt force to keep things rolling.Fairy floss on a stick can help to visualise ;)Grab two sticks so their stick end comes out either side of your fist.Do the same with the other hand.Having two colors helps as well and gives it some flavour.Try to align those double cones so they create areas where their forces would cancel ech other out.Meaninf for example when one north pole is close enough to another south pole to create a flattened field.You realise soon that angles are not really that relevant here, only distance ;)You can cheat by adding some (smaller but strong) magnets in little arrays between the closed and open ends of your V.Keep the distances from the previous power tests in mind though!!!For example if the closed end would just keep pushing with little binding due to having a long magnet bar on top then you focus on providing a path where the adverse push from the open V is mostly compensated.Or third array...We need some balance in the system now, so why not use magnets for the weights ;)You want to place them so they increase the push/pull forces!Helps to have a big collection of various sizes and shapes....Please also consider strips or bars of silicicium rich steel (transformer cores) to brigde from one magnet to another to get a good balanced system or just adding short pieces on the underside of magnets.Ok, where are we now?We have a phase shifted array of 3 to 6 V-gates.We have it properly balanced and still use these long mangets as the driving bars on top - or even multiple if you have more than one V per array part.And that thing is causing all our binding issues.....Common solution is now to just lift the offending bar up or to increase the distance until it can provide force again that we need.Unless you are already an artsist for building you own little steam engines froms cratch it is the worst possible approach.Creates too much friction, uses to much energy!We think we are almost there.....We can't waste ANY energy until we figured out how to get more than enough of it.A mechanical gear system is far from perfect but offers precision.A simple push rod solution works well too if properly balanced and the mechanics allow for a smooth operation.I leave it up to your what you prefer.We can't just change the lenght of our magnet bar but we can cheat - a lot.One good option to check for yourself how a magnet if a fixed rotational thingy reacts when you spin a magnet close by.Even with really good bearings you will realise the binding forces between them are not equal if you keep the same distance while rotating.Now re-think your engine desing - I know it hurst if ou realise now your magnet arrangement wasn't ideal.Do you have a north-south bar on top of a V with one row of magnets facing north and the other facing south?Really I am sorry if you do but it is not all lost unless you glued your magnets in place as a permanent solution.You can leave it if you wish but it might be harder to apply the required cheats - there is ways if you look good ;)Why a V-gate where both rows of magnets are orientated the same way?It is just easier and more flexible as you then can focus on the driving bar(s) ;)Let me explain the difference as I see it:With a fixed north and south pole on your bar you seem to be able to use "more" of the magnets.And it seems to be the logical way at a first glance.But now that you learned and discovered so much yourself already, ask yourself:Does it really matter if there a north and south pole available on the bar?Wouldn't two rows of north facing magnets with matching magnets on the bar to the same things?They would....And in such an arrangement we have almost endless ways to "cheat" physics as we know it.Especially if you have two V's per drum and have one facing north and the other south ;)For the standard single V the trick is to rotate the "magnet bar" in a controlled way so when the binding forces of the V are max the forces the bar can apply are minimised.You can see that nicely if you manually rotated the wheel and watch how the bar reacts to the field.At some points it wants to push, at others pull and at still others it would love to just flick over - use this behaviour in your rotating mechanism!You want to keep the max possible forces for the longest possible time and keep the flicking over time in sync with the drum rotation.Look up on the many ways to do a flipping motion by mechanical means to see how you can best implent one into a rotary action.If you were a really good observer during your experiments you now realise that you start to also deal with friction and mechanical losses and counteracting forces.We can not reduce all of them to zero by simple cheats and mechanical solutions.Whenever we try we must do this in the most efficient way possible - even if it means cheating on our own constructions.Remember playing with the magnets to see how they react at various distances to each other and ferrous metals? ;)There is a fine line between too much and too little ;)Try for yourself on your whell with a simple bar mechanism that allow distance adjustment.Do you really get mor "driving" force the closer you get with the bar? ;)Where is the point between effective force and you needing too much force to keep the bar at this distance? ;)Do you notice how the distance affects the forces in your binding areas? ;)Cheating the cheat ;)Now that we have to find the opimal distance for our bar to avoid changing this ones as well on a constant base during the rotation, we should see how to make this the least energy wasting.You need some sort of counter balance for your mechanics and it would be nice to somehow affect our bar magnets so we don't need to much mechanical energy to make them rotated and flick over.Why not use a drum around them ? ;)When you need a reduced force you can have a metal (ferrous of course) roatate in place.As a drum you would just cut out the parts you don't need and add weight where needed to compensate the imbalance in the mechanical system.Like for example having the most "shielding" metal between bar and drum when the binding forces would be max.Hence the need for correct distance to prevent unwanted binding forces from the drum parts ;)You can even influence the width of your magnetic bar to some extend this way ;)If done properly you now wasted a few weeks in your shed and have a motor that still is only very close to keep running forever once you gave it a little push.Let's say you did a really bad job.Means you still have one or more destinct binding points left.In this case I suggest you focus on them after finding out if they are mechanical or magnetic in origin.If you did a half decent job then your machine should be able to start running from multiple points in the rotation.But not in some others.Perfect would be two equally sized areas per revolution where it seems the thing would just need to be started a few degrees later to overcome the power loss.If you reached the max point and going a few degrees more again start to reduce the power output you are good to go.What exactly haapend so far, assuming all is still well in your shed?We tricked our system in various ways to actually utilise the push/pull forces our motor provides.And we learned what to do and how to do it so we overvome almost everything.Just to finally fail like all those idiots on the net before - or did we??? ;)Isn't there something really vital we missed in our construction while we cheated so much?There is but I can't blame you if you have not picked it up much earlier in your construction.We rotate our magnet bar now to compensate for the binding effect by mecahnical means.Ever wondered if we could more rotation and changing orientations in our V?The magnets won't mind too much if they are put in with north and south alternating as long as you rotate the bar correspondingly.Just instead of one spin or flip during max binding you do it for every single magnet in the row.... ;)The shielding drum though operates as normal with this.Bit complicated, lots of mechanical design involved - I know!!!And for what exactly???To use what have not even touched yet - electrical energy produced by our now alternating drum ;)I know :( Now you are whacking your head against the wall like I did so many years ago, sorry for that experience!But would it mean that coils will cause additional losses and binding forces?Of course it does, that's why it is so much fun trying to cheat physics!This approach is usually just neglected due to the ill thinking that a magnet motor would provide free energy for everyone.Simple fact is that no matter how good you are it will be impossible to get more than a magnetic machine that almost works forever - you won't be able to compensate for all losses and utilise them as energy unless you either have multiple high degrees or spend a lot of time in your shed - a lot...Since a full rebuild is now due anyway I leave it up to you to figure out how desgin it, I just throw in some "ideas" here:We only use the outside of our magnetic drum, this needs to change.And before you go into a mechanical frency to figure how to place inner magnets that rotate with the drum to compensate for dead zones: Just don't! You will get a headache and waste too much time.We can use all those inwards facing magnets to our advantage though.A lot of the arrays, if not all, could be replaced by creating a rotor to hold the magnets.Not in the traditional sense though but to guide the field lines to a common center.There is a need for a rather wide distance between the magnets so you can provide a ferrous pathway that won't just fully shortcut the fields.It needs to be enough so that a coil array placed on the inside will be subjected to changing fields- north south...I leave it up to to decide if a low resistance or ahigher output voltage is the better option.Either way we are able to produce some electrical energy as long as the drum rotates.But we only need extra energy for those ares where the system does not produce extra energy and in fact eats all our energy up.One way would be to store the electrical energy in a nice supercapacitor and to use it for some electromagnet that is placed in the right spot and activates at the right time.And yes it works.Far better though is to utilise resonance.We aim for a fully harmonic system so we can actually try to figure out where and if there is a way to produce more neergy that what we feed into it.Perpetual motion means a system produces enough energy to sustain motion.If motion is sustained AFTER getting to a certain speed by other means it is perpetual from then on.We have the impossible if a machine produces more energy than what is required for the motion AND if we can utilise this power.Sadly we have no means to utilise friction energy....So a machine that sustains motion would already be in what is called "over unity" !?In a sense yes, but not in a usable as it will discredit you quickly.A resonant electrical system is able to handle way more energy with way less resistance - or losses.Now to give you the final homework lesson and risk being watched again:What do you think happens if a resonant LC system has a set of rotating magnets at a matching speed? ;)Right! It won't be able to stay in sync because we still have this firction and "binding" problem on our hands.....What does that mean in reality though?The spacing of the rotor is critical, that is clear already,And our electrical system is never fully in sync with our drum, clear again.But it is still a resonant system, totally unclear, now I lost you ;)See it as two independent frequencies, one defined by rotor spacing and our desired operational speed, the other what results from our losses and running slightly behind.Imagine you would finetune the LC system to actually match the frequency that results from the losses....Suddenly it is not longer tuned to a theoretical speed but to the real speed.And due the the now full resonace the phase shift now is able to provide extra push for our system ;)Explains nicely why basically all magnet motor machines that claimed to work and disappeared only worked at a fixed speed ;)What are the final conclusions here then - is it really possible to do the impossible?I say it depends on your time, workshop and willingness to think out of the box.Impossible, certainly not.In case you came to the same impossible conclusion after neglecting your family and friends for weeks you now wonder how much more might be possible than just keeping it going for almost forever.For this you need to understand and basically feel how magnetic field lines interact and react, including electromagnetic fields.A magnetic field is a form of energy.We usually created this by putting an awful lot of energy into coild during the manufacturing process.And like a battery magnets lose their energy over the time, especially in bad conditions.Still we treat this energy as unusable because we can't seen to be able to utilise static fields at all.If neither the coil, nor the magnet moves there is no change in field and with that no electricity.Does that mean though the megnetic energy does not go through the coil? ;)Nope, it is still there, going nowhere.Otherwise we would not need power plants and just use earth's magnetic field instead.Now to drive your brain into true overdrive for the final:Did you ever watch these nice videos where a great physics teacher of the old kind shows how (AC) electromagnetic field work?Or maybe you had one of those in school?Remember how a metal cylinder placed ner a tall electromagnet starts spinning?Often used to explain the righthand rule ;)The cylinder spins due to the eddy currents created - like the disk did in your old school electrical meter in the fuse box.And doesn't our drum now support a changing magnetic field on the inside while it rotates?What do you think happens to "drums" placed off center and close to those magnets? You think they would spin?And, if made from aluminium or copper, wouldn't the field lines stillpass through and reach the electrical coil(s) ;)Couldn't you utilise the drum motion during the times of not enough spin? ;)Considering they are basically short cut inductors: Couldn't you use a "coil" that still spins while producing electricity? ;)Once you can answer this with confidence you will know how to build a magnet motor able to produce excess energy.I am not saying it is easy to include all this knowledge into a simple and basic design.But I do say that one you understand the relation between static permanent magnetic fields and electromagnetic ones you are a winner.I'll give you one final hint:Every electrical current or electromagnetic field near enough to a permanent magnet will influence its field!You only need to decide where the electrical energy is used to influence permanent magnets is a positive way without using more than what the system is able to provide.Then, and only then, will you motor to be able to start (with no load) from any position and keep gaining speed until resonance is reached.The amount of energy you can draw once this speed is reached is only defined by how much it drives the system out of resonance.Once the load is greater than what the system can sustain the speed slows, resonance is lost, efficiency down the drain.A good motor of desktop size is able to provide about 100W of extra electrical energy.And no it still isn't over unity or perpetual at all!The magnets deplete and they do it surprisingly fast in a working magnet motor.You are lucky get 6 months of continious use before one or more magnets get too weak.And if you check how much electrical energy was used to give these magnets their abilities you realise that even two years of usage wouldn't make up for it.Still nice to have a machine that runs for a few years with no load attached or that powers some fan, lamp, whatever for a few weeks without batteries or fuel.

Topic by Downunder35m  


How can I make gear shafts/axles without using power tools ?

I have a few gears that I want to 'connect' together into sort of a gearbox. Motor > small gear > large gear. Found a bunch of scavenged gears and bought plastic gears off aliexpress, but I am struggling to find shafts that would fit snugly inside the gear. Any ideas how I can make my own shafts ? The only idea in mind is to wrap pen refills with aluminum foil. Which seems okay. But not sure.. I do not have access to any power tools. Overall I am trying to make a curtain puller, for which the motor does not have enough torque. So making reduction gears to slow RPM, increase torque. At least that's what I have in mind. Not sure if I am on the right track. Thanks a lot! ~ love instructables

Question by jugaadDo    |  last reply


Arduino

I am new in the programming stuff and i have, un familiar error problem. I hope you guys cold help me. thank for all the answers!!

Topic by ברקו    |  last reply


Ancient technologies revisted - the last chapter, 13

We often woder how the ancient builder were able to calculate all the stuff they needed.But there might be a very simple explanation: Evolution and the gregorian calendar...Our modern math is based on 10 or for most things US still the 12.And no matter which system you try to calculate things like gravity, accelleration or just angles you always end with a big mess.So what did the church to make it all so complicated, after all it was a change of calendar....Not quite....Before times we knew 13 star signs.Before the church came along most people used the 28 day moon cycle or derivations of it.What was once left to high priests or the village shamane turned into Astrology and also forgot about the 13, reducing the star signs by one.Big deal you say, no one cares....Or do we?What were the real world implications of this interference?Or year is now 364.25 days long - on average.We constantly need to adjust it by one day every four years and also need to correct our time accordingly.What a hassle....We also implemented that a day has to have 12 hours or 24 for the entire thing, including the night.Only to finally use the base 10 for our common math LOLIt does not get any more complicated than this :(As a result of this mixing our circle ended with 360° and a minute with 60 seconds - What the heck!?There is no common base to develop any proper, higher math!So we learned to work around the problem and to accept the most complicated way must be the best way.An artifical brake for our evolution.Nonsense? Let's play it out just a little bit:We do it the old ways and use the lunar cycle with 28 days.Gives us 364 days per year, every year.What about our star signs?Funny you should ask....Because suddenly we have a perfect fit for the 13 star signs again.We still ignore that they are not all visible for the same period of time in the zodiac though.What about the days and time?If we ignore the 12 and use 28 hours for a full day instead of just 24 we are again in the right rythm.But where is the natural logic in all this?Hidden, like our evolution ;)The key is again a thing called decimal parity, a magicians trick if you like.With that long number tunr into just a single digit by adding the singles:345= 3+4+5=12 = 1+2=3If we use the same magic on how our cells multiply:1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 we not only suddely see number we know from our computers.The cell multiplication goes on and on, however: Decimal parity give a simple and repeating sequence:1, 2, 4, 8, 5, 7Notice how everything that makes a 12 like 3,6,9 are "missing"? ;)For a 28 hour day we can divide it evenly to get 14 hours for day and night.7 is a quarter of a day.And yes, 1+4=5 and 2+8=10 = 1+0=1If you now checked some of my really old topics and remember Tesla's circle of math then it is no coincidence that it matches.Go one step further and apply the 364 or a multiple of 28 on a circle as degrees for a full one....If we can link the moon, or to be precise, the lunar cycle so perfectly to how how our cells divide: can the moon really be just a coincidence? ;)Go ahead and play with some of our favourite physics formulas based on the lunar cycle!Don't bother bother trying to figure out how to match the required second to lunar times though.Reverse engineer the formula so to say!We might have solved the time and calendar problem but not the meter ;)Take Gravity for starters.If we assume the moon is no coincidence then gravity shouldn't be one either!?Ignoring all resistance an object near earth surface will increase speed by about 9.8m per second every second.Transfer that to hours and see what happens if you hour is based on 28 or 364.Makes very weird numbers I know.Try again but this time keep in mind that if you change the time base you need the same multiplicator for the 9.81 ;)Ok, now you should have basically matching results and still the basically same complicated number.Re-arrange you formula so you get just 1m instead of 9.81.We could calculate before with our old math how far an object would travel in free fall with our gravity in a given amount of time.Never a nice number per second.Try again with you moon second of hour now ;)If you struggle with it a bit I won't blame you at all.Feel free to use any of the other vital physics formulas we know that require meters and seconds to find out how long a real meter should be ;)Or do it the other way around and use the speed of light formula and see what you get with moon based numbers ;)Why was the 13 banned and declared bad?Ignorance, protection, secracy, god complexes, call it what you like.Either way it is the link between real math and nature in every way.Our year is based on it the same way as our lunar cycle.Our cell multiplication and basically every natural shape in nature uses the 13 as well.Even astrology should again include it.Banning the 13 and using the 12 or 10 instead meant we were unable to see the links nature and the universe offer freely.Is it really just coincidence that a water vortex of tornado look exactly like our milky way?Just that the later is more flat....Or that so many patterns in nature follow the sequence of decimal parity - even your sunflower ....Some say banning "false" gods wasn't enough, others say it was a simple insurance policy.But with the 13 gone the way was free to let anyone trying run into dead ends.Without the 28 day lunar cycle seeing the connection was next to impossible.Ok, but how does the 12 come into play with the church and all?Making math totally impossible was not possible because our brains constantly evolve.The 12 was a perfect fit for the old days.It stands for the "missing" 3 6 and 9 from the decimal parity sequence.It is simpler in one way but only for the most basic things.Once you need what we call today higher math the 12 makes things really hard - hence our never ending numbers when we try to calculate "round" stuff....You just never get the full accuracy because it is always an endless amount of digits behing the dezimal point.Even for Pie....Defining the meter or foot on something totally not natural only helped the cause.After the apple finally hit us on the head it was already too late.Our understanding of what time is was flawed, our meter was a makeshift approximation.Of course the results of calculations only got worse and worse the more we learned about physics.Now we can't even think in any other ways anymore....What about our DNA?We struggle to understand it, make sense of all the unrequired data in it.We often like to say the junk is the leftovers from evolution.But what if our failure to understand and decode our own DNA is intentional?What might happen if someone appraoches this problem with the numbers 13 and 28 as the base of operations?Just some extra magic to make a point: ;)Take 28 days for a "Month".Take 13 "Months" for a whole year.Makes 364 days.Using decimal parity we get:2+8=10 =11+3=43+6+4= 13!! 1+3=4Considering Tesla you still think the lunar cycle is coincidence and won't matter? ;)13 was and always will be the key....Don't believe me?Use 13 and keep adding 13, then use decimal parity to get a sequence.Like 1+3=42+6= 83+9==3.....You get this sequence:4 8 3 7 2 6 1 5 9 Draw it in a circle like Tesla used ;)9 at the top then 1 to 8 every 40 degrees.You get a 9 pointed star.With so many links freely available you just have to wonder how we could ignore it for so long.....The lunar cycle is a complete sequence, no end, no beginning.We now got two distinct sequences, one for the 13 or our moon and the other for our own cell multiplication.1,2,4,8,7,5If you figure out what Tesla did so many years ago and find where the 3, 6 and 9 link those two sequences you will be a winner.I'll give you a hint: They nicely divide our lunar sequence.And our parity line from the cell multiplication does the same.What more do you need to accept that the base for true math is not 10, 12 or even 16?It is 9, always was, always will be ;)Live long and prosper! ;)

Topic by Downunder35m  


Como construir domos

Donde puedo encontrar un manual para construir un domo de 3metros de radio. quisiera saber las medidas que debo utilizar

Question by joseluis2399    |  last reply


How to remove the metal in a CD or a DVD in a simple and ecofriendly way? I want to use the clear plastic.

I would like to upcycle the clear plastic  (polycarbonate) in CDs and DVDs to Make all sort of things like smartphone supports, boxes, structres, and so on. I have already bent, cut, polish the plastic by I haven't found a satisfactory way to remove the metalic layer. Thaks to you all. 

Question by gserrano701    |  last reply


Vacuum motor on go kart?

So, I'm fairly new to electric motors. I salvaged a motor from a vacuum. I know that they have high torque. I'm just wondering what kind of weight they could move. For example, if I weigh 225, would it be able to pull me on a go kart?  Thank you!

Topic by jmeservy    |  last reply


What tools are these?

I found these going through my grandpa’s tools and am baffled. Does anyone have any idea of what they might be?

Topic by WoolJunkie    |  last reply


Can i make a bluetooth speaker wired?-and be able to use it?

Hey.i have this bt speaker but want to maybe use it wired,is that even possible?i know its possible,but can i use it with any satelites?or do i need satelites that r in phase or something?thanks.

Topic by ddmeltzer8    |  last reply


Youtube video embed failing?

When i go to embed a video in my instructable i enter the link for the YT video and it says it can't do it ("embed error")I've tried using both the shareable link as well as copying the url of the video ( the one shown in the toolbar whn i'm watching the yt video)neither workI've also verified the the video i'm trying to embed is set in YT to allow embed...any ideas?

Question by Garage_Shop_Crafter    |  last reply


10s3p battery pack

Hay I made a 10s3p battery pack with a BMS for an e bike. The voltage on te pack is 35.45V. The voltage on the charger port is 31.70V. When I connect the charger it stays in stand-by modus only outputting 10.5V on the charger port. I don't now what is going on. The charger is Derby cycle art 28495 36V with an output on42.0V 3.0A. On the battery pack it came with it works just fine. Is this battery pack somehowe incompatibel with the batterypack I made or is it more likly the BMS although bought brand new is already defect. I measured 1.55Mohm over the c- and b- .Thank you for anny comments on howe to sort this out

Question by frank.gubbi.stad    |  last reply


Help with a electric canoe cart Answered

I got inspired by a Youtube video where a guy had a electric kayak cart but gave no instruction on how to make it. I have a Travel Scooter MOT 134077 transaxle and motor unit with tires, 12-24 VDC, 150-230 RPM, 100-300 Watts, 17.75:1 Gear Ratio, 71-98 lb-in Torque I bought a 500w 24v speed controller oops! And a thumb throttle. I then bought a SPD-12250HD 12V 250W Heavy-Duty Electric Scooter/Bicycle Speed Controller that says it can handle up to 300w and have a 101ah 12v deep cycle AGM marine battery to run it. Speed is not the issue 3-5 mph will do just fine. But I need it to be able to pull 225 lbs up hill about 1,000 yards on a 6% grade. That being said am I wasting money on something that won't do the job or does it sound like I'm within reach of my goal? If I'm not in reach of my goal what do I need to do to make it work so it can haul a canoe with trolling motor battery and all the fishing gear which totals around 200lbs. Thanks!

Question by name user    |  last reply


Swapping out a lead acid electric bike battery for a Lithium Ion one.

Hi folks. I have a fairly old but still quite serviceable Thompson Euro Classic electric bike that runs on a 36v lead acid electric battery pack with a brushless motor. I've just been offered a 36v lithium ion bike battery that I would love to use but I'm not too sure if it would be the right choice, my main reason for the change is simply weight consideration, the current battery pack comprises of three 12v batteries and weighs in at a hefty 28lb the replacement weighs a little under 4lb, this would very obviously make quite a difference in the bikes 87lb overall weight. However weight isn't the only consideration, I would like to extend the range of my bike and with a little work and some suitable wiring and a couple of switches I could quite easily use the battery as a second power source for longer rides, I fitted a large plastic  tool box onto a rear carrier when I first bought the bike which would easily accommodate the battery or I could possibly even add an external carrier for it behind the seat, the current battery is good for around fifteen to twenty miles depending on how many hills I hit & how much I feel like pedalling, I hoping that an additional battery would double the range meaning I could rely on it to visit nearby towns without having to worry about finding somewhere I can give the battery a booster charge. My main worry is about damage to the motor, I know very little about electric bike motors and having read so many stories about these batteries suffering from overheating problems and even catching fire I am more than a little concerned I could damage to my only transport, I usually ride motorcycles but thanks to a couple of health issues I'm currently grounded so apart from walking which can be pretty limiting this bike is my only way to get around without spending a fortune on public transport I'm looking for advice from people who know about electric bikes and their motors who could give me some simple advice in layman's terms on how to proceed, please don't blind me with all sorts of technical jargon as it really wouldn't help, I'm not stupid it just isn't my field of expertise. Thanks in advance for your help. NG.

Topic by Nostalgic Guy    |  last reply


Ideas on simple stuff to build please

Hi!I really like building stuff. Recently I builded a pop pop boat and it was great fun! I've also builded other stuff like a self driving car using Arduino and some 3d printed fidget spinners.Now I'm out of ideas of stuff to build. I really want to build something like a sun burner, a lock or similar. Does anybody have an idea of something to build accept for the stuff I mentioned? Some stuff I have are steel, cooper and aluminium pipes, wood, metal sheets, 3d printer with PLA, bearings, glass sheets and Arduino. The thing is that I only have hand-tools, so no power tools accept for a drill.Sorry for my bad English. But any tips and/or tutorials is appreciated!

Question by imimbergman  


Attaching to Motor Shaft

I have bought a used Washing Machine motor with the intention of using it for a vibrating parts cleaner.Aiming to attach a bolt and nuts off centre to the shaft. I'd prefer to do the bolt idea as I can add/remove nuts to get the correct vibration.The motor has a 22mm diameter shaft which is threaded and I'm looking for the best way to add the bolt.I'm new to mechanical stuff and have looked at couplings and a few other bits but not sure what to use.

Question by alexmallaburn    |  last reply


What could you do with two empty Crosman CO2 cartridges? Answered

My son has a little airsoft gun, and he gave me two (for now) empty 12g CO2 Crosman cartridges. They are so nice that I want not throw them to the waste. But I have them, and I don't know what thing could I do with them. Some ideas? (refrain from the obvious humor) Length: 8.5cm; Diameter: approx 18mm;  Metal: maybe stainless steel?

Question by rimar2000    |  last reply


What is this tool?

I ran across this in a toolbox I inherited and have no idea what it does? Anybody have any familiarity with this thing?

Question by DrTurtle    |  last reply


Impresion 3D

Quiero saber como construir una impresora 3d

Topic by orlandoclaudio  


What is this tool for?

Can anyone tell me what this tool is for?   I came across it all rusted and thought it was some type of pliers or cutter. After I cleaned it up I could tell it was probably neither. What I thought was a plier jaw is actually one piece and does not close and what i thought maybe the cutting blade, actually had lines and numbers, like a ruler. The one small screw that the spring is attached to, will allow you to adjust how far the jaw/cutter will close and the other screw, when loosened a bit allows you to slide the little metal 'arm' in or out, like a measuring template. It has some fancy designs on the handles as you can see and the only marking says "Made in Western Germany".

Question by millsy22    |  last reply


Can One use a MATCUT 100 plasma cutter to build a CNC.

I am currently planning to build a CNC plasma cutter. I own a MATCUT 100 plasma cutter and I want know am I able to use this plasma cutter to make a CNC.

Question by kroonmalcolm6  


How do i fix these patches and tiny black holes in wood furniture?

I'm not sure what made these patches or the holes but i wanted to try and fix it

Question by mueblehog    |  last reply


Pizza oven build

Could we build a dome of wet sand and then cover with a mix of cement and perlite or would it affect the drying due to the moisture in the sand? Thanks

Question by Antoinetteseptember    |  last reply


Ancient technologies revisited - forced to forget!

Before you get exited: it is not about aliens taking you up for a medical....We know that ancient civilisations had knowledge that we can't explain, skills we can't understand, not explain.Back then it was gods, people from the sky that are claimed in ancient texts to have done almost all you can think of and then some to and with humankind.Be it bad, be it good, be it war and destruction.Over time we learned that it is almost impossible to wipe out humanity as a whole.And even if you would try we are scattered far and wide, there is no country with a purley indigenous population anymore.Same for knowledge, we use books, paper, stone sheets and now even computer, crystals and sticky tape to record data in digital form to last "forever".But what happened to our ancient old knowledge, to people like Merlin and all those alien "hybrids", like Lesus and all these starchild from virgins claimed to have had sex with a god?We found 6-8" tall skelletons in a cave - with long read hair.They are not on public display so the native amercian people of the region would not get offended.We found "hoaxes" of human hybrid skelletons during the hype and hight of the Aegypt excavation decades.No matter where these not that human remains were found we also find stories about them from the local tribes or stories from the past - never any kind and supportive ones...Almost as if humans started to see their gods and their offsprings as something to fear and to exterminated.Like you would try when they keep causing your pain and suffering for no reason you understand.Some gods are claimed to have left and are said to return ONE day.Other gods were killed or destroyed by other gods, some even by us humans.But knowledge should not just disappear if it is of use to you no matter how you got this knowledge...Means some people or even entire cultures must have survived - nothing becomes more urgent than to preserve your history once there is only a few left...IMHO the turning point came when we started to eliminate gods as creators or bringers of destructions and started to created religions around them.Until then you might have had a chance to get away with thinking your way and doing things the way you like...Real fear, real knowledge, real understanding suddenly became a thing reserved for the highest representatives of their religion.What they told us humble followers was "the word of god".And we accepted this blindly because after: These guys claimed to have been or still be in contact with the wise old man...We started to worship what we once feared most, in some relions it even made real progress impossible for hundreds of years.We started to forget, to think freely, to make our own conclusions.And we started to get less and less of the knowledge "those in charge" did not feel willing to share or to provide.IMPOSSIBLE!! You say, now...Let me give you a lame man's example:Take enough people to have a chance for a more or less healthy gene pool.Let them ake what they consider to be essential to make for a yew on a remote island that provides water and food but no creature comforts like electricity or oue internet - LOST from the world we know.How many generations would it take until they forget their useless phones, what their anecstors once called the world wide web?How long until the tools they took with them are blunt and useless with no way or knowledge to make new ones?How long until the degrade to native ilanders with their own culture, their own stories about how they came to be?How long until they forgot about us and what we call normal is something they could not even dream about?20 generations, 50?....Science and technolgy stopped for the better part under religious control.Even in Muslim cultures we say how wars and natural disasters changed the focus from learning and kowledge to blind faith or an interpretation of it.Asian cultures are not far behind either, their gods are long forgotten, their religions turned into a shadow of what living with the gods would have been and technological advancements started to seperate the cultures even further.Today most religions, even the Pope himself is rather open about intelligent life in the universe...Slowly but relentlessly science debunked more and more about what makes a religion work.Some even say we only developed science to claw back what we know deep down was always there for the taking.But either way the damage was long done.The few that remained were unable to spread their knowledge, if you ignore certain "cults and secret organisations" that don't exist, or so we shall think.The big question is: Why did we need religion and trusted/still trust it blindly?It replaced our gods and allowed for a redirection of godly powers.With the god(s) seemingly gone for good for whatever reasons, there was a vacuum that needed to be filled.And what might have started once with justa hand full of people turned into something that everyone needed - if in doubt by learning it through brute force from those who already trusted in gods word.Religion might have lost it's direct influence on those leading our world offcially but they never stopped influencing where they can...For many people starting to find trust and comfort or just understanding in a reliong it does not start by actually studying it, not even by reading about it.The feel lost, hurt, abused, whatever - and they find someone willing to listen, to agree to how hard life can be, to offer a way out....Thing about this approach is that it means nothing but a change in lifestyle, finding some purpose that was not there before, filling a gap.And if it helped for just that, in that moment in time you have it easy to create "a follower".Following is a term often used throughout almost all religions we have.Like Lemmings without thinking or questioning...Letting someone else do the thinking, do what is told and expected...If you do and obey you will enter the heavly kindgom, roam the evergreen fields, fly to the moon, whatever promise a religion makes.Fail and you are threatend with the destruction of your soul, punishment for eternity, burning and hell and much more variations of a violent and painful ending.Fear is created to make people stay in line, even if it is just old stories in a book that have been changed more than once...God helped when you needed him so of course he will punish you the same way he helped you...And if he punishes you for no good reason at all, even if you are his greatest follower than you blindly trust it was his will and that it all has a reason.You don't need to understand it, just stay a follower and trust all will be good, even if you die painful weeks later from cancer.At least you won't brun in hell no matter how hard the journey up was....Religion almost always tried really hard to eliminate all real knowledge, forcefully.Be honest: In the name of which god was America "found"?If "god" created earth, then how come those knowing all about him, his creation, his will had absolutely no clue about america, the antarctic or even Australia? ;)If god really outdone himself with us in just seven biblical days, then why were his own words interpreted and written down again and again similar to "WE created you in OUR image?"Whenever god spoke to one of his followers directly it was "ME", "MY WILL", "MY LAW"...Either he suffered badly from a personality disorder or he was nothing special after all, just one "god" in a group of few or many...If modern humans think or talk about the Jewish genocide then the only word that pops up start with a N and ends with an I....But did you know that almost of all Europe was in the strong hands of the Catholic Church since the dark ages?And who was it how first declared that all Jews need to be made disappear, be driven out, be killed?It were those who blamed the Jews for the death of Jesus, the child airtifical insamination....Yes, that weird guy guy that made bread appear out of thin air and turned water into wine...With the sandals and long hair ;)Jews were hated throughout Europe since we had kings over there that tursted in god and were crowed by a church rep.ALL high ranking Nazies were church goers before, during and most even after the war...There are other reasons I already discussed in other parts of this series that made the Jews the hate subject of Germany, but it was always "god's word" they got on Sunday morning that reminded them of the real problem out there....German documents from that time, including letters to and from family members provided a rather clear image on the influence the church had on Nazi Germany.But we were made to forget this little part of history as since the discovery of armerica and striking gold, literally, the church turned into a goo and helpful organisation, or so we thought.In other religions we find the same similarities, the same hate for "non-believers", even for those with just a slightly different option on how to interpret gods word.Muslims fight their brothers and neighbours for reason we can't even understand.And we will never fully understand why real and good muslim will never accept a non muslim as equal.Same way we fail to understand dictatorships or China.If most religions seems to make us want to forget what they don't like, and dictate what we can or can't do, can or can't eat, then why???And I don't mean gods will or word here or that is written somewhere.The religion comes from a specific god, this god once had specific features, characteristics, a personality.Like Loki always playing games and tricks...Is it really just a weird, maybe even wrong interpretaion that keeps us seperated and fighting?Back in ancient times we still fought in the name of the gods AFTER hearing it as their will directly.Later we fought in their name bacause SOMEONE said so...And more than once, almost always we started these religious wars and "forced educations to trust in the right god" only because these people did not know the god these anrgy people speak about....Is it not more likely that religion transfered the hate the gods had against each other to contiue fighting those still trusting in their own god?And wouldn't that for obvious reasons have to include the knowledge about hose other gods and what they left behind in true knowledge??Is science and technology the devil or the rescue?Weather you like it or not, most of the things we claim to have invented must have been known and used long before we invented the wheel.And still today the "invention" of this weird round and flat thing that makes life so easy is said to be the biggest thing since learning how to make fire.Other claim it was how we learned to make a spear and later bow and arrow as it allowed us to hunt from a distance, to kill without being seen, to become the dominant predator.Either way, science was involved and born.It kept providing us wonder after wonder, without the need for a religion to "explain" things in a way we still fail to understand.Today we know the gene that allowed us to develop a brain capable of real thinking, understanding, making conclusions.Problem is that natural or even accidential evolution of this gene would have taken more than 20 times longer than what it did....And already back then we had these gods and people from the stars popping up all the way back to the cave men and nomadic tribes...What if science is no accident as the books always say?What if it was "planned" in our genes?All religions seem to agree that some god created us, one way or another.Only the stories of some or remaining tribes from the past tell from the time before time.These stories of the creation of the universe are seen as myths, too old, too changed to have any real meaning left.Yet some of them were proven by science in recent years....Science was not a think for them, the gods were just visitors, creators, the wars came much, much later.If science is already in our genes and religion tries to prevent us from utilising it, what might we find?We need to get to the moon, we need to get to Mars, we need to "get out there"....Seemingly since the dawn of time, and so our drive gave a focus to develop what we need to get there, no matter how long it takes or hard it might be.With religion at the helm we would still think Earth is the center of the known universe and would't even dare to build a rocket because we would get to close to the gods, or fall or this flat earth...Some say the answer is in our genes, literally.With all the junk in our genes that neither evolution, nor mutation can explain we wonder what this huge databank might reveal once we cracked the encryption or learned how to read it directly.To give you an idea of the amount of "junk" we carry in us:You could pack all written knowledge of humanity into our helix of human DNA with plenty of room to spare!One of the factors that makes finding the right genes for a problem so hard...You just can't see the forest with so many trees blocking your view.... If you could jus rise up to see the whole forest from above - then you might see in which pattern the pine plantage was arranged and where you get to the next road....We won't know what the real answer is as we don't even understand the extend of the qeustion yet.And no, this time the answer is not 42 ;)So what we might find one we got far away enough from "mother" earth or what we really learn once we decode our DNA is up to your imagination.All that is claer is that we need science to get there...Is religion then then solution or the problem?The way I see it with some religions it is a bit of both, depending on where you stand.If it a preperation for the return of whatever god, or a way to make sure said god(s) see us as the best possible image of their creation, then what really happens if they do come back?We always hear and read that they come back one day.It is a fact, a base of the religion.It is a thing to look forward to.Not so much if we see some of texts from a more independent viewpiont.Like by a more timeline like approach without judging any religion directly:The gods create the universe as we knew it - whatever we could see from our cave so to say.Then they created the earth, everthing else and last but certainly not least us.We might give the first one the benefit of doubt based on that we could not actually know what happened before we existed and when we were create we did not even know how to form a single word....The second however clearly shows that since we exist we know that someone else or something else created us.Why didn't we do the most logical thing?I created fire, I must be god now and you all must worship me?Instead we shared this knowledge, protected it and thanked the gods for letting us figure it out.Or they might have accidentially shown some cave man one day ;)The god disappeared and much later came back to guide many of their creations, give them knowledge, build things.The more of us there were the more gods seemed to appear.Suddenly it was no longer just about what they do for us, it was wars between gods, artificial insaminations, genetic experiments, sex, creating hybrids, not just between gods and humans but also between humans and animals.Intrie civilisations disappeared or were destroyed by these gods.More than once the wipe humanity out almost completely, giving us floods, plagues, droughts and more....Every time this happened one culture or a new one flourished, in some case humanity (of that area) got a full reset.And always this new and improved, more god following human got guidance by the god(s) for some time to come, even if "visits" were sporadic.For many of these events we find texts, cave carvings and ancient old mythy from our tribes confirming that some of these events were in fact global - with different gods involved...Humanity as we know it started to evolve, started thinking in more and more complex ways, explored the world around and nature.We developed culture, our first real settlements....The gods started to divide the world by time and place(s).Having some fun here, getting bored and moving on.Getting really good with the little humans and some other god gets angry.And rather suddenly they disappeared again.....Religion and myth replaced the gods that once were real....If religion seems to be neither good, nor bad, then what is it preparing us for?Throughout time the god aooeared to us while they were around for various reasons.Be it fun, be it guidance, be it their own wars.But in ALL cases when they came back after a long time of absence they only had very few resons to do so.1. To check on our progress and leave after being being pleased.2. To bring us wisdom and guidance.3. To bring us destruction and suffering.Some say they never stopped watchin otherwise we would not have UFO's.Would mean they always knew exactly what we were up to and how we were doing.No one I could find can provide prove a god came here to share his wisdom and guidance - at least not in person.That only leaves us option three......Some "believers" already claim for years the end is coming and year after year their claims seem to become more valid.We go from one disaster into the next we abuse nature where we can and we see one plague after the other, now global and still going strong...According to ancient texts the return or judgement day is more than overdue.And considering that every time we "came to close to the gods", we got punished I wonder how these guys feel about us doing what we do and how we do it.If the sinners go to "hell" and the followers to "heaven" - where does it leave those between, the grey area?I guess it just depends on which gods drops down here first....Whether we like it or not, we just can't shake the feeling off that we are not alone out there, and even less can we shake off that feeling that religion started from fear and suffering,,,,Even the selected few had to suffer for generations in most religions...Read up in the texts of your religion or if you have none, pick one.Check how we were judged and how we got punished, check for the signs.If all of it is a bit true here and there, to not say all of it might, then how would would our religious leaders, explain, judge or interpret the asteriod Apophis, or 99942?Now known simply as 2004MN4...It arrives on 13/04/2029 for the first time, very close to earth and visible fore quite a while like back when Jesus was born.A few funny coincidences about this small and harmless enocunter:Same time seven yearslater it will be back, early calculations predicted the exact same day and only a few hours of difference.Now predicitions state it is a bit unclear due to certain effects when getting close to earth....Still: SEVEN years.If you like ancient Aegypt you already wonder how it got the initial name Apophis - go ahead and read up who gave this name and why, you will like the story behind it!And if you like the god himself you might find it a bit odd that a thing that was initially thought to be able to destroy most of our world by impact is name after this guy....Not so much though if you know a bit more about ancient Aegypts myths and legends.The coincidences however do not end just here, the number 99942 is a "random" number and every found object out there gets one.I like all sorts of nummber games....999 - the sign of the devil, the sign of destruction.There isn't really that much in myths,legends and religions giving these three numbers as they are a good meaning.A lot of "magic tricks" use number tricks.Like simplifying a big number into something with a single diget to have a base to "guess" you age...A bit like this: 9 + 9 + 9 + 4 + 2 = 333 + 3 = 6....The thing about this specific way of breaking down number is used since anient times for predictions, astrology and more.Let's just say it is just for so long and for so many reason because it has some actual meaning and usage.Apophis turns back to something religious, magical numbers....999 is already the devil's mark. 33 in astrological terms is a "spiritual rythm", even calendars with a base of 33 years are still trusted and used, some even give 33 a mythical character as it seems to follow us everywhere.And the six can be found as both positive and negative. mostly badly though.Some theories now use these numbers and say it clearly indicates in the classification already that the thing will return - long before anything was calculated - it had to be this way...The last coincidence is how these numbers related to Tesla's triangle of power.Not to mention how they are used and interpreted in our religions.9 is the beginning and the end, zero or 0 is both the sum, the next "digit" and nothing.3 and 6 are two kinds of energy that are equal and opposite but still not the same.9 in this triangle is both the sum of 3 and 9 and what come our if you subract one from the other.Some claim that ancient gods, predictable numbers and relations to Tesla all in one single object can't be random coincidence.Especially not if you see the number "blocks" in relations to Tesla's circle of math.5 numbers, the nine 3 times....4+2 equals 6.In his circle you can create "lines" with these numbers that intersect on the 7, no matter which way you try.And did you check the date? ;)1+3+4+2+0+2+9= 21 2+1=31+3+4+2+0+3+6= 19 1+9=10 1+0=1Some use these number games to state in 2029 we will be judged, in 2036 we will be "reset" or advance to the next level.Be it coincidence, be it a joke of the universe - it is still interesting how very old "techniques" that were trusted by our ancestors and that still find followers all end up in doomsday, creation or both when you start playin with 99942....And the above are only a few examples....I leave it up to you to decide how, if at all, this relates to going back to the moon and estabilishing a "colony" up there.Or why it is planned to do even more and go furthe BEFORE 2035.... ;)Isn't it comforting to know that all is just mind games, theories with no base and coincidenes?Or is it?....

Topic by Downunder35m  


Ancient technologies revisited - ancient "GPS"

This part is more theoretical but might be interesting anyway.To make this topic any interesting to you I have to assume you play with the idea of "alien" having visited earth in the past.If we check UFO sightings and map them like a nice man did for decades, then we find a weird thing appearing on a global map.It seems as if these UFO sightings are concentrated in various locations along a "grid".Some of this grid is the Ley Line system, a weak system of "lines" where certain energies act differently or where certain fields are detectable.Won't go into the magical part or why so many townships along those lines have names related to starts or constellations.Another part of the anicient GPS system is anomalies our earth provides, be it natural or "created" in the far distant past.I got interest after finding social media posts about an area claiming to have a messed up gravity in a very small area.Less than 100km away, so a nice bike ride with some testing stuff and off I went.Seeing a car appearing to roll uphill or balls seemingly doing the same is one thing, trying it yourself another.I did not notice any differences in weight or how the bike handled but I got a very weird "optical illusion" trying to tell my up is going down and the other way around.Did it in both directions several times with no change in this impression - even when focussing only on the spot in front of my wheel.time to invesigate further and to debunk some flaws other people made.Like how useless it is to use a self levelling laser level to "prove" nothing is wrong with gravity.If it is, then how would a self levelling device, depinding on gravity know? ;)Instead I did it dirt simple.Neon strings hung from lots of tree branches and twigs.If gravity is going nuts then those strings outside the affected area would hang at a different angle than the rest - they did not....Not even from a great distance, all just hanging perfectly straight and at the exact same angle.Ok, then, just an optical illusion due to the terrain after all....Last but not least I remembered my phone claims to have a gravity sensor and my watch has an altimeter and other sensors...The sensor test app did show some fluctuations but not any different to home or other places I tried.A bit more but IMHO not enough to justify any conclusion.However, my watch confused me.From what appeared to the bottom of Gravity Hill to the top I guesstimated a height difference of about 15m.My watch insisted every single time that when I reached the "top" that I was about 10m lower than at the bottom....Was a fun afternoon but I was no wiser in the end.Gravitational, magnetic and even geoligical anomalies are well mapped these days, same for undergroud lakes and water basins.Most of this data reached us from dedicated sensors on satellites in low earth orbit.If we have no troubles mapping them then it is safe to assume that a civilisation capable of inter stellar flight would be even more capable.And after god knows how long we finally even can measure the Ley Lines and no longer assume they are magical myths.All up it makes for very accurate system of navigation beacons that you can detect even if you approach on the night side.And since these locations on our continental soil as well as our ocean floors don't really change their positions it is highly accurate.If we say it is possible to use what earth, more or less naturally, provides to located any spot you like while still approaching earth from space - then what about more specific "markers"?We have the great wall, the pyramids, lines up stones from the stone age and then some things visible from space once you are in a good orbit.The ancient cities were often in what it today and already was back then, jungle.They must have stood out the same was as the pyramids - as huge clearings in the jungle with massive buildings.We also have all these nice animal figures in Peru.Too big to make sense from the ground, wrong angles to make sense from a great distance, unless you see them from above, or from orbit.All this was long shown to be coincidence, nothing to worry about or waste time on.But we learned this is not the case at all.The pyramids perfectly line up with the Bermuda triangle and ancient cites on the other side of the pond.From England to Rome you have a dead straight Ley Line and far too many are sitting right on top with unusal names.Attempts have been made over and over to use these existing references to find lost cities and more, quite often with success.We are very reluctant though to explore those signs pointing to the oceans...Finding just one of the mythical cities at a sea level matching the time period would mean that not just that myth might be true....I am not claiming I cracked the puzzle, just in case you wonder...Basically all ancient cities have mathy around them linking then to the gods, people from the stars.Even our cities following the Ley Lines are filled with these stories, be it the anient Greek, Romans or the great Kingdoms in Europe - the later all had their main residences right on the Ley line, some even on nodal points.Merlin was a great Wizard - or just some visitor with a far higher technology and knowledge of science...A very nice but somewhat very wrong theory claims the pyramids were actually build as huge power plants.You even find stories where it is (totally correct by the way!) calculated they could have been used as giant microwave transmitter to power starships in orbit like a recharge station....If that was the case then all identical pyramids, in terms of dimension would have been the same type of power station.Sadly they all seem to have only astronomical functions.Stonehenge is different, Rome is different, a lot of the old cities and temples are different.The thing common in all locations is Granite or even Diorite.Quarz is also heavy used in these locations throught ancient times.What do these materials have in common?For starters they are so hard, so durable that we struggle to work with them today unless we use diamond tipped tools.Even most carbide tools fail on Diorite...Secondly the fact they all have rather specific and organised crystalline structures.In some Indian temples this is even used to produced accurate and harmonic musical notes.If you want to build something that is certain to outlast your civilisation then you would choose these materials.Never mind the fact that the people in that time had no means to even scratch these hard rocks....A rather unusal approach to the problem started only less than 2 decades ago.Trying to measure more than dimensional properties of these creation, specifically these huge obelisk type "needles" of often hundret of tons in weight.Of course they could not really often use the real thing and to make do with smaller models they created.Key point was to match the exact type of rock from the same region as the big original, plus making sure the crystal structure is aligned in the same orientation.These guys first dicovered that these rock needles resonated at very specific acoustic frequencies.Nothing for most the spectrum but a very sharp amplitute amplification with little to no added harmonics for just a few tight frequencies.And yes, the max "elogation" was along the lenght of the needle with the tip acting almost like a resonator.The second and rather unexplainable thing was that these model sized needles also reacted to audi signals that did not came from a surface actuator but a normal speaker at close proximity.Did not stop them, just encourage them.It was not specified in the publication what higher band frequencies affected the rock but they claimed it acts like a high power amplifier for certain frequencies - with no detectable way where the excess energy comes from.If true it could mean that a lot of ancient structures we consider to be decorative could have actually been more like a lighthouse.Emitting a focussed beam of energy detectable from amost any approach angle when enterin our solar system.The thing you might now wonder about is: Why would highly advance civilisations need such beacons to begin with?This answer relates to the Apollo program - the Van Allen radiation belt, and some other strange things close to earth.The most significant other thing is our Ionosphere.Togeher they make radio transmissions next to impossible, only close to earth orbite, like where our satellites reside are in good enough reach.A long claim was that only certain frequencies can pass through these interference layers without losing too much energy or being distorted.Most of our planets emit a natural low frequency RF "signal".We can't detect them from earth though and used satellites and probes to measure and define them.Tesla's famous alien message was decades later calculated aginst these movements in regards to his location.Turned out he detected not aliens but the signals from two of our planets.Now this might be no big deal, I mean knowing it was not aliens after all, but it is in fact a huge deal!Tesla's receiver was only able to work in these impossible low frequencies that were claimed to be unable to pass through our interference layers!Much later we dicovered windows in these layers, even ways to caculate and predict their movements.It is now widely used to improve communications with our space probes and Mars missions.We still don't know if a suitable window was present for Tesla...If ancient civilisations or the gods visiting us for a while needed a way "to call home" or be called - what better way than using was is naturally there already?And it work the other way around as well.Send a strong enough and suitable signal to these structures and they would have to respond, maybe even in some audible form, no one really knows for sure it seems.My personal theory in terms of navigation and transmitting/receiving energy goes as follows and I hope you like it enough to make you own thought and conclusions:If we simply assume that certain anomalies or natural energies on earth are not just detectable but also usable it all could get a whole new meaning.Place a suitable object into an energy field and it can act as a "filter", an amplifier or as block.Like a Yagi antenna that you might find on your roof.What happens if have a theoretically endless conductor with a high frequency voltage going through?You have a very bad antenna of no use...But if you would place straight wires with a length matching the frequency you get a ton of small and powerful antennas....A bit simplyfied, I know but best example that came to mind to make a transition.If our Ley Lines and other form of natural energy phenomenon would provide energy to these ancient structures:What might happen if this "antenna" is just slightly out of tune and you "strike" it to produce a harmonic wave matching the energy going through?Right! You suddenly have a giant signal amplifier.And right again! You could actually try to send "signals" through the Ley Lines this way too.A harmonic wave would overlay the natural signal from the Ley Line and travel along it's path.Now the part you might not like at all, but it a key point of my own theory:If it is a natural energy that provides all this and we are able these days to detect these energies although we fail to understand, then where to they originate????If you poke your arm with a neeles then it hurts, poke a bit more and you bleed once you remove the needle, no one would do this for fun or even to get pleasure...Then why do we poke needles into our body, call it accupuncture and go home with such a happy face once the pain is gone???Guess you got my point already...It can't be denied that ancient civilisations already had a more than good understanding of things we onlydicovered or proved to exist thausands of years later.Even if we would exclude all godly and alien like things and just be ignorant and say that these folks knew the "body" earth" as good as a chinese accupuncture master would know your body and where to poke a few needles to heal you?If the energies are natural than our planet must produce them somehow, if you know how changes affect the planet you can "poke" it to get better - or to get much worse....Like the Butterfly Effect....You poke needle into Spain and in New Zealand you get a small earth quake....You poke a needle into Iceland and a temperature drop over atlantic makes the deveolping hurricane change curse to run out of steam over the ocean.You poke a needle into the right spot, stimulated properly and send a signal into outer space....If we can detect them easy from space, how strong would the energy level be if a burst of ALL the energy travels along the grid to combine in one single point?...How far could such a signal travel?How FAST would it travel considering no one, not even NASA dared to publish details about how exactly and what exactly was detected that matches these ancient old and till then just mystical energy lines and spots?A gravitational shockwave from an exploding star travels much faster than light....The ancient cultures of meaning knew exactly:Where the sun is in our milkyway,where our planets are at any giving time,at what angle our planets axis is, they even tracked this accurately,where exactly until recently unknown stars are within the Orion, Sirius and other constallations,when those stars where visible in the DAY or NIGHT sky,how exactly they moved when moved from earth AND how the position of earth relates the other way around,that there are Ley Lines, gravitational anomalies and more that we only learned to detect thausands of years later,about ALL the phsical, electrical and energy related properties of of suitable rocks and minerals,.....If they knew all this and we know that they did, why is so hard to believe they would have to have known that for a good reason, a purpose?I actuall don't care if they found all out themself, without knowing the wheel or the telescope...Neither if aliens, gods, people from the stars, visitors from another dimension or E.T. himself (herself, itself?) told them.But I cared for a long time about WHY humanity as a whole seemed to have forgotten all about his and how to use these unknown energies....So the final bit is not about my personal theories on ancient navigation, communication or energy usage.It is about the why it was lost...I make it a new chapter if you don't mind as it is not really about the GPS topic.

Topic by Downunder35m  


Ancient technologies revisted - Cities too old to exist

Cities that are really ancient exist around the world and we still find more.Pumapunko is a bit of a conundrum here.Located in Bolivia and siad by historians be from around AD 530.On the other hand our modern carbon dating methods fail to confirm this age, in fact the C14 tests often provide an age of over 17.000 years.Confirmed over and over but still inconclusive as you can't actually date the stone - it has no carbon for testing.The claim the cities is much older than what archeology tells us is based on things found in foundations and crushed by these blocks when set in place.Simply said: If it got in there or between the stone then it must have happened when it was build.Ancient cities are not the only things of an age that defies our knowledge.Temple in India, statues from all over the world face the same problem.Ancient texts claim that they are much older, in fact that a lot of them were already there whe the humans writing about them appeared.For things like the great pyramid and its smaller counterparts we have quite clear info provided from that time, so we can rest assured the dating is rather accurate.Still modern science, modern technology, modern professionals all fail to come up with ideas how it was possible to create this pyramid in the about 22 years claimed.The same texts that give us the age AND the time to build it also refer to people who helped with the creation, gave guidance and tools.For other buidings and temples we can find simial stories about their origins but those in charge of history claim it is all in a mythical sense and not real.Well, if all the rest of the text is real, why would someone have made crap about who helped them?If anything then whoever wrote it would have praised his boss, the king or whoever but not people from the stars...And when it comes to placement and alignment we again fail to explain anthing.For example how these pyramids around the world could have been aligned exactly with their sides to face north, south, east and west.One might be coincidence but almost all of them...We invented the compass much later....And how was it possible to align shaft and "inspection holes" to stars we only discovered 2000 years later when we finally invented big enough telescopes?...Going back to Pumapunko and considering it was created thausands of years before the pyramids we can only wonder.A modern stone mason would not even take on a job to re-create the complex carving and box cut outs in granite, basalt or similar hard rock.If he did he would not be able to create the same sharp and well defined angles, let alone precision.With no written language the people back then had to rely on stories to keep the past alive, rituals, dances, masks...For Pumapunko these stories tells us about giants, sometimes claimed to be two or three times taller than the ancient people.Same skinny appearance as the famous "Grey", same big head but different eyes and well, huge....Again, most people will say that myths and legends are always a biased overstating of real events, discribed by what we call today simple minded folks.They are all based on things though that the people back then could not explain based on their knowledge and past experiences.Whoever built Pumapunko or helped the natives was well ahead of times.Keep in mind that even if you are really generous our bronze age started about 5000 years ago, Pumapunko was created about 10.000 years earlier...History and archeology tries to hide these facts by finding ways to place the creation of these ancient structures always within the bronze age but never before.Carbon dating though showed us again and again how wrong these guesstimations were.What if?....Imagine science is not something to question but something to accept.And if even just a few of these ancient cities are well older than our discoveroy of mixing copper with some shiny metal to make hard bronze then it means our human evolutions needs to be revised.Tools capable to precisely transform a mountain into blocks and then delicate masonary work requires technology.Transporting block of often over 100 metric tons, the seize of a big school bus and larger, not only requires technology but also a decent understanding of the terrain and how to tackle it.And designing a big city, stone by stone certainly requires a set of skills no human brain was capable of before the bronze age.We were hunters and gathering food but not architacts, machinists and stone masons.You might still be able to ignore timeframes from ancient texts as well as reports of how it was done in these texts but we can't ignore "coincidence".No matter where you look you find what mainstream science discards as pure coincidences.Like the alignment of the pyramids around the world.Orion and Sirius are the main constellations used for thei alignment.And they were always true and following the alignment allowed us to "discover" the ancient knowldge hubs of that time.Similar with their shape and size - always matching the same "base plan" like the great pyramid.For the ancient cities we also face the additional problem that they provide the evidence of a much greater understanding of not only our solar system but about astronomy and even the pole shifting of our planet.Not to mention the prediction of solar and lunar eclipses - impossible unless you already knew that the erath is not the center of the universe...We struggle to accept the concept of real gods actually doing labour for us or spending enough time with us to teach us.Same for accepting that some E.T. came and still comes to visit and influence us.And we simply can't explain how things were done thausands of years ago without accepting that a much higher technology than what we have today was involved.Some now say it was never higher technology but just knowledge human kind has forgotten during times when survival was more important.And we appearently re-discover old and forgotten skills and technologies - like it is encoded in our genes.Either way it leaves a huge gap we won't dare to touch so we can understand our past.It make you wonder how we might have evolved from those ancient cultures if they were not wiped out again and again for no obvious reason by nature...

Topic by Downunder35m  


Old Tractor Exhaust Manifold

The other day while cleaning up the tall grass in my yard I found an old exhaust manifold. I would appreciate some suggestions for projects that I could do with it.

Topic by ThatOnesMans    |  last reply


Where to find parts for building telescopic articulating arm?

I am not exactly sure where to ask this.  I have about a 3-4 foot articulating camera arm, which I use for a completely different purpose (medical related).  It is great at what it does, except it is very difficult to precisely adjust it.  I have not seen anything that will do exactly what I need, but it would look somewhat similar to that type of articulating arm.  It would need to have two telescopic sections plus one or two articulating joints.  I think I would need to find each of those sections separately and then put them together myself, because I have not seen arm with that precise configuration of sections, and that is as lightweight as what I need.  Where should I look for such kinds of parts?

Question by dmehling1    |  last reply


Orrery Plans

Hi folks, I have a little project in mind and I was wondering if anyone knows of anywhere I can get plans to build an orrery for our solar system? Alternatively a mains powered orrery mechanism that I can build around would be good as well. Many thanks in advance

Topic by Motorbikeman    |  last reply


Small solar powered water pump

Hello all, I recently bought a small water pump to create a fountain in the pond I have outside.The water pump is a QR30E 12V 4.2W and the solar panel is a 145x260mm 12V 7W.Solar panel output is 11.5-13.5V depending on the sun and the water pump works fine with a power supply adapter.But when I directly connect them together, the voltage drops to 2-3V and the pump won't start...Do you have an idea why the voltage is dropping like that? Is the pump drawing too much current when starting (350mA vs 538mA for the solar panel)?The seller has suggested to use a battery in between.But I guess I'll also need a PWM or MPPT Solar Charge Controller?If I use 18650 batteries to create a 12V battery pack, do you think I'll need 3 or 4 of them?

Question by the lorn teat flag    |  last reply


how can i fix up my old metal trunk / get rid of that smell ?

i have always loved scrappy old trunks so i was excited to find this , im told its an old military footlocker . i think its an awesome piece , but it smells like nasty . its really only the inside that smells bad , the outside just smells like old metal , ive scrubbed it down with baking soda and dishsoap and left it day after day open to air out in the sun , still stinks lol.  the inside was lined with this fabric that was caked in dust and grime i removed as much of the fabric as i could and in doing so i discovered that the inside is some kind of wood backing and im not sure what to do with it . im not familiar enough with rebuilding things to take apart the trunk and be able to put it back together properly ( to remove the wooden backing ) so i figured id just have to clean it the best i could and seal it somehow to get rid of the awful smell.  any suggestions on how i could do so ? what to use?   im open to any other suggestions as to how to get rid of the smell , or any other suggestions in general =) also what can i do to get a working key ? locksmith ? thank you ! *******************UPDATE******************************** wow who knew id get so many answers so quickly ! i appreciate them all !    i think im going to do several of these things  bleach soak , kitty litter , lots of sun , and sealant !!   and i think i will be putting up an instructable of how it goes =)     i have already given the trunk a bleach/dish soap scrub and soak  which worked well , cut the odor in half  . though there was alittle incident when family members dumped the water and closed the trunk so rust around the nails surfaced and mold began to spore , so i had to scrub and bleach again but it seemed to remove most if not all of it . it looks and smells alot better so far  thank you all

Question by angelsalvaje    |  last reply


Best MOSFET for a sstc? Answered

Which MOSFET is best for a sstc in the circuit given? If the input voltage is 140-220v. And is the diode(MUR1560) near the MOSFET(D4 & D5) necessary? Is there any way to exclude that?, By using any other MOSFET?Any MOSFETs with in build diode, so that i wouldn't have to put an external diode? or could a simple in4007 work in place of it? Any other diodes which are more easy to obtain?

Question by jasshopper    |  last reply


Dismantled a CRT - Usable flyback transformer ? Answered

I've been reading up on Jacob ladders and tesla coils for a while now, and decided to try to make a Jacob ladder (the tesla coil just looks scary and advanced) I've taken a part an old CRT. And I was wondering if you could tell me if it looks usable.  I'm wondering slightly if I broke it when I removed it from the 'plate' it was stuck in. Pictures will show what I mean. Sorry about the bad focus on the pictures. Taken with a phone, and it was slightly too dark for it to be able to take good pictures. The brown cables looks like it's just fast in the flyback transformer, but I did not remove it. I tried to get a good picture of the text that was on in case it means anything to anyone.  Also, what I can gather by looking at this is that the red cable is the high voltage cable, and the low(er) voltage cable is either the grey, or white one. - Is that correct? Thank you very much for your attention, and thanks for any replies. And this site is amazing. I'm just amazed at how creative people are.  Oh, and please let me know if I posted this in the wrong category Zaek.

Question by Zaek    |  last reply